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Police Communications. Communication About 93% of communication is non-verbal Makes dispatching that much more difficult Police communication can reinforce.

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Presentation on theme: "Police Communications. Communication About 93% of communication is non-verbal Makes dispatching that much more difficult Police communication can reinforce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Police Communications

2 Communication About 93% of communication is non-verbal Makes dispatching that much more difficult Police communication can reinforce the public’s perception of a police sub-culture Communication must be correct for the situation – YOU must adapt

3 Communication Process – Sender – Receiver – Message – Channel – Feedback (sometimes) Listening is a major part of communication

4 Dispatch System SOP Trunking system – Multiple channels within the frequency – Messages are sent & received on different channels Vehicle Repeater System – Amplify radio signals to allow communication in isolated locations – Dead spots can still exist

5 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) Consolidation of dispatch centers Currently 26 PSAP’s in Maine Each has enhanced 911 capabilities Funded by a bond in 1988 and now by a surcharge of thirty cents per line per month

6 E911 Automatic Number Identifier (ANI) – Caller’s number is identified by the system Automatic Location Identifier (ALI) – Caller’s location is identified by the system – Land line and cell phone location (cell depending upon your phone) – Most cities & towns have completed addressing – but that is not legally required Both are ID’ed by the system and cannot be blocked

7 E911 Dialing 911 from a cell phone goes to the State Police or the closest PSAP 911 hang up calls are always assigned for follow up – either by address or GPS location PSAP’s have a standardized Call Transfer Protocol

8 Reverse 911 Used to alert residents to an incident by calling their home phone and leaving a message Public safety, public health, missing persons, accidents

9 Misuse of E911 Use of E911 without reasonable cause and after warning from PSAP Manager, Administrator or Police Officer Repeated calls to PSAP for non-emergency reports or inquiries Causes calls to be made to a PSAP using an alarm or other alerting device that automatically dials 9-1-1 and transmits a prerecorded signal or message Class E crime (6 months in jail/$1000 fine) – strict liability

10 Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) Three levels Triage – Level of response needed – No response – Non-emergency – Emergency Pre-arrival instructions – Range from “Call you doctor” to CPR instruction Quality Assurance – Review of calls

11 Dispatch Calls for Service Call number – generated by the system Date and time of request Name & address of complainant (if possible) Type of incident being reported Location of incident ID of officers assigned – primary & back-up Time of dispatch

12 Dispatch Calls for Service Time of arrival Time the officer returns to service Disposition or status of the incident – Report taken – Service provided – Civil incident

13 Dispatch Calls for Service Other info collected by the call taker – Is the crime in progress – Is there a weapon or hazardous material involved – Are there injuries – Verify exact location, cross streets or landmarks

14 Dispatch Equipment Dispatch console Base radio in car Portable radio

15 Every officer should spend a shift in dispatch as part of their FTO period Understanding of the volume of activity and become more patient on the radio EVERYTHING is recorded… Radio traffic, phone lines and Mobile Data Terminal (MDT) transmissions can be admissible in court MDT’s are audited on a regular basis

16 Dispatch Lingo Radio call signs distinguish officers, shifts, department assignments Ten codes – allows for efficient communication & minimizes radio air time Softens reality and lets police talk to one another without others understanding – It’s a 48 – It’s a 49 – It’s a 63 – Are you 10-15?

17 Dispatch Lingo Terminology can vary from place to place – Brodie Ten codes can be effective in the right situation but can also be a barrier to communication – more use of plain English Testimony requires plain English and educating the jury

18 Dispatch Lingo Encrypted frequencies are available so radio traffic cannot be monitored Always be aware that the public is listening – Citizens – News stations – Other agencies – City officials


20 Radio Procedure LISTEN to the radio – What is everybody doing – You may be the only one hearing an officer in a dead spot Start with your unit number Don’t just talk without being acknowledged by the dispatcher – unless it’s an emergency Clear and concise – don’t tie up air time

21 Radio Procedure Don’t talk over others that are already transmitting Key the microphone close to your mouth – not from the dashboard or from your hip Background noise or wind can make it impossible for dispatch to hear you Your tone of voice can indicate the seriousness of the situation – or you may always sound like the world is coming to an end

22 Radio Procedure Alert tones – Used by dispatch to attract attention – Crimes in progress – Officer safety info Emergency button – On each portable and base radio – one button push sends an emergency signal to dispatch and GPS locates you

