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RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA POST 1945. HOW IS IT ASSESSED? 10 Multiple Choice questions (10 marks) 1 x Short Answer Question (5 marks) TOTAL = 15 MARKS.

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Presentation on theme: "RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA POST 1945. HOW IS IT ASSESSED? 10 Multiple Choice questions (10 marks) 1 x Short Answer Question (5 marks) TOTAL = 15 MARKS."— Presentation transcript:

1 RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA POST 1945

2 HOW IS IT ASSESSED? 10 Multiple Choice questions (10 marks) 1 x Short Answer Question (5 marks) TOTAL = 15 MARKS

3 SYLLABUS OUTCOMES Contemporary Aboriginal Spiritualities Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming kinship ceremonial life obligations to land and people discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: separation from the land separation from kinship groups the Stolen Generations Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: Native Title Mabo Wik Analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement

4 SYLLABUS OUTCOMES Religious Expression in Australia – 1945 to present Outline the changing patterns of adherence from 1945 to present using census data Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to: Christianity as the major religious tradition immigration denominational switching rise of New Age religions secularism Describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia The National Council of Churches NSW Ecumenical Council Evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multi-faith Australia Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation

5 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming kinship ceremonial life obligations to land and people

6 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 KINSHIP Kinship refers to the interconnectedness of the people and environment “Family” is understood differently than our contemporary, Western society Each member of the clan played an important role and part in the daily living Kinship systems determine these roles, as well as rules for marriage and other relationships Dreaming determines these relationships

7 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 CEREMONIAL LIFE Ritual and artistic expression of the Dreaming Through these, the Dreaming is understood and lived Include: dance, ceremonies, music, paintings, initiation (and other) rites

8 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 1 OBLIGATIONS TO LAND AND PEOPLE The Dreaming is inextricably connected to the land Cannot separate their religion from their very specific land Symbiotic relationship between the people and the land

9 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 2 discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: separation from the land separation from kinship groups the Stolen Generations

10 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 2 CONSIDER: Various government policies systemically contributed to the destruction of Aboriginal spirituality “Half-cast” children were taken from their families as part of the Stolen Generation. Missions were set up, run by government and church organisations. Children in these missions were not allowed to speak their language, and were assimilated into “White” culture Aboriginal people were only given citizenship and voting rights mid-20 th Century Many First Nations people today are still living with the direct effect of some of these policies

11 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 2 CONSIDER: With this much disruption and systemic oppression, Aboriginal spirituality (language, culture, knowledge) has been almost entirely wiped out With dispossession came the destruction of the kinship system, resulting in the loss of almost all information. Remember, theirs was predominantly an oral tradition

12 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 3 Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: Native Title Mabo Wik

13 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 3 Land Rights Movement The movement towards official recognition of ownership of land by our First Nations people Dates back to mid 1900s Mabo (1992) High Court decision which ruled: Terra Nullius was incorrect Aboriginal people can make claim to land in some cases Native Title Act (1993) Already established types of land ownership included Freehold Title (privately owned) and Crown Land (government owned). New type of land ownership: Native Title

14 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 3 Wik (1996) High Court decision which ruled: Native Title could be claimed on Crown land which was privately LEASED HOWEVER, should there be a conflict, and the tribunal unable to resolve it or reach a compromise, the lease holder’s rights outweighed the Native Title Claim Some other conditions

15 ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITY 4 Analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement REMEMBER The Dreaming is inextricably connected to the land The stories, artworks and history refer to specific parts of the land and its features Without this land, the connection with the Dreaming is severed

16 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 1 Outline the changing patterns of adherence from 1945 to present using census data

17 Religious Affiliation Anglican Baptist Catholic Churches of Christ ? Jehovah's Witness ? Lutheran Methodist Orthodox Pentecostal Presbyterian Salvation Army ? Uniting Church Other Christian ? % TOTAL CHRISTIAN Buddhist Hindu Muslim Jewish Other Non-Christian % TOTAL NON-CHRISTIAN Inadequately described No Religion Not Stated % NO REL. /NOT STATED TOTAL (Millions)

18 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 1 Things to consider: Overall drop in percentage of Christians Rise of secularism (“No Religion” and “Not Stated” increase) and 1971 change on census Size of the other religion traditions (what is the 2 nd largest?) Shifts in the numbers of particular Christian groups

19 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to: Christianity as the major religious tradition immigration denominational switching rise of New Age religions secularism

20 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 CHRISTIANITY AS THE MAJOR RELIGIOUS TRADITION Things to consider: History of colonisation of Australia – British and Irish Christians Lack of recording of Indigenous beliefs as a legitimate religious tradition European settlement and immigration Catholic numbers rise – why?

21 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 IMMIGRATION Things to consider: Post WWII – 1945 onwards – European immigrants Conflicts in 20 th century include: Vietnam War – (Catholic, Buddhist) 1960s Mid-East conflicts; Iraq (Muslim), Lebanon (Muslim, Orthodox & Catholic) – 1970s-1990s Sudan – 1990s-2000s And many others

22 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 DENOMINATIONAL SWITCHING Things to consider Denomination Switching – between Christian churches only Increase in Catholic numbers – denominational ‘loyalty’ Increase in Pentecostal – charismatic movement, popular among younger Christians; “revolving door” Decrease in Anglican – less British immigrants Protestantism – Shifts between the various Protestant denominations

23 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 RISE OF NEW AGE RELIGIONS Things to consider: Individualistic society Disillusionment with “traditional” religious practices, especially Christianity General dissatisfaction with mainstream religions New Age includes: astrology, feng shui, transcendental meditation, paganism, etc

24 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 2 SECULARISM Things to consider: Huge advances in scientific understanding of the universe in the 20 th century, continuing Increasing pluralism (diversity of beliefs and cultures) in Australia Increasing sense of irrelevance of religion in today’s life “No Religion” increasing on census

25 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 Describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia The National Council of Churches NSW Ecumenical Council

26 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 ECUMENISM Things to Consider: Ecumenism – movement towards unity amongst Christian denominations NOT intended as an amalgamation of churches Include theological ‘agreements’ (beliefs) Include joint practical activities – making public statemtns on issues such as war, public morality, and other matters of social justice E.g. Uniting Church – Formed in 1977 – Joining of Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregationalist

27 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 National Council of Churches Australia NCCA – formed after WWII Currently comprised of 15 member churches Aims to deepen relationships between member churches Aims to work, pray and grow together Initiatives include: Week of Prayer for Christian Unity

28 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 3 NSW Ecumenical Council Formed in churches throughout NSW and ACT Affiliated with NCCA Aims to promote ecumenism through four major types of initiatives: Theology Local initiatives (grass roots level) Social justice activities Educational initiatives

29 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 4 Evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multi-faith Australia

30 RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE 4 Things to consider: Inter-faith dialogue: formal discussions aiming to develop greater mutual understanding between different religious traditions Initiatives include: NSW Council of Christians and Jews Columban Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations Important because of nature of Australia’s pluralistic society, appreciation of diversity, breaking down of stereotypes (e.g. Muslims after 9/11) Aim to build relationships between different religions, to join together on issues of common agreement, especially social justice

31 RECONCILIATION Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation

32 RECONCILIATION Some examples: Christianity ANTaR: Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation Formal apology to Stolen Generation by Pope John Paul II in 1998 Judaism Week of prayer for Reconciliation is held every year Executive Council of the Australian Jewry urged the Australian government to implement the recommendations made by the National inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and their Families


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