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Unit 3 Passive Voice Notes Part 1. Learning Goals: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Passive Voice Notes Part 1. Learning Goals: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3 Passive Voice Notes Part 1

2 Learning Goals: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

3 Voice Usually, when we consider the word voice we are referring to sound coming from someone’s throat. But there is another type of voice… grammaticalgrammatical voice, used when speaking of verbs. In this sense, voice means whether or not the subject is doing the action of the verb.

4 The 2 Voices of Language There are 2 voices of verbs. Active voice Passive voice An active voice verb is one where the subject is doing the action.. A passive voice verb is one where the subject is being acted upon..

5 Consider these sentences: boy threw The boy threw the ball. In this sentence the subject is boy and the verb is threw. The subject, boy, is doing the action of throwing. ball was thrown The ball was thrown by the boy. In this sentence, the subject is ball and the verb is was thrown. The action of throwing is happening to the subject. Both sentences mean essentially the same thing, but they go about it differently. In the first one the focus is on the boy, while in the second one the focus is on the ball.

6 Which voice is each of these sentences? 8.The children are learning the song. 9.The secretary will print the document. 10.The shop will be closed. 11.The trash needs to be taken out. 12.They are buying new shoes. 13.This was painted by Picasso. 1.A mistake has been made. 2.Are you being picked up by your mom? 3.Did you paint this? 4.I didn’t read that book. 5.My bike was stolen. 6.Rita wrote a letter. 7.She always pays. ctive? assive? or

7 To change the voice… It is really important for you to be able to move between voices easily, so let’s learn how to do that. Take a look at those original sentences again: The boy threw the ball. The ball was thrown by the boy. The passive voice verb (was thrown) uses form of “be” helping verb 1)a form of “be” as a helping verb, AND “past participle” 2)the actual verb is in a form called the “past participle”. (We’ll learn more about this later. For right now just think of it as the “-ed” form of the verb)

8 The direct object of the active voice sentence becomes the subject in the new sentence. The ball was thrown Then, the subject of the active voice sentence becomes part of a prepositional phrase using “by” in the new sentence. by the boy So this means if you have an active voice verb that you wish to make passive, 1.Switch the subject and object. 2.Add a form of “be” (be careful that you keep it in the same tense). 3.Change the verb to the past participle (–ed ) form of the verb. Active: He stole my bike. Passive: The bike was stolen by him.

9 Let’s play with tenses: The man is stealing my bike. My bike is being stolen by the man. The man was stealing my bike. My bike was being stolen by the man. The man will steal my bike. The bike will be stolen by the man. The man has stolen my bike. My bike has been stolen by the man. The man had stolen my bike. My bike had been stolen by the man. Did you notice that there may be more than one helping verb? One of them is for the tense; while the other is for the voice.

10 My level of understanding Check for understanding 4 I understand the concept of passive voice; I can tell the voice of a verb when I see it in English; AND I can change the voice of the verb on my own – no notes! 3 I understand the concept of passive voice; I can tell the voice of a verb when I see it in English; AND I can change the voice of the verb on my own with my notes 2 I understand the concept of passive voice; AND I can tell the voice of a verb when I see it in English. 1 I understand the concept of passive voice. Quid agis? How are you doing?

11 Class Practice 3.1 Tell what voice each of the following is and then change the voice of the sentence. 1.Everyone understands English. 2.The managers were interviewing her for the job. 3.The prize was won by my team. 4.The professor told him not to talk in class. 5.The song will be sung by the choir. 6.The Statue of Liberty was designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi. 7.The Statue of Liberty was given to the U.S. by France. 8.They were not told by me! 9.This surprises me. 10.Tom is writing the letter.

12 Part 2

13 Learning Goals: By the end of the lesson students will be able to: 1.Recognize and produce the Latin present tense passive voice endings. 2.Conjugate and translate a 1 st or 2 nd conjugation verb in the present tense, passive voice. 3.Translate words, phrases, and sentences using passive voice.

