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INVESTIGATIVE & FORENSIC LOCKSMITHING “Key” Factors With Vehicle Theft Investigations Educational Overview Gord van der Grinten.

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Presentation on theme: "INVESTIGATIVE & FORENSIC LOCKSMITHING “Key” Factors With Vehicle Theft Investigations Educational Overview Gord van der Grinten."— Presentation transcript:

1 INVESTIGATIVE & FORENSIC LOCKSMITHING “Key” Factors With Vehicle Theft Investigations Educational Overview Gord van der Grinten

2 OBJECTIVE WHAT YOU WILL LEARN TODAY? How a transponder system works and the value it brings to vehicle security. How vehicles equipped with transponder systems are being stolen. How to provide valued detail to your investigations by knowing what additional “KEY” questions to ask. How information obtained by an Investigative Locksmith can benefit vehicle theft investigations. 2

3 INTRODUCTION Gord van der Grinten Personal − 30 years police service with O.P.P. 6 years assisting in covert and surreptitious investigations.. Interception of Private Communication- Res/Veh’s/Conveyance Freedom Lock & Security Inc. since 1985 − High security locks- Abloy. − Alarm systems and monitoring. − Card access systems. − CCTV- Analog and Network video. − C.P.T.E.D. and Consulting. − Transponder keys and automotive locksmithing. − Vehicle tracking devices. − Investigative and Forensic Locksmithing. 3

4 INTRODUCTION Sworn in as “Expert” and provided evidence: − 1 murder trial − 1 criminal trial − 2 civil trials Current memberships include: − International Association of Investigative Locksmiths − Associated Locksmiths of America − The Association of Ontario Locksmiths − National Locksmith Automobile Association − Canadian Association of Special Investigation Units − C.P.T.E.D. –Ontario − Key-Pro USA 4

5 WHAT IS A LOCKSMITH − Defined: “One who is skilled in the art of working with locks and keys” − Originally “Locksmiths” were Blacksmiths”, until they formed a separate guild and became specialists in their trade − Earliest use of the term locksmythe was found in 1440 − After 1627 the term was found as two words: lock smith − Sometime after 1841, the term, as we know it today, came into use − Present times locksmith can now include any or all of the following: The selling, manufacturing, installation and repair of security devices. Also includes electronics. Touch-pad locks, key-fobs etc. 5

6 TYPES OF LOCKSMITHS Types of Locksmiths − Residential − Commercial − Institutional − Automotive − “Specialized” Not a designated title Deals with design and modification of security devices for specific use. Police, Government, Military Surreptitious and covert operations….” Special Techniques” − Investigative and Forensic (Requires extensive knowledge of any or all of previous) 6

7 INVESTIGATIVE AND FORENSIC LOCKSMITHS Investigative Locksmith: − Examines, inspects, determines problem or cause of problems. Fixing a broken lock. Repair or replace! Observing tool marks, by-pass or compromise. Gathering of evidence, use of tech-tools. Photographs of findings. Report writing. Forensic Locksmith: − Includes elements of Investigative Locksmith in addition to: More detailed analysis Microscopic examination, for picking attempts etc. Microscopic photography. Metallurgy. (Melting temperatures of different metals i.e. wafers and ignition components. Brass/Aluminum/Pot metals. Post fire examinations. 7


9 ELEMENTS OF A VEHICLE THEFT Desire − Joy-ride/Car-jacking……..Because I can!!!! − Specific vehicle- requested by theft ring Ability − Knowledge of information specific to that vehicle Key code/Brake code etc., Method of defeat that works Chrys-pry and go/ESCALADE-DOOR CYL/MRD-06 Insider information (within dealership) − Have a key, or ability to make and/or enroll a key Specialized tools or equipment to cut and/or program keys SlmJm/WgglKys/CurtClip/Clam/Foam/Lishi tools/Code Grabber Force-enroll device (Toyota-Smart Keymaker) Opportunity − Where the vehicle will be at a specific time − Can I take it NOW?...........YES?...........GONE!! 9

10 EVOLUTION OF VEHICLE SECURITY MECHANICAL LOCKS: (General) − Door locks and ignition locks coded to a specific code. Keys cut so it will match this code. Mechanical only. − Originally started with 6 wafers, then 8, then 10. Some included ‘side-bar’, some introduced split wafers in cylinders to make picking attempts harder. VATS (Vehicle Anti Theft System) Correct resistance value in blade of key to initiate starting. − GM 6 wafer 1986 +15 different values − GM 10 wafer 1995 + 10

11 EVOLUTION OF VEHICLE SECURITY PASSLOCK 1 (MRD Magnetic Rotation Device) − GM 10 wafer 1995 + (Introduced an Cavalier) − Designed to eliminate forced rotation of the ignition cylinder. TRANSPONDER PK3, PATS1,2,3, SKIM. − 1996 + to present. − Increasing level of encryption, rolling code, Prox. − Can Bus system- all devices communicating. 11

12 HOW A TRANSPONDER SYSTEM WORKS TRANSPONDER TECHNOLOGY − Transponder is short for: transmitter + responder. (Word was invented around 1944). − In basic terms is a miniature electronic chip that has what is called non-volatile memory. Memory that does not need constant energy for retention. − Head of v ehicle key contains a small transponder chip (glass tube or small wedge). − Key is inserted into the ignition cylinder. When turned to “ON” position, antenna ring (Induction coil) is energized therefore “waking up’ the transponder chip. The chip ID is read by the antenna and sent to some type of computer device to recognize the signal. If the ID is recognized a starting sequence is initiated. 12

