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1 LGC Shadow Title Master.pot Workplace Ergonomics.

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Presentation on theme: "1 LGC Shadow Title Master.pot Workplace Ergonomics."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 LGC Shadow Title Master.pot Workplace Ergonomics

2 2 Presentation Objectives participants will be able to... Understand basic concepts of ergonomics Identify common musculoskeletal injury risks Learn strategies to decrease MSD injury risks Address questions on ergonomics and back safety

3 3 Ergonomics “Study of Work” “The science of fitting the job to the worker” “ergo” = work “nomics” = study of

4 4 What are the physical demands of your job…

5 5 Job Risk Factors Working in awkward postures / positions Prolonged sitting and standing Bending, reaching, stretching Driving for extended periods of time Heavy lifting Awkward lifting Lifting in combination with twisting Pushing, pulling, carrying Accidents, slips, trips, falls Vibration

6 6 Goals of Ergonomics Program… Reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders developed by workers when their jobs involve... Awkward postures Static positions Reaching Bending & Lifting Force Repetition Contact stress Vibration Repetition U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration

7 7 What are MusculoSkeletal Disorders? MSDs are injuries and illnesses that affect muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints or spinal discs. U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration

8 8 Common Body Parts Prone To Workplace MSDs Back - Lower Neck and Upper Back Upper Extremities - Arms and Hands Lower Extremities - Legs and Feet

9 9 Examples of MSDs Carpal tunnel Rotator cuff syndrome Lateral epicondylitis - tennis elbow Low back pain

10 10 Musculoskeletal Disorders: Signs and Symptoms in general… Decreased ROM Decreased grip and/or pinch strength Swelling Fatigue Loss of function Numbness Burning sensation Tingling Pain Cramping Stiffness French & Zecha, 2005

11 11 Musculoskeletal Disorders: How & Why? Related to intensity of work Have biomechanical and physiological factors Can occur after weeks, months, years on job Can take weeks, months, years to resolve Have occupational and non occupational causes French & Zecha, 2005

12 12 Musculoskeletal Disorders: How & Why? listening to our body… Disruption in balance between breakdown and recovery 1st sx….fatigue (of body part) 2nd sx…ache 3rd sx…pain Leading to loss of function French & Zecha, 2005

13 13 Adaptation vs. Injury the fork in the road… Adapt –Soft tissue remodels –More strength –More stability –More endurance –Discomfort decreases Injury –Soft tissue breaks down –Less strength –Less stability –Less tolerance for use –Discomfort increases French & Zecha, 2005


15 15 Part Two… Some Ergonomic Risk Factor Concerns

16 16 Introducing our 2nd focus area for today… Back care Posture Contact stress Repetition

17 17 Posture check: reaching & bending it’s all connected and it’s all about physics… Load & leverage 10# vs. 70# low back 15# vs. 45# head & neck Think about posture –Forward head –Sitting –Reaching

18 18 It’s all Physics… leverage

19 19 Posture Think of posture in terms of joint position Static and awkward postures lead to:  Decreased movement  Decreased circulation  Increased stress and fatigue

20 20

21 21 Posture check Increased stress, decreased circulation… Higher riskLower risk

22 22 Posture check ask yourself… Do you use a headset rather than cradling the telephone between your head and shoulder?

23 23 Posture check ask yourself… Are you sitting against the back of your chair while you work? Is your head/neck upright and centered over your shoulders when you look at the screen or documents? Are your shoulders relaxed when keying and using the mouse? Are your arms close by your sides when you use the keyboard or pointer?

24 24 Posture check ask yourself… Are your elbows relaxed (100 degree angle) when using the keyboard or mouse? Are your wrists in a neutral position (aligned with your forearm) when keying or using the pointer? Are you avoiding awkward postures such as an extended finger or thumb when keying or using the mouse?

25 25 Equipment set-up example risk identification… Elbow and shoulder away from body, reaching increased strain on shoulder and wrist

26 26 Elbow and shoulder more relaxed and closer to body decreased strain on shoulder and wrist Equipment set-up example risk identification…

27 27 Equipment set-up example risk identification… Forward placement of document holders and monitor prevents excessive turning and bending stress in neck, upper back and torso Posture: keeping it straight!

28 28 A word on repetition Key issue is recovery time - the time required for tissue to restore nutrition, replace cells, dissipate byproducts - rest breaks Some newer research demonstrates that repetition is significantly less of a problem vs. posture

29 29 A word on contact stress At your workstation notice where your body comes into contact with objects… Where are your: Front & back of knees Elbows Wrists Back Behind Calves, feet, ankles


31 31 Part Three… Workstation equipment use and set-up!

