2Presentation Objectives participants will be able to... Understand basic concepts of ergonomicsIdentify common musculoskeletal injury risksLearn strategies to decrease MSD injury risksAddress questions on ergonomics and back safety
3Ergonomics “Study of Work” “The science of fitting the job to the worker”“ergo” = work“nomics” = study of
4What are the physical demands of your job… Have class participants name the physical demands of their jobs & list them on flip chart.Examples: sitting, reaching, driving, lifting, standing, typing, phone, computer work, filing, vibrating tools.Focus on participant jobs.
5Job Risk Factors Working in awkward postures / positions Prolonged sitting and standingBending, reaching, stretchingDriving for extended periods of timeHeavy liftingAwkward liftingLifting in combination with twistingPushing, pulling, carryingAccidents, slips, trips, fallsVibration
6Goals of Ergonomics Program… Reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders developed by workers when their jobs involve...Awkward posturesStatic positionsReachingBending & LiftingForceRepetitionContact stressVibrationAgain – ask participants to share the aspects of their jobs that involve these risks.U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration
7What are MusculoSkeletal Disorders? MSDs are injuries and illnesses that affect muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints or spinal discs.MSDs are problems that affect our musculoskeletal system.U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration
8Common Body Parts Prone To Workplace MSDs Back - LowerNeck and Upper BackUpper Extremities - Arms and HandsLower Extremities - Legs and FeetThese are the areas of our body that experience the most frequent problems.
9Examples of MSDs Carpal tunnel Rotator cuff syndrome Lateral epicondylitis- tennis elbowLow back painCarpal tunnel = wrist problem, median nerveRotator cuff syndrome = shoulder problemEpicondylitis = lateral/tennis elbow, medial/golfer’s elbowLow back pain – most common MSD injuryThoracic outlet syndrome – nerve problem, cervical spine/neck/shoulder regionDeQuervains – thumb tendonitis
10Musculoskeletal Disorders: Signs and Symptoms in general… NumbnessBurning sensationTinglingPainCrampingStiffnessDecreased ROMDecreased grip and/or pinch strengthSwellingFatigueLoss of functionROM = “range of motion”French & Zecha, 2005
11Musculoskeletal Disorders: How & Why? Related to intensity of workHave biomechanical and physiological factorsCan occur after weeks, months, years on jobCan take weeks, months, years to resolveHave occupational and non occupational causesNon-occupational causes= activity we do outside of work, driving, sleeping, playing, household chores – theses all affect our bodyFrench & Zecha, 2005
12Musculoskeletal Disorders: How & Why? listening to our body… Disruption in balance between breakdown and recovery1st sx….fatigue (of body part)2nd sx…ache3rd sx…painLeading to loss of functionThis is the typical injury continuumFrench & Zecha, 2005
13Adaptation vs. Injury the fork in the road… Soft tissue remodelsMore strengthMore stabilityMore enduranceDiscomfort decreasesInjurySoft tissue breaks downLess strengthLess stabilityLess tolerance for useDiscomfort increasesAdapt = this is what happens when we exercise! We rest, the body recovers, we gain strength.Injury occurs when we don’t listen to our bodies, we work through pain, do not get required rest and recovery.French & Zecha, 2005
21Posture check Increased stress, decreased circulation… Left diagram demonstrates awkward posture of elbow joint.This is example of “garden hose being bent…cutting off circulation to hands”Higher riskLower risk
22Posture check ask yourself… Do you use a headset rather than cradling thetelephone between your head and shoulder?If so, a hands-free headset may be appropriate.
23Posture check ask yourself… Are you sitting against the back of your chair while you work?Is your head/neck upright and centered over your shoulders when you look at the screen or documents?Are your shoulders relaxed when keying and using the mouse?Are your arms close by your sides when you use the keyboard or pointer?
24Posture check ask yourself… Are your elbows relaxed (100 degree angle) when using the keyboard or mouse?Are your wrists in a neutral position (aligned with your forearm) when keying or using the pointer?Are you avoiding awkward postures such as an extended finger or thumb when keying or using the mouse?
