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Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan Asim Zaheer 1, Dr. Rameez Khalid Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, NED University of.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan Asim Zaheer 1, Dr. Rameez Khalid Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, NED University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan Asim Zaheer 1, Dr. Rameez Khalid Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan 1 corresponding author:

2 Topics To be Discussed I.INTRODUCTION II.CONTEXT III.PROBLEM STATEMENT IV.RESULTS V.ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM VI.CONCLUSIONS Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 2

3 I. INTRODUCTION  What is Ergonomics? Ergonomics, is derived from the Greek word ‘ergon’ which means work and ‘nomos’ means law [1-3] The Science of Work or the Study of Work Designing the job to fit the worker Improve the human well-being Optimize overall system’s performance 3 Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer

4 I. INTRODUCTION (Cont..) Focus on worker Physical and psychological capabilities Keep an eye on human limitations Harmonious relationship Enhancement of productivity and efficiency [2] This guy needs more than a new chair!!!! 4

5 II. CONTEXT  In Pakistan, knowledge of ergonomics is in its infancy Ignorance among employer & employee  Ergonomics include different scientific disciplines: [6, 7]  Physical stresses and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)  MSDs are also referred interchangeably as CTDs: [10, 11] Repeated trauma, Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs) and Occupational overexertion syndrome Physiology Biomechanics Psychology Anthropometry Industrial hygiene Kinesiology Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 5

6 II. CONTEXT (Cont..)  According to Cohen [8], MSDs result in: Delays, Absenteeism, Injuries, Illnesses  Risk factors associated with MSDs are: [11, 12] Repetitive motion Force-full exertion Vibration Mechanical compression Awkward body postures High noise Low lighting Extreme temperatures  Ergonomics reduce MSDs by more than 50% [9] 6 Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer

7  MSDs affect [4] Upper limb Neck Back  Work place common MSDs are CTS and back injury [10]  Prolong working hours  Symptoms of MSDs: [11] pain numbness Tingling stiff joints difficulty in moving muscle loss paralysis Disorders II. CONTEXT (Cont..) Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 7

8  Two law enforcing agencies: NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)  Human body is divided into three planes: [6,7,13] Sagittal plane, Coronal plane and Transverse plane II. CONTEXT (Cont..) Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 8

9  Wrist movement classified as: Flexion Extension Radial Ulnar  Hand movements are classified as: [13] Abduction Adduction Supination Pronation II. CONTEXT (Cont..) 9

10 Industrial Examples 10

11  Job analysis tools: Strain Index (SI), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) Ovako Work Assessment System (OWAS) II. CONTEXT (Cont..) 11

12  Strain Index (SI):[14] Number (score) Upper extremity disorders. Tool to evaluate the job, not the worker SI = (Intensity of Exertion Multiplier) × (Duration of Exertion Multiplier) × (Efforts per Minute Multiplier) × (Posture Multiplier) × (Speed of Work Multiplier) × (Duration per Day Multiplier) II. CONTEXT (Cont..) Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 12

13  Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) [6, 17] Number (score) Upper limb disorders Wrist Forearms Elbows Shoulders Neck Trunk  Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) [18] Number (score) Entire body assessment II. CONTEXT (Cont..) Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 13

14 III. PROBLEM STATEMENT  Manufacturing Industry of two wheelers  OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) vendor for famous companies of auto-bikes in Pakistan  Products include: 14

15 Selected Postures 15

16 III. PROBLEM STATEMENT (Cont..)  Analysis Tools and Procedures: Strain Index (SI) Exclusively focused on wrist and hand Recorded videos Critical analysis of working postures Gathered relevant data Taken snaps Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 16

17  SI for Posture 1 Rating Criteria Table Multiplier Table [14] SI Calculation  Ergointelligence   Other Postures IV. RESULTS 17 S.NO.SI ParametersRatingMultiplier 1Intensity of effort23 2Percentage duration Effort per minute21.0 4Wrist Posture31.5 5Speed of work41 6Duration / day30.75 SI = 5.1

18 IV. RESULTS (Cont..) PostureProblems SI Risk Type Action Needed Mean Incidence Rate [14] 1 Wrist Flexion Abduction Force Neck flexion Hard grip 5.1 Some Risk Caution required 77 injuries per 100 worker per year 2 Wrist Flexion Abduction Grip force Neck flexion Trunk flexion 6 Some Risk Caution required 77 injuries per 100 worker per year 3 Wrist extension Abduction Force Hard grip 27 Hazardous Immediate action 77 injuries per 100 worker per year 4 Wrist flexion Abduction Force Neck flexion Trunk flexion Hazardous Immediate action 77 injuries per 100 worker per year SI FOR POSTURES 18

19 PostureProblemsSIRisk Type Action Needed Mean Incidence Rate [14] 5 Wrist flexion Excessive reaching 2.6Safe situationNo action 2 injuries per 100 worker per year 6 Extreme bending Wrist flexion 4.5Uncertain Caution required 2 injuries per 100 worker per year 7 Wrist extension Force Hard grip Neck flexion 6Some Risk Caution required 77 injuries per 100 worker per year 8 Wrist flexion Neck flexion Trunk flexion 3Uncertain Caution required 2 injuries per 100 worker per year 9 Wrist flexion/extension Upper arm abducted Force Neck flexion 6Some Risk Caution required 77 injuries per 100 worker per year IV. RESULTS (Cont..) SI FOR POSTURES 19

20 V. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM  Proposed Ergonomics Awareness program: Phase 01: Analysis of work place Phase 02: Prevention and control of Hazards Phase 03: Personnel training and education Phase 04: Medical Management Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 20

21 V. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM (Cont..) 21

22 V. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM (Cont..) 22

23 VI. CONCLUSIONS  Findings Realities in Pakistani Industry Strain Index (SI) Worker is at risk; Awkward postures Poor environment; Injury prone jobs  Perspectives Awareness program RULA REBA Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer 23

24 Acknowledgment TTTTHANK YOU for your attention QQQQuestions  Contact: +92 (0)


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