14 Do you remember…? Let’s take a moment to remember the main points about passive voice in English: In passive voice, the subject is NOT doing the action; rather, the subject is being acted upon. The action is happening to the subject. English requires 2 things for a verb to be passive: A form of the verb be (which changes according to the tense) The past participle (the -ed form of the verb)

15 Passive Voice in Latin Latin makes things so much easier! All you need to do is remember a rule and some endings. The rule: 2 nd p. part / drop –re / add the endings The endings: -r -ris -tur -mur -mini -ntur

16 1 st Conjugation: amo, -are, -avi, -atus - love amor – I am loved I am being loved amaris – you are loved you are being loved amatur – h/s/i is loved h/s/i is being loved amamur – we are loved we are being loved amamini – you are loved you are being loved amantur – they are loved they are being loved Stem vowel for 1 st conjugation is –a as usual

17 2 nd Conjugation: moneo, -ēre, -ui, -itus - warn moneor – I am warned I am being warned moneris – you are warned you are being warned monetur – h/s/i is warned h/s/i is being warned monemur – we are warned we are being warned monemini – you are warned you are being warned monentur – they are warned they are being warned Stem vowel for 2 nd conjugation is –e as usual

18 Let’s see them at work: Pupae a parvis puellis aliquibus amantur. Dolls are loved by some little girls. Servi, qui in villā laborabant, in agros a vilicō iubentur. The slaves, who used to work in the country house, are being ordered into the fields by the overseer. Cur cistae nostrae in viam a servis portantur? Why are our trunks being carried into the street by the slaves?

19 My level of understanding Check for understanding 4 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive; I know the present passive endings for Latin; AND I can conjugate and translate a passive voice verb in Latin on my own without no notes! 3 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive; I know the present passive endings for Latin; AND I can conjugate and translate a passive voice verb in Latin with my notes. 2 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive; AND I know the present passive endings for Latin. 1 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive. Quid agis? How are you doing?

20 Class Practice deletur 2.desiderant 3.exspector 4.iuvaris 5.laudo 6.movemur 7.navigamini 8.portatis 9.terrentur 10.videmus I. Translate the following, change the voice of each and then translate the new verb. II. Translate the following sentence. Urbs a malis viris deletur.

21 Part 3

22 Learning Goals: By the end of the lessons students will be able to: 1.Conjugate and translate 3 rd, 3 rd –io, and 4 th conjugation verbs in the present tense, passive voice. 2.Recognize where these conjugations differ from each other and what the differences are. 3.Translate words, phrases, and sentences using passive voice.

23 3 rd Conjugation: pono, -ere, posui, positus – put, place ponor – I am put I am being put Ponēris* – you are put you are being put ponitur – h/s/i is put h/s/i is being put ponimur – we are put we are being put ponimini – you are put you are being put ponuntur – they are put they are being put For the 1 st one, simply add the ending directly onto the 1 st p. part. * OK, OK, I know…IMPOSSIBLE, right? I have no explanation for this! Unfortunately, it’s just a thing that happens! We all just have to deal with it! The –e that is too weak in active voice somehow lengthens, but only in 2 nd person singular and only for 3 rd conjugation (including 3 rd –io).

24 3 rd –io Conjugation: capio, -ere, cepi, captus – take, seize capior – I am seized I am being seized capēris* – you are seized you are being seized capitur – h/s/i is seized h/s/i is being seized capimur – we are seized we are being seized capimini – you are seized you are being seized capiuntur – they are seized they are being seized For the 1 st one, simply add the ending directly onto the 1 st p. part. * 3 rd –io verbs also have the lengthened –e in 2 nd person singular, just like for pono. Additionally, we would expect to see caperis, but as you can tell these verbs lose the –i from the 1 st p. part in this place.

25 4 th Conjugation: audio, -ire, audivi, auditus – hear audior – I am heard I am being heard audiris* – you are heard you are being heard auditur – h/s/i is heard h/s/i is being heard audimur – we are heard we are being heard audimini – you are heard you are being heard audiuntur – they are heard they are being heard For the 1 st one, simply add the ending directly onto the 1 st p. part. * 4 th conjugation verbs are completely regular. No weirdness happens in 2 nd person singular.

26 My level of understanding Check for understanding 4 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive; I know the present passive endings for Latin; AND I can conjugate and translate a passive voice verb in Latin on my own without no notes! 3 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive; I know the present passive endings for Latin; AND I can conjugate and translate a passive voice verb in Latin with my notes. 2 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive; AND I know the present passive endings for Latin. 1 I know the rule for forming the Latin present passive. Quid ago? How am I doing?

27 Part 4

28 Learning Goals: By the end of the lessons students will be able to: 1.Form and translate the present passive infinitive for all conjugations of verbs. 2.Recognize and use the abl. of agent. 3.Translate words, phrases, and sentences using the present passive infinitive and the abl. of agent.

