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Australian Indigenous Culture

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Presentation on theme: "Australian Indigenous Culture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Australian Indigenous Culture

2 PLAN Excursion update Review holiday homework Intro activities booklet

3 Key terms to know: Culture Material Non Material
Sociological imagination – Ellis model Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Protection Assimilation Segregation integration

4 Intro - Activities intro to course\intro lesson -STEEREOTYPES ABOUT INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS.docx intro to course\intro lesson- What is Australian Indigenous culture.docx intro to course\intro lesson-Aboriginal Australia Information Deficit Syndrome.docx

5 Background: Australian Indigenous Culture
Australian Indigenous cultures – oldest living in the world Indigenous people believed to have been in Australia for at least years (ABS, 2011) Indigenous people come from a range of diverse Aboriginal nations many with their own languages and traditions

6 Who’s who? Torres Strait Islander people come from the islands of the Torres Strait between the tip of Cape York in Queensland and Papua New Guinea Indigenous people come from mainland Australia, Tasmania and surrounding offshore islands Today both of the above live in a variety of settings – most live in urban areas, while some live on the fringes of towns and cities or within remote communities in rural Australia.

7 An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person:
Of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent Who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and Is accepted as such by the community in which he/she lives. - Pg 21

8 Background History From 1788 – British wanted Australia to be a colony of settlement Indigenous peoples lands we taken over on the premise that the land belonged to no one “terra nullius” (means land of no one in latin) Colonial take over was based on the assumption that British culture was superior to all others Many Indigenous people were killed or driven from their traditional lands by the European colonists

9 Problems … Lives were lost from diseases that Aboriginal people had no resistance to such as small pox, influenza and measles The new government thought Indigenous people should speak English, obey British Law and live a British way of life Many tribal groups had to live together on missions and reserves and were forbidden to practise their cultures and speak their languages As a result many cultural traditions and languages have been lost forever

10 1992 – Indigenous Australians recognised as the traditional owners of tracts of land by the High Court Of Australia Eddie Mabo see pg 7 Today Australian Indigenous people continue to keep their cultural heritage alive by passing their knowledge, arts, rituals and performances from one generation to another

11 Activities Face the facts – update facts sheets
Watch the beginning of the First Australians SBS documentary Create a detailed timeline of Australian history

12 Many nations, one people intro to indigenous culture

13 Australian Indigenous Culture- Koorie
Bunjil the Eagle Kulin Nation William Barak ( ) Read Text: p. 5-7.

14 Koorie

15 Material culture Physical objects, artefacts, resources and spaces of a society which are passed onto subsequent generations Arts Crafts Clothing Homes Schools Technology Tools cities

16 Non material culture Non physical creations and ideas of a society
Knowledge, beliefs, languages, symbols and social norms which are transmitted across generations When analysing non material culture sociologists refer to several processes that a society uses to shape or control its members these are Values, symbols, languages and norms

17 Values and symbols Values
– abstract ideas about what is good and right Broad guidelines for acceptable behaviour Key values in Australian culture include; democracy, freedom of speech and a ‘fair go’ For AIP values were derived from the ‘Dreaming’ Symbols - Anything that acquires a particular meaning that is recognised by the people sharing a culture e.g., a word, sound, graffiti, sculpture and flag

18 Indigenous Non-Material Culture: Values

19 Indigenous Non-Material Culture

20 Symbols

21 Language Ability to communicate thorough spoken or written word is a unique and important feature of human cultural groups Australian Indigenous – oral history Indigenous languages of Victoria Kulin Languages – Western and Eastern Kulin Gulidjan or Colac language Gunditjmara/Warrnambool langauge (se pg 11) Languages

22 Social norms Social norms
Shared rules that exist in every culture that act as a guide for a wide range of behaviour See difference between norms and mores (more-rayz) pg

23 Indigenous cultural heritage article
dot 1 - meaning of culture\Indigenous culture article.docx

24 Short film – the land is your mother

25 Culture – material vs non material
Complete material vs non material culture sheet.doc dot 1 - meaning of culture\Material Vs non material culture summary activity.docx

26 Mills and Ellis The Australian Sociologist, Evan Willis has developed a useful framework to assist in the process of sociological analysis. Willis drew on the work of Mills (1959) and Giddens (1986) * Create a table that explains Gidden's, Mills and Ellis’s theory of the sociological imagination

27 Sociological imagination
TASK: Analysis of the stolen generation using Willis model using diagram on pg 17 and links on pg 18 Complete activity 3.02 pg 17