32 32

33 33 Is my “ergonomic” potato chip really ergonomic? To be ergonomic a design must… Fit the user Be easy to use Improve comfort Improve performance Improve health and safety Not just bells and whistles!

34 34 Computer workstation ergonomics Chair Monitor Keyboard Mouse Document holders Lumbar pads/pillows Arm rests Glare Eye strain Footrests Wrists pads Keyboard trays Laptops

35 35 Chair Basics Good lumbar (low back) support Comfortable sitting for at least 2 hours Chair has 5 point base Adjustable arm rests (or none) Seat pan is comfortable Easily adjustable while sitting Appropriate height & depth of seat pan

36 36 Monitor issues and glare protect your eyes ! Eye-to-screen distance at least 18 inches Top of screen at eye level or slightly below Don’t stare…blink frequently to lubricate eyes Use blinds to control outside light Screen colors: dark letters on light background (IBM blue)

37 37 Work technique ask yourself… Do you avoid leaning on the wrist rest while keying and mousing? Are you using a light touch to key? Are you holding your mouse loosely with your hand and fingers in a relaxed position? Do you let go of the mouse when not using it? Do you take 20 second breaks after every 20 minutes of keying?

38 38 Work technique ask yourself… Do you take eye breaks and look at a distance every 20 minutes? Do you blink while you look at the screen? Do you take stretch breaks throughout the day? Have you set up your work to encourage alternating sitting and standing throughout the day? Have you optimized your settings on your computer to make your work easier? (i.e. flicker rate, mouse speed, font size) Do you know how to adjust your keyboard tray and chair?

39 39 Laptops a few words… Harder on eyes and neck Smaller screens Lower quality displays Lower viewing angle Harder on wrists on arms Narrow keyboard Awkward postures Harder on back Carrying can strain back Risk Reduction Measures External keyboards Docking stations Practice good posture on road Risk Factors

40 40 Watch those deadlines! tension and stress - ask yourself…

41 41 Some final words Let’s think about it…

42 42 Back Safety & Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! The big picture…

43 43 Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! think “physics & leverage” working around home… Washing dishes, pots & pans Carrying and loading groceries Picking up and carrying kids Walking the dog Yard work –Raking, shoveling, sweeping –Lawn mowing, snow removal –Wheel barrels

44 44 Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! think of driving your car… Elbow resting on door, center console Wrist over steering wheel Buttock and back pain Posture Nerve and tissue compression Position of legs while driving Muscle strain: hamstring tightness Decreased circulation Upper neck/back tension and pain Muscle strain:upper trapezius Stress reactions, trigger points Eye strain Glare Dehydration

45 45 Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! think of sleeping in your bed… Neck posture Shoulder and arm posture Wrist posture Knee and hip posture Back posture For long periods of time: static and awkward positions, decreased circulation, increased compression!

46 46 Ergonomics… there is no magic solution… we are all unique in certain ways Age Gender Anthropometrics – Body Size & Shape –Equipment accommodates 5th% female to 95th% male Skill Level General Health and Condition


48 48 Back Injury… From an Ergonomic View

49 49 Common Back Disorders General joint stiffness Acute strains and sprains Degenerative disk disease Bulging disc Herniated disc Osteoarthritis

50 50 Anatomy Review… the spine Bones Joints Discs Muscles and ligaments Nerves

51 51 Anatomy Review… the curves of the spine

52 52 Poor Body Mechanics Stressful Living & Working Loss of Flexibility Loss of Strength Leading Causes of Back Problems

53 53 Another cause of back problems… accidents It is also possible to injure your back due to accidents.

54 54 How do we take care of our back? Body Mechanics Proper Lifting Techniques Exercise Stretching Improved postures

55 55 “It’s not how much you lift or move, but the way you do it”! 1)Push vs. Pull 2)Keep Work Within “Strike Zone” 3)Keep Load Close To Body 4)Use Abdominal Bracing 5)Pivot with Feet - Avoid Twisting 6)Team Work vs. Mule Work Body Mechanics General Rules:

56 56 Power Position: Wide base of support Feet shoulder width apart Back straight Head and shoulders up Bend at hips and knees - NOT BACK! Keep load close to body Tighten stomach muscles Use leg, hip and buttock muscles Breathe out with lift Proper Lifting Technique


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