23 Mobile Data Terminals Allows info to be shared without radio traffic – Call narratives – Wanted persons – Pictures Calls are dispatched and an audible alert notifies the officer of the call Allows officer to access DMV and department databases

24 Mobile Data Terminals Most reports are done on the terminal using report management software – Incident reports – CRASH reports – Statewide system All reports must be approved by a supervisor prior to being entered into the Records system Dispatcher to officer e-mail, officer to officer e-mail – all are audited regularly

25 Mobile Data Terminals State law and Department SOP prohibits the officer from operating the MDT while the car is in motion Routinely ignored… Civil liability

26 Computer Records Originating Agency Identifier (ORI) Number – Assigned to each agency for teletype and electronic communication – ID of records belonging to that agency – fingerprint cards Access to law enforcement databases is limited and the material is confidential Officers and dispatchers have been terminated for breaching that confidentiality

27 Databases Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) State Bureau of Identification (SBI) – Criminal history records National Crime Information Center (NCIC) – Launched on 1-27-67 with five files and 356,784 records – 2013 – 19 million active records in 21 files – Averages 7.5 million transactions per day – Average response time is.06 seconds – New record on 7-2-12 with 12.2 million transactions

28 NCIC Files Article File – Stolen articles and lost public safety, homeland security and critical infrastructure identification Gun File – Stolen, lost and recovered weapons, weapons used in the commission of a crime that are designed to expel a projectile by air, carbon dioxide or explosive action Boat File – Stolen boats (last two numbers on VIN are year of boat)

29 NCIC Files Securities File – Records on serially numbered stolen, embezzled, used for ransom or counterfeit securities Vehicle File – Stolen vehicles, vehicles used in crimes or vehicles that may be seized based on federally issued court order Vehicle and Boat Parts File – Stolen vehicle or boat parts with a serial number

30 NCIC Files License Plate File – Stolen license plates (only if both are stolen) Missing Persons File – Persons reported missing to law enforcement and there is reasonable concern for their safety Foreign Fugitive File – Persons wanted in another country for a crime that would be a felony if committed in the U.S.

31 NCIC Files Identity Theft File – Descriptive and other information that police can use to determine if a person is a victim of identity theft or if a false identity is being used Immigration Violator File – Criminal aliens who have been deported and those without administrative warrants for deportation Protection Order File – Records of those who have protection orders issued – name of suspect and protected person

32 NCIC Files Supervised Release File – Persons released on probation, parole or supervised release or released on recognizance Unidentified Person File – Unidentified deceased, living people who cannot verify their identity, unidentified victims of catastrophes, recovered body parts. Cross referenced to the Missing Persons File U.S. Secret Service Protective File – Those deemed to pose a threat to the President or other Secret Service Protectees

33 NCIC Files Gang File – Gang members Known or Appropriately Suspected Terrorist File – Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6 (HSPD). This consolidates all those suspected of terrorism and makes it readily available Wanted Persons File – Those with warrants for their arrest

34 NCIC Files National Sex Offender Registry – Those required to register as a sex offender in their jurisdiction Violent Person – Those that have exhibited violent tendencies when dealing with law enforcement personnel National Instant Criminal Background Check (NICS) Denied Transaction – Those have been denied the purchase of a firearm based on a NICS check

35 NCIC Off-Line Searches Kinds of off-line searches include: Use of non-unique personal descriptors, like sex, height, estimated age, and hair color (these descriptors can be used in online searches but only in conjunction with other identifiers, like a person’s name and date of birth); Partial information searches (i.e., an officer only has three or four characters of a license plate or only half of a vehicle identification number); Checks of purged records (records that have been removed by law enforcement or as result of varying retention schedules); Searches of NCIC’s transaction logs, which may uncover other queries on the same suspect made by another law enforcement agency (can help establish a suspect’s whereabouts).

36 NCIC Off-Line Searches Used to locate Timothy McVeigh after he was identified as renting the truck used in the Oklahoma City bombing Used in the Amy St. Laurent murder case

37 Other Databases National Law Enforcement Teletype System (NLETS) Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) Interstate Identification Index (III) Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) – Expedite Unit – FBI – Field Fingerprint Scanners – Local AFIS

38 Other Databases National Missing and Unidentified Person System (NAMUS) Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) Fusion Centers

39 HTE Menus

40 Case Management

41 CRIMES Module

42 Call Information

43 Active Calls

44 Specific Call Information

45 Specific Call Narrative

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