28 Article on stolen generation
dot 2 - sociological imagination ethnocentrism and cultural relativism\Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations.docx - sociological imagination analysis.docx

29 '

30 Stolen generation analysis
Factor Explanation Historical Indigenous Australians have a feeling of immense resentment toward white Australia for the breaking up of their families. Distrust toward Australian government Loss of culture Displacement of families Lack of education regarding parenting Cultural factors White people believed their culture and ways to be superior – blinded by ethnocentrism and the idea that “this is for the better” “Victorian board for PROTECTION of Aboriginals” Took children away to educate under western society – resulted in confusion of cultures Culture of ‘Missionaries’ – role of church to ingrain Christianity into Indigenous children White culture superior to Indigenous culture (culture of savagery and not significant) Culture change occurred through Rudd saying ‘sorry’ Structural factors Church and missionaries as social institutions had a significant impact on shaping children The organisation 'Stolen Generations Victoria' is set up as a result of the 2003 report of the Stolen Generations taskforce. 

31 Factor Explanation Structural factors Church and missionaries as social institutions had a significant impact on shaping children The organisation 'Stolen Generations Victoria' is set up as a result of the 2003 report of the Stolen Generations taskforce.  Critical factors

32 Sociological analysis
Historical Cultural Critical Structural

33 What is a representation?
The creation in any medium of aspects of ‘reality’ such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other intangible concepts Can be historical or modern Can be presented in many forms – oral speech or writing, still or moving picture See analysis table

34 Ethnocentrism W.G. Summer
Belief that an individuals culture is superior to that of other cultural groups Leads to a prejudice attitude Exists in all people in all societies

35 Ethnocentric representations of Indigenous culture - HISTORICAL
Historical representations of AIC influenced by ethnocentric views of British colonists Indigenous people seen as ‘noble savages’ Seen as the lowest form of human kind on the ‘Great Chain of Being’ – Europeans were placed highest and Indigenous Australians lowest nearest to animals Natural selection/evolution of natural world – scientific racism  Indigenous Australians biologically and culturally inferior to British colonisers Race doomed to extinction Indigenous cultural symbols in art gradually gained acceptance but understood through the category of primitive art

36 Contemporary ethnocentrism
Exclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from representations such as print and television advertising Stereotypical portrayals of Australian Indigenous people in tourism advertising reflecting the ‘noble savage’ The ongoing myth in film and TV that most Indigenous Australians live in remote and regional pars of Australia The over-reporting in news and current affairs programs of Indigenous Australians as victims and perpetrators of violence and/or paternalistic (authoritarian) reporting of social disadvantage

37 Complete Activity 3.06 pg 24 and write a detailed summary of what is on the web addresses on pg 25

38 Cultural Relativism Practice of judging a society by its own standards
Encourages sociologists to refrain from passing judgement on unfamiliar cultural practices Necessitates a tolerance and respect for cultural practices that may seem strange or unusual to the observer Requires people to avoid being biased when evaluating ‘other’ customs, practices and behaviours

39 Culturally relative representations of Indigenous culture
Education and awareness programs – Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) repsonsiblke for national curriculum from kinder – 12 (developed in consultation with Indigenous consultation bodies)  recognise need for all Australian children to understand Indigenous culture (

40 Political activism Albert Namatjira’s social movement for full citizenship rights in the 1950’s Freedom Ride 1965 Australian Human Rights Commission calling for Australian Constitution to be amended to recognise Australia’s first peoples

41 Protocols and Sanctions
Commonwealth – Racial Discrimination Act (1975) Racial Hatred Act (1995) Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (1986) Victoria Racial and religious Tolerance Act (2001) Equal Opportunity Act (1995) See pg 26 bottom websites and take note of why they are culturally relative representations

42 Complete the following activities
dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\Media ANALYSIS of issues in jan 2012 holidays and background knowledge sheets.docx dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\lesson 1 - Understanding Representations 2012.docx

43 Media Activity See representation booklet Tent embassy Australia Day
Cartoon analysis Annotated folio task – see pg. 53 of study design

44 Film and Indigenous representations
dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\Indigenous film representations.docx

45 Watch below – written by Fay June ball – song about white Koories
Watch BBQ area

46 Film and television titles written and directed by an Indigenous person.

47 Australian Indigenous culture for building awareness and perception of that culture
Healing Challenging stereotypes Strengthening Indigenous culture dot - implications of different ways of representing\actiivty on implications of representing.docx

48 Read pg 28 “British Museum to hand back Indigenous remains”
How might the return of the remains potentially lead to Healing Challenging stereotypes Survival of Australian Indigenous culture?

