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1 Ergonomics - Jobs Designed with People in Mind.

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1 1 Ergonomics - Jobs Designed with People in Mind

2 2 What is Ergonomics? The size of people - anthropomety The strength of people - biomechanics The endurance of people - physiology The movement of people - kinesiology The environment for people - Industrial hygiene The information processing of people - Psychology

3 3 What’s the objective? Error free performance –Errors in perceptions –Errors in decisions –Errors in actions

4 4 How can problems be identified? Injury Data ObservationsInterviews

5 5 What type of injuries are seen? Muscle pain Joint pain Swelling Numbness Restricted motion Repetitive stress injury Repetitive motion injuries Cumulative trauma disorder Musculoskeletal disorder

6 6 What’s there usual diagnosis? Tendinitis Rotator cuff tendinitis Tenosynovitis Stenosing tenosynovitis Thoracic outlet syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome De Quervain’s Herniated disc Tension neck Epicondylitis Cubital tunnel Guyon tunnel Gangilionic cyst

7 7 What are some common names? Trigger finger Bricklayers shoulder Carpet layers knee Pizza cutters wrist Tailors seat Gamekeepers thumb Cotton twisters hand Golfers elbow Tennis elbow

8 8 How are injuries and illnesses calculated? # of injuries or illnesses Total hours worked x 200,000 15 injuries 400,000 x 200,000 = 7.5 Fatality 1 10 300 600 Lost Time First Aid Near Misses Prevention

9 9 Interviews Are there problem jobs??? - ask the worker Structured interviews

10 10 What’s the blueprint for a good ergonomic program? Commitment by Top Management Employee Involvement Written Program Review and Evaluation

11 11 What should the program include? Worksite analysis Hazard prevention and control Medical management Training and education

12 12 Work site analysis Identifies problem areas and risk factors Conduct worker surveys Perform analysis of tasks and positions that are problems

13 13 Hazard prevention and control Prevented by –Design of task, job, or job site Corrected by using –Engineering –Work practice –Personal protective equipment –Administrative Some more effective than others

14 14 What are some examples of engineering controls? Mechanical devices Lift tables/adjustable workstations Push/pull carts Work bins Tool design Seating, wrist/foot rest, glare screens Floor mats

15 15 What do work practice controls involve? Proper work techniques Employee conditioning period Monitoring

16 16 What are the factors to consider when using PPE? Variety of sizes Proper fit, and safe design Back belts

17 17 Can administrative controls be used instead of engineering controls? Considered in conjunction with engineering controls Implemented where engineering controls not feasible Temporary, does not eliminate hazard

18 18 Examples include! Reducing # of repetitions Job rotation Frequent breaks Broadening job content Training on proper lifting procedures Decrease work pace Increase # of employees

19 19 What are the major components of a medical management program? Periodic walk-throughs Symptoms survey Identification of restricted duty jobs Health surveillance Early reporting of symptoms Medical care Accurate recordkeeping Periodic program evaluation

20 20 What training is required? General Training Job Specific Training for supervisors Training for managers

21 21 What are the benefits of videotaping a task? Record of job Offers detailed review Allows management to focus on task Job Safety Analysis

22 22 What are the steps to take prior to taping the job? Observe job Get permissionPlan the views Describe job

23 23 How should the job be recorded? Use clock, and date Shoot upstream and downstream Whole body shots Zero-in on problems areas

24 24 What additional data should be considered? Weight of materials Amount of hand force used Hand tool or surface vibration Work organization Workstation design Environment - temperature, odors, etc. Height of worker Experience of worker and hours at work Worker modifications - both implemented and suggested

25 25 Where can I get additional information? Trade associations Venders Visits to other worksites OSHA field offices OTI Internet

26 26 G AL * Find the problem and fix it, but don’t put Band-Aids on the symptoms!

27 27 Video Display Terminals

28 28 Introduction Have revolutionized workplace 25% use in 1984, versus 45%in 1993 More than 18 million workers in jobs Along with use comes health effects

29 29 What are the components of a Video Display Terminal? Display screen –Shows what’s being processed. Keyboard –Allows user to send information. Central processing unit –Brains of computer –Performs calculations, organizes data

30 30 What are some of the problems that come with their use? Eyestrain and irritation Symptoms can be from –improper lighting –glare from screen –poor positioning of screen or copy material Adjusting physical and environmental settings

31 31 Fatigue and Musculoskeletal Problems Operators are subject to various MSD’s Injuries to muscles, joints, tendons, nerves Caused/made worse by work related factors Early symptoms include: If workers have problems PAIN

32 32 Lighting Direct so doesn’t shine into screen. Four factors must be controlled to avoid eyestrain. –Quantity –Contrast –Direct glare –Reflected glare

33 33 What are some of key areas of work station design? Proper design will reduce visual and (MSD) discomfort when the following are observed: –Flexible sitting position –Support for back, arms, legs, and feet –Adjustable screens, keyboards, tables, and desks –Proper chair height, and support for lower back. –Use of document holders

34 34 How important are Chairs? Crucial factor in preventing back pain Majority of office workers spend most of time sitting. Comfortable for the task. Easy adjustments.

35 35 Chair Height Human body provides a starting point. Height from floor to point at crease behind knee. Sole of foot on floor or footrest. Allows good circulation

36 36 Seatpan Design Size and shape are two factors Slightly concave, rounded edge Distributes weight/prevents sliding Also consider angle. Options to include: –back and forward tilts

37 37 Arm and Backrest Armrest, low, short enough to fit under worksurfaces. Backrest should support entire back.

38 38 VDT Design Separate, adjustable keyboards and screens. Top line no higher than user’s eyes. Screen and document holder same distance from eye. –Preferred viewing ranges

39 39 Keyboard Detachable and adjustable Forearms, parallel to floor, elbows at side Wrist in line with the elbows Padded and detachable wrist rests

40 40 Mouse Operator’s side, arm close to body Straight line between hand and forearm. Upper arm not elevated/extended while in use. Pad or rest helps maintain straight wrists.

41 41 What are some work practices that may help employees? Frequent breaks Design jobs so employees can vary VDT task with non-VDT tasks Open and positive working relationships

42 42 Back injuries- A painful problem Ouch !

43 43 What are the risk factors? Awkward posture Forceful exertions Repetitive motion Vibration Contact stress

44 44 What should I look at when analyzing the job? Look at the function Interview workers Break it into elements –work station –work methods Use checklist Interview supervisors Videotape

45 45 What are some of the controls can I use? Engineering Administrative Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

46 46 Administrative controls! Temporary Do not eliminate hazard Must maintain practices and policies

47 47 Types to consider include! More rest breaks Job rotation Broadening of job content Training of proper lifting procedures Reduce overtime Decrease work pace Increase # of employees

48 48 After an injury, how soon should a worker return? As soon as possible Helps employee/employer Reduces cost

49 49 PAIN

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51 51 Ouch !

52 52 1 10 300 600 Fatality Lost Time First Aid Near Misses Prevention

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