13 SO HOW CAN A TRANSPONDER EQUIPPED VEHICLE BE STOLEN? Tow truck/push onto flatbed(but can damage). Key theft/Home invasion/Car jacking. Key swap – Bolton. Knowledge of how to make a proper operating key (Clam/foam/photo). Use of specialized equipment to enroll electronics into ECM/Cloning.>>>>>>> CONNECT 2 WIRES AND DRIVE AWAY?.........NOT! “JIMMY” THE IGNITION WITH A SCREWDRIVER AND DRIVE AWAY? (when electronics present)…………….NOT! Can people produce keys for vehicles?? YES! However you will not likely find these vehicles again unless they are INTERCEPTED prior to reaching their destination. Thieves may already have a proper working key for a target vehicle but wait for the right opportunity to drive the vehicle away. (Key maker Vs. car driver) 13

14 STOLEN VEHICLE – “RECOVERED” How can an Investigative Locksmith assist? − Examine entry points into vehicle. − Examine locking cylinders to determine: Tampering or compromise By-pass or attempts of by-pass “Lack of evidence to support attempt” Screwdriver example Forced rotation/MRD Nothing other than proper operating key used − Examine transponder/immobilizer system: Tampering or bypass Verification of system After-market remote start? Use of diagnostic equipment Verification of keys Are they valid Professional contacts Number of keys enrolled into system Depending on vehicle Keys eliminated? Force enrolling? 14

15 STOLEN VEHICLE – “RECOVERED” Examination of provided keys (ALL KEYS) Compared to age of vehicle Active transponder in key? Are provided keys same “cut” as originally assigned to VIN? Are keys recognized by ECM? Anything irregular? Out of ordinary? Cloned key? Provide information on vehicle security features − Examine fuse panel Tampering or by-pass? A “REVERSE PROCESS” TO ELIMINATE POSSIBILITIES 15

16 STOLEN VEHICLE- “NON” RECOVERED” How can an Investigative Locksmith assist? − Examine provided keys Verify key cuts to VIN Verify electronics in keys to VIN Mercedes I/R keys Look-a-like keys – E-Bay Any information on keys – BMW Date/Time/Mileage/Temp Correct keys for vehicle OEM vs. after-market Key #1: Key #2 etc. − Provide information on vehicle security features − WE HELP “PAINT A PICTURE” 16

17 RECOVERED VEH- BURN/PARTIAL BURN How can an Investigative Locksmith assist? − Compare provided keys to VIN − Examine debris from under steering column for evidence Lock components/wafers Key/s Determine if ignition was force rotated − Provide information on vehicle security features 17


19 VEHICLE REMOTE STARTERS/ALARMS OEM or after-market? − Who installed it? Dealer or? Receipt for installation? − Quick install? Or does it integrate vehicle security features? Chip near antenna – any mech. Key works- sign waiver! TriLogix/ XpressKit – use of Trans. Byps Module Maintain integrity of Immobilizer system Ask client if they have knowledge of alarm system Remote Key-Fobs − OEM or after-market? − Some vehicles- Prox-Keys/Smart Keys etc. (Mercedes/Nissan) Prox vs. Car-jacking? Client left standing on road with active key, veh. will run until turned off. If Prox still in veh., wave good-bye! 19


21 REQUESTING A FORENSIC LOCKSMITH What is required? − Official request: email/phone/fax − Requesting Agency/Agent and contact numbers − Claim number − Vehicle Information including VIN − Vehicle location/contact information/stock # − Ensure permission from client to have professionals examine vehicle − Destruction Clause if forensic analysis required (If have to cut or remove anything) − KEYS! KEYS! KEYS! KEYS! KEYS! − Provide as many keys as are available, prior to the locksmith examination. 21

22 WHAT CAN YOU DO TO ASSIST A FORENSIC LOCKSMITH KEYS − Obtain all available keys so they are available during the lock examination − Establish solid line of questions: This can be very valuable! How long have you owned this vehicle? Where did you buy it? How many keys came with this vehicle when you bought it? How many keys do you have now, including family members? Do you have any spare keys or emergency keys? Where? Did you ever have additional keys made? Where? Receipt? Did you ever lose any keys? Did you ever have servicing on the ignition? When? Where? Receipt? When can all the keys be provided? ALARMS Factory or after-market? Receipt? If after-market who installed it? Where? When? Receipt? Does it work? How does it work?.....explain 22

23 THINGS TO CONSIDER − Keys can be the “WEAK LINK” for vehicle investigations. Have a company policy regarding continuity of keys. Did I mention: CONTINUITY OF KEYS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Develop a “Property Form” with sign off signatures. Tell the client that the keys hold significant information, and they will be examined by a “FORENSIC LOCKSMITH” (After you have possession of the keys and preferably after EUO) If client starts to change story or come up with excuses, record and document. (Does EUO = Examination Under Oath OR Errors Under Oath ? ?) Be up front and honest with client. They may withdraw the claim if the evidence is stacking up. If it goes to trial, show that the “investigation” was not hiding anything. You simply want to do your job to substantiate the theft/claim. Some are valid! 23

24 WHY USE AN INVESTIGATIVE LOCKSMITH? Professionally trained in this field. Operate under strict code of Ethics and Conduct. Provide unbiased information/opinion. “Qualified” to provide expert evidence in court proceeding. − If no training or certification – court may not allow evidence and rely on presumption.. Professional contacts − Locksmith can provide evidence as “Information I Have Learned”. Not jeopardize professional contacts. BMW/Mercedes-Benz going to court ALL AROUND NICE GUYS 24


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