25Equipment set-up example risk identification… This is an example of a high-risk computer workstation set-up.Elbow and shoulder away from body, reaching increased strain on shoulder and wrist
26Equipment set-up example risk identification… This is an example of an ergonomic intervention to address the risk.Notice the more relaxed posture at shoulder, arm, wrist.Elbow and shoulder more relaxed and closer to bodydecreased strain on shoulder and wrist
27Equipment set-up example risk identification… Posture: keeping itstraight!Forward placement of document holders and monitorprevents excessive turning and bending stress in neck,upper back and torso
28A word on repetition Key issue is recovery time - the time required for tissue to restore nutrition, replace cells, dissipate byproducts- rest breaksSome newer research demonstrates that repetitionis significantly less of a problem vs. posture
29A word on contact stress At your workstation notice where your body comesinto contact with objects…Where are your:Front & back of kneesElbowsWristsBackBehindCalves, feet, ankles
35Chair Basics Good lumbar (low back) support Comfortable sitting for at least 2 hoursChair has 5 point baseAdjustable arm rests (or none)Seat pan is comfortableEasily adjustable while sittingAppropriate height & depth of seat pan
36Monitor issues and glare protect your eyes ! Eye-to-screen distance at least 18 inchesTop of screen at eye level or slightly belowDon’t stare…blink frequently to lubricate eyesUse blinds to control outside lightScreen colors: dark letters on light background (IBM blue)Eye demo exercise (see highlighted handout)Eye strainFinger trackBusiness card…screen height
37Work technique ask yourself… Do you avoid leaning on the wrist rest while keying and mousing?Are you using a light touch to key?Are you holding your mouse loosely with your hand and fingers in a relaxed position?Do you let go of the mouse when not using it?Do you take 20 second breaks after every 20 minutes of keying?
38Work technique ask yourself… Do you take eye breaks and look at a distance every 20 minutes?Do you blink while you look at the screen?Do you take stretch breaks throughout the day?Have you set up your work to encourage alternating sitting and standing throughout the day?Have you optimized your settings on your computer to make your work easier? (i.e. flicker rate, mouse speed, font size)Do you know how to adjust your keyboard tray and chair?
39Laptops a few words… Risk Factors Risk Reduction Measures External keyboardsDocking stationsPractice good posture on roadHarder on eyes and neckSmaller screensLower quality displaysLower viewing angleHarder on wrists on armsNarrow keyboardAwkward posturesIdeally, laptops should be used in jobs that require portability and intermittent computer use.If used in sustained manner, they should at least have an external keyboard.Harder on backCarrying can strain back
40Watch those deadlines! tension and stress - ask yourself… During deadlines, we tend to stare more at screen (less blinking dries out and strains eyes).We also tend to stay in one position which leads to decreased circulation and increased muscle strain.
42Back Safety & Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! The big picture…
43Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! think “physics & leverage” working around home…Washing dishes, pots & pansCarrying and loading groceriesPicking up and carrying kidsWalking the dogYard workRaking, shoveling, sweepingLawn mowing, snow removalWheel barrels
44Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! think of driving your car… Elbow resting on door, center consoleWrist over steering wheelButtock and back painPostureNerve and tissue compressionPosition of legs while drivingMuscle strain: hamstring tightnessDecreased circulationUpper neck/back tension and painMuscle strain:upper trapeziusStress reactions, trigger pointsEye strainGlareDehydration
45Ergonomics isn’t just a work thing! think of sleeping in your bed… For long periods of time: static and awkward positions,decreased circulation, increased compression!Neck postureShoulder and arm postureWrist postureKnee and hip postureBack posture
46Ergonomics… there is no magic solution… we are all unique in certain ways AgeGenderAnthropometrics – Body Size & ShapeEquipment accommodates 5th% female to 95th% maleSkill LevelGeneral Health and Condition
52Leading Causes of Back Problems Poor Body MechanicsStressful Living & WorkingLoss of FlexibilityLoss of Strength
53Another cause of back problems… accidents It is also possible to injure your back due to accidents.
54How do we take care of our back? Body MechanicsProper Lifting TechniquesExerciseStretchingImproved postures
55Body Mechanics General Rules: “It’s not how much you lift or move, but the way you do it”!General Rules:Push vs. PullKeep Work Within “Strike Zone”Keep Load Close To BodyUse Abdominal BracingPivot with Feet - Avoid TwistingTeam Work vs. Mule Work
56Demo! Proper Lifting Technique Power Position: Wide base of support Feet shoulder width apartBack straightHead and shoulders upBend at hips and knees - NOT BACK!Keep load close to bodyTighten stomach musclesUse leg, hip and buttock musclesBreathe out with liftDemo!