3Key terms to know: Culture Material Non Material Sociological imagination – Ellis modelEthnocentrismCultural relativismProtectionAssimilationSegregationintegration
4Intro - Activitiesintro to course\intro lesson -STEEREOTYPES ABOUT INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS.docxintro to course\intro lesson- What is Australian Indigenous culture.docxintro to course\intro lesson-Aboriginal Australia Information Deficit Syndrome.docx
5Background: Australian Indigenous Culture Australian Indigenous cultures – oldest living in the worldIndigenous people believed to have been in Australia for at least years (ABS, 2011)Indigenous people come from a range of diverse Aboriginal nations many with their own languages and traditions
6Who’s who?Torres Strait Islander people come from the islands of the Torres Strait between the tip of Cape York in Queensland and Papua New GuineaIndigenous people come from mainland Australia, Tasmania and surrounding offshore islandsToday both of the above live in a variety of settings – most live in urban areas, while some live on the fringes of towns and cities or within remote communities in rural Australia.
7An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person: Of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descentWho identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander andIs accepted as such by the community in which he/she lives.- Pg 21
8Background HistoryFrom 1788 – British wanted Australia to be a colony of settlementIndigenous peoples lands we taken over on the premise that the land belonged to no one “terra nullius” (means land of no one in latin)Colonial take over was based on the assumption that British culture was superior to all othersMany Indigenous people were killed or driven from their traditional lands by the European colonists
9Problems …Lives were lost from diseases that Aboriginal people had no resistance to such as small pox, influenza and measlesThe new government thought Indigenous people should speak English, obey British Law and live a British way of lifeMany tribal groups had to live together on missions and reserves and were forbidden to practise their cultures and speak their languagesAs a result many cultural traditions and languages have been lost forever
101992 – Indigenous Australians recognised as the traditional owners of tracts of land by the High Court Of AustraliaEddie Mabo see pg 7Today Australian Indigenous people continue to keep their cultural heritage alive by passing their knowledge, arts, rituals and performances from one generation to another
11Activities Face the facts – update facts sheets Watch the beginning of the First Australians SBS documentaryCreate a detailed timeline of Australian history
12Many nations, one people intro to indigenous culture
13