9Cartilage Articular Cartilage Is smooth shiny material that covers the bones of the hand and wrist. It absorbs forces of impact and provides for low friction motion.
10Articular Capsule Synovial Membrane Fibrous Layer Is the inner membrane of a joint made up of loose connective tissue.Secretes synovial fluid which services to lubricate the joint and reduce the friction between bones in joints.Supplies nutrients to the jointFormed by dense irregular connective tissue attached to the periosteum surface of joints.Allows for movement.Provides stability
13Types of JointsHinge Joints- Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of the adjoining boneExample: interphalangeal jointsCondyloid Joints- Convex oval-shape projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another boneExample: MCPJ and radio-scapho-lunate joint
14Types of JointsSaddle Joints- articular surface of one bone is the saddle-shaped, and the articular surface of the other bone fits into the “saddle” as a sitting rider would sit.Example: CMCJ between the trapezium and the thumbPlanar Joints- Flat or slightly curved bones joined together that allow back and forth and side to side movements.Example: Intercarpal joints
15Ligaments Palmar Aponeurosis Flexor Retinaculum It gives firm attachment to the skin of the palm to improve the grip, and it protects the underlying tendonsFlexor RetinaculumIs a strong band that is attached on the radial side to the tubercle of the scaphoid ridge of the trapezium and on the ulnar side to the pisiform and hook of the hamate. Serves as the top sheath of the carpal tunnel for which the flexor tendons and median nerve pass through.
16Ligaments Common Flexor Sheath Extensor Retinaculum Surrounds the eight tendons of the superficial and deep flexors of the digits of the hand as they pass through the carpal canal.Extensor RetinaculumConsists of a group of heavy connective fibers in the tissues of the wrist. It connects the lateral margin of the radius with the inside border of the ulna.
26Capo # 1 The median nerve: - Is responsible for the innervations of the following soldiers.1. Flexor carpi radialis2 .Flexor digitorum superficialis3. Flexor digitorum profundus4. Flexor pollicis longus5. Palmaris longusGives humans the ability to oppose the thumb joint
27Capo # 2- Is responsible for the innervations of the following soldiers.1. Flexor carpi radialis2. Flexor digitorum profundus
28Capo # 3 The Radial Nerve: - Is responsible for the innervations of the following muscles1. Extensor carpi radialis longus2. Extensor carpi radialis brevis3. extensor digitorum4. extensor carpi ulnaris5. Abductor pollicis longus6. Extensor digiti minimi7. extensor pollicis brevis8. Extensor pollicis longus
29Other known associates Dorsal cutaneous branch Vaga and Palmer cutaneous branch Winfield
30Median Associate #1 - The Palmer cutaneous branch: - splits off the median nerve before crease of the wrist
31Ulnar Associate #1 The dorsal cutaneous branch: Known for famous debilitating wrist lock
38Clinical Concerns Carpal tunnel Ganglion cyst The transverse carpal ligament in the wrist puts pressure on the medial nerve- possible cause: overuse, hormonalIs a fluid filled cyst that develops out of a joint.- possible cause: joint trauma
39De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis -irritation of the sheath around the tendon- affects the tendons on the thumb side of the wrist- possibly caused by repetitive actions, over use-