29 More on Passive Voice Now that you have the basics of passive voice down, let’s add one more dimension. Let’s learn to make the infinitive passive. What you already know about the infinitive: In Latin it is the 2 nd p. part of every verb. In English the infinitive is “to + verb.” to eat to ask to see

30 This can be made passive too. All it takes is a form of be and the past participle (the –ed form) of the verb (just like anything passive). to be eaten to be asked to be seen

31 Just follow these 2 simple rules and you can’t go wrong. For 1 st, 2 nd, and 4 th conjugation verbs: For 3 rd and 3 rd –io conjugation verbs: 2 nd p. part / change the final –e to –i. 2 nd p. part /drop the -ere /add –i.

32 Active InfinitivePassive Infinitive amare – to loveamari – to be loved habēre – to havehaberi – to be had ponere – to putponi – to be put capere – to takecapi – to be taken audire – to hearaudiri – to be heard It’s really easy!

33 Another Quick Note: Last year I alerted you every time you were exposed to a verb whose 4 th p. part ends in –urus and told you this would be significant in Latin 2. venio, -ire, veni, venturus – come Now it’s time to learn what that’s about: Verbs whose 4 th p. parts end in –urus can’t be made passive. This is really important! I’ve been known to see who is paying attention by giving one of these verbs to conjugate in the passive voice. If this should happen I’m expecting to see as your answer, “this verb can’t be made passive.”

34 Abl. of (Personal) Agent: We know that in passive voice the subject is not doing the action of the verb. But who is? The one doing the action of a passive voice verb is called the agent (from ago – do). It occurs only with passive voice and uses the preposition a, ab and is translated by. Ex: A matre puella vocatur – the girl is being called by (her) mother.

35 Class Practice 3.3 I.Fill in the following chart. I’ve done an example for you. WordTranslationChange the voiceTranslation paraminiyou are carriedparatisyou carry 1. agis 2. clamamus 3. debēre 4. facit 5. invenire 6. munimini 7. regi 8. videor

36 Class Practice 3.3 continued II. Translate the following: 1.Claudius ab amicō qui non est puer bonus ridetur. 2.Iulia, quae est ancilla in casā meā, ā dominā laudatur. 3.Iulia, cur ā dominā casae laudaris?

37 Here are the ablatives you know now: 1.Time (when or within which) – tells when an action occurred; no preposition is used; translates best using in, on, at, or no preposition. Ex: hōc tempore – at this time; brev ī tempore – in a short time. 2.Means – tells with what an action was done; no preposition is used; translates best using with or by. Ex: baculō – with a stick. 3.Manner – tells how an action was done; sometimes uses the preposition cum; translates best using with. Ex: magnō cum murmure – with a great murmur. 4.Cause – tells why an action was done; no preposition is used; translates best using because of. Ex: meā culpā – because of my fault. 5.Place: tells where an action was done; always uses a preposition (they vary); translate according to the preposition. Ex: in agris – in the fields 6.Agent: tells by whom an action was done; occurs only with passive voice verbs; always uses the preposition a, ab; translates best using by. Ex: A matre puella vocatur – the girl is being called by (her) mother.

38 Let’s see all this at work: Aliqui populi a Caesare regi voluerunt. Some people wanted to be ruled by Caesar. Pantheon, quod est templum pulcherrimum, a Titō aedificatur. The Pantheon, which is a very beautiful temple, is being built by Titus. Titus, qui est imperator, Pantheonem aedificari vult. Titus, who is the emperor, wants the Pantheon to be built. Ista poema a Catullō, qui est poeta clarus, recitatur. That poem is being recited by Catullus, who is a famous poet. Mater, quae irata est, hoc cubiculum a mē purgari vult! Mother, who is angry, wants this bedroom to be cleaned by me!

39 My level of understanding Check for understanding 4 I understand the concepts of the present passive infinitive and the abl. of agent; I can recognize them in a Latin sentence; AND I can translate them from English to Latin. 3 I understand the concepts of the present passive infinitive and the abl. of agent; I can recognize them in a Latin sentence; AND I can translate them from Latin to English. 2 I understand the concepts of the present passive infinitive and the abl. of agent; AND I can recognize them in a Latin sentence. 1 I understand the concepts of the present passive infinitive and the abl. of agent. Quid ago? How am I doing?


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