49 Watch first Australians Ep 3
The historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture through protection, segregation, assimilation and integration policies And Australian Indigenous responses to this suppression

50 Historical suppression of AIC
From colonisation – Australian Indigenous people subject to formal government policies AIMED TO SUPPRESS THEIR CULTURE Culture suppression occurs when a culture is overpowered and dominated – coinciding with the promotion of another culture

51 First example of attempted cultural suppression was the frontier wars between British colonists and Australian Indigenous people Wars commenced in 1788 and reports of violent interaction continued as late as the 1930’s

52 Arrival of British colonists saw considerable resistance from Australian Indigenous people

53 Protection and segregation
1800’s British colonists saw Australian people as primitive and savage race The Indigenous Australian customs and lifestyles they observed were very different to their own British believed Australian Indigenous people were an inferior race – led to assumption they need to be protected

54 Protection and Segregation Policies
Definition: Policies that resulted in the separation of Australian Indigenous people into missions and reserves 1. Terra Nullius: Aboriginal land was acquired by British colonists based on the assertion that the land belonged to no one. (1992: Eddie Mabo Vs Queensland Gov overturned terra nullius)

55 Protection and Segregation Policies
2. Protection Policies: In the 1800’s through moral conviction or religious faith. Settlers saw it as their duty to help these ‘poor’ indigenous people. A period where aboriginal people were segregated and controlled by protection boards. Paternalism: is the practice of treating a group of people as children. This paternal attitude led to the assumption that the AIC were an inferior race. From the British government had implemented a “Protection Policy”.

56 Victoria’s Protection Policy
1839 George Robinson was appointed Chief Protector of Aborigines. 1841: Recorded many atrocities 1860: Victorian Government established a central board for Aborigines. It’s role was to establish reserves and managers to control them. 1886: Victorian Aborigines Protection Board was formed. Its aim was to ‘civilise, Christianise and above all train”. Aboriginal children were taken from Families who were seen as bad influences (white socialisation).

57 Protection and Segregation
Between most states in Australia confined Aboriginal people to certain areas called ‘missions’. This resulted in the beginning of the Stolen Generation

58 British government implemented new ways to solve the “Aboriginal problem”
through policies which involved the separation of Australian Indigenous people into church run missions and government reserves - Justified by belief that Indigenous people were a dying race and would not survive alone in non Indigenous society

59 Recount of mission dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\MISSION CULTURE.docx

60 Responses to suppression
Many Australian Indigenous people did not adopt the cultural and religious mores of the British settlers and government

61 For many living in the missions despite new modes of dress, housing, economic patterns and religious beliefs many Australian Indigenous people did not abandon their traditional values “they still practised kinship ties and obligations, feared the effect of sorcery (witch craft), practised certain rituals, especially relating to personal hygiene and funerals, hunted and collected bush food in their leisure time and maintained a deep attachment to the land and its governing stories”

62 Impact of Protection and Segregation
The overall impact on many Australian Indigenous people during the era of the protection and segregation policies could be described as one of either “Despair or Defiance”. Resistance Groups: Five Key Elements. Cultural Maintenance A Sense of Injustice The Acting out of someone’s negative oppositional culture The Rebuilding of a positive Aboriginal Identity Aboriginal Political Movement led by William Cooper

63 William Cooper Born in Yorta Yorta Territory
Established the Australian Aboriginal League (AAL) 1934. Log onto: Read the 4- supression of AIC through policies\Cummeragunja mission and responses to it.docx

64 Historical suppression of AIC
Research policy and responses assignment on PowerPoint Construct an overview of the historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suppression - timeline overview.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suprression - timeline.docx

65 Go to the below to construct a timeline of significant events

66 Assimilation policy Period prior to Second World War – became clear to the government that Australian Indigenous people were not a ‘dying race’ Government decided to change its policy to one of ‘assimilation’

67 Assimilation Policies
In 1937, the Commonwealth Government decided that the ATSI peoples ‘not of full blood’ should be absorbed or assimilated into the wider population. The aim was to make the ‘Aboriginal problem’ gradually disappear. Some examples include separate education, town curfews, no social security and the forcible removal of children who were placed in white controlled institutions or foster homes.

