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11006115 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Ergonomics.

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Presentation on theme: "11006115 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Ergonomics."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Ergonomics

3 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. What Is Ergonomics? Ergo = work (Greek) Nomos = Laws (Greek) The study of work; laws of work design; OSHA is concerned with the study of the conditions that result in serious injury and the alternatives that minimize risk of injury.

4 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. How Ergonomics Can Help Fewer injuries Increased productivity Increased efficiency Improved quality of work Reduced absenteeism Lower turnover

5 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. What Should Ergonomics Address? Workplace design Task design Equipment design

6 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Principles of Ergonomics Avoid static loads and fixed postures Provide support for limbs Avoid high forces and lifting Avoid highly repetitive tasks Accommodate a variety of sizes and people –Design for the extremes –Design for the average –Design with adjustability

7 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Philosophy of Ergonomics Fit the task to the person Quality of working life Productivity Safe and hygienic work Minimize physiological and psychological stresses

8 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Risk Factors Position/posture Repetition/frequency Force/exertion Weight/load Static loading/holding Duration Tools Environment Opinion

9 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Occupations with High Incidence of Cumulative Trauma Disorder Assembly work Buffing Core making Electronic assembly Fabric cutting and sewing Textile workers Upholstering

10 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Occupations (cont.) Data processing Inspecting Meat processing Metal fabricating Musician Packaging Postal workers Tire and rubber workers

11 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Pain in the wrist Tingling in the wrist, hands, and fingers Numbness in the hand and fingers Clumsiness in handling items Atrophy in the wrist area

12 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Red Flags for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Individuals who: Have fluttering fingers Shake their hands during work Hold the sides of their wrist Perform deep rubbing of their arms Cradle their arm

13 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Upper Limb Cumulative Trauma Disorders Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Bursitis Tendonitis

14 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Office Ergonomics Concerns Video display terminals (VDTs) Filing Telephone use Noise

15 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Seating Design One chair does not fit all Incorrect height leads to fatigue and circulatory problems Seat depth should be inches Seat should be firmly padded with rounded front edge

16 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Backrest Design Should be adjustable with lower back support User should “lean” against the backrest Should tilt to positions in back and front of the vertical position

17 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Armrest Design Armrests should be provided when users arms are unsupported for long periods of time Adequately rounded and padded Should not interfere with the keyboard support surface

18 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Keyboard and Monitor Support Strain on hands, arms, and wrists = CTDs Keyboard surfaces should be height (23"-28") and angle (0-15 degrees) adjustable Area should be provided for periodic support of limbs Monitor support should be adjustable (center line of monitor 37"-43") Monitor support should allow for forward, back, and angle adjustments

19 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Keyboard and Monitor (cont.) Ample wrist rest areas should be provided Table surfaces should be matte (nonreflective) Ample leg and knee clearance is necessary Rounded corners on work surfaces Work surface available for reference materials Document holders close to screen and at same height

20 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Keyboard Should be detached from monitor so that it can be adjusted independently Key surfaces should be concave for positioning of the fingers Visible surface should have a matte finish

21 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Mouse Position to minimize extended reaching Surface area needed to support the arm

22 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Video Display Vision Glare causes discomfort, fatigue, and eyestrain Use indirect or filtered lighting where possible Avoid intense or uneven lighting Position display surfaces 90 degrees to windows Drape windows with curtains or blinds Control shiny or reflective surfaces

23 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Video Display Vision (cont.) Adjust the display brightness and contrast Use antireflection or antiglare filters Keep display screen clean Avoid flicker in display

24 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Additional Ergonomic Stressors in the Workplace Noise Lighting Indoor air quality Heat/cold Humidity

25 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Quiz 1.The most significant ergonomic concern in the office environment is the video display terminal. True or False 2.Monitors should be positioned at ______ degrees from a window. 3.Ergonomics should not address equipment design. True or False 4.The science of ergonomics is designed to fit the task to the ____________. 5.Additional ergonomic stressors include concerns such as lighting, heat, and humidity. True or False

26 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 6.Two typical symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome are ___________and ____________. 7.Ergonomics comes from the Greek language and means the laws of repetitive motions. True or False 8.Three common risk factors associated with cumulative trauma disorders are _______, _______, and _______. 9.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is a cumulative trauma disorder associated with the shoulder.True or False 10.When document holders are used with a monitor, they should be positioned six inches above the monitor display. True or False Quiz

27 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Quiz Answers 1.True. The most significant risk in the office is the video display terminal. 2.Monitors should be positioned at 90 degrees from a window. 3.False. Ergonomics should address equipment design. 4.The science of ergonomics is designed to fit the task to the person. 5.True. Additional ergonomic stressors include concerns such as lighting, heat, and humidity. 6.Typical symptoms associated with cumulative trauma disorders are pain in the wrist; tingling in the wrist, hands, and fingers; numbness in the hand and fingers; clumsiness; and atrophy in the wrist area.

28 Copyright  Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Quiz Answers (cont.) 7.False. Ergonomics comes from the Greek language and means the laws of work. 8.Common risk factors associated with cumulative trauma disorders are position/posture, repetition/frequency, force/exertion, weight/load, static loading/holding, and duration. 9.True. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is a cumulative trauma disorder associated with the shoulder. 10.False. When document holders are used with a monitor, they should be positioned even with the display.


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