68 PODCAST – Stolen Generation

69 Work regarding stolen generation
dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations.docx - sociological imagination analysis.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\stolen generation info sheet.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Stolen generation man wins compensation.docx dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suprression stolen generation timeline.docx

70 Integration Policy The policy of integration 1965 was to create a better relationship between the Australian indigenous people and the white people of Australia. Indigenous people, their customs, culture, tradition and language needed to be ‘westernised’. ‘Assimilation in disguise’?

71 Integration policy 1965 – assimilation was replaced by ‘integration’
Recognised Australian Indigenous culture Acknowledged that Australian Indigenous people had their own culture, languages, customs and traditions which needed to be ‘westernised’

72 Some AI protest groups argued that integration was a more suitable policy as it allowed for individuals to choose the extent to which they wished to join broader society while at the same time being able to practice their own culture and beliefs

73 Others argued that while integration was an improvement on assimilation it contained some elements is assimilation in disguise It was expected that future generations would assimilate into non- Indigenous society, letting go of their beliefs and customs

74 dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\graphic organiser - protection segregation assimialtion and integration.docx

75 DVD Watch DVD – the right to vote

76 Constitution Prior to 1967 When the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia was drawn up, Aboriginal people had no political power and most of the leaders of the colonial delegations who met to debate the terms of the document considered them to be ‘a dying race’.

77 Constitution Prior to 1967 Consequently, the only two specific
references made to Aboriginal people in the Constitution were in a clause 1 of section 51, relating to a power granted to the Commonwealth to enact special laws with regard to racial minorities: The Parliament shall subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to…(xxvi) The people of any race, other than the aboriginal race in any State, for whom it is deemed necessary to make special laws. and, section 127: In reckoning the numbers of people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted.

78 The 1967 Referendum By 1966, most racially discriminatory legislation had been repealed and most Aboriginal people had been granted the legal rights associated with citizenship. However, when the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders and its supporters campaigned for a ‘Yes’ vote for the Aboriginal question in the referendum of 27 May 1967, it equated the constitutional changes with the overthrow of discriminatory laws and the winning of rights or citizenship for Aborigines.

79 The Australian Constitution
The Australian Constitution does not recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The last few years have seen a growing feeling that the Constitution needs to be brought up to date to reflect the reality of Australia in the 21st century. It is time for a genuine national conversation on the best option for constitutional recognition that will be supported by the majority but is also meaningful for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

80 The Australian Government, the Opposition, the Australian Greens and the Independent members of Parliament all support recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in the Constitution Towards this end, the Prime Minister has established an Expert Panel to lead a national conversation on constitutional recognition. The Constitution which underpins our federal laws and institutions can only be changed by the people. This site provides you with information that will help you to be part of this once-in-a-generation opportunity to help shape the future of Australia. There is also a webpage set up by the Expert Panel where you can find virtually all the information you need  - go

81 Constitutional change
- video - full text of constitution


83 Write a paragraph explaining the historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture through protection, segregation, assimilation and integration policies. Explain Indigenous responses to this suppression using material you have studied this year Incl info off Right to vote DVD

84 Complete Activity 3.08 pg 33 Explain Protection Segregation
Assimilation Integration Complete table of suppression and response

85 AFL HOMEWORK TASK Explore the initiatives in place by the Australian Football League (AFL) regarding Australian Indigenous players as a way of building awareness and perception of Indigenous culture

86 Public awareness and perception of Australian Indigenous Culture
There have been a number of national and international factors that have supported/limited the public awareness and perception of Australian Indigenous culture What do you think these may be?

87 Reconciliation The Redfern Park Speech Northern Territory Intervention The Apology United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

88 Create a table like the below
Reconciliation Redfern park speech Northern Territory Intervention The Apology United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous people Take notes in each of the columns from both the textbook and the videos you will see

89 Reconciliation Reconciliation – “coming together”
As an Australian government policy it aims to achieve justice, recognition and healing Purpose – has been to help Australians move forward with a better understanding of the past and how the past affects the lives of Indigenous peoples today

90 Reconciliation Involves recognition that Indigenous peoples were the first Australians Acknowledges how the past impacts their culture and lives today Involves both SYMBOLIC and PRACTICAL approaches

91 Symbolic and Practical reconciliation
Focus on social justice component Recognising historical injustice and Indigenous right such as the formal sorry in 2008 Education programs designed to combat racism and discrimination Symbolic Focus on providing services to address the inequalities that exist in our society Providing funding for the “Close the Gap” program Practical

92 History of Reconciliation in Australia

93 dot 5 - national and international factors\Create a power-point slide that includes the national.pptx Look up the bringing them home report and take notes!

94 Useful websites – National museum Australia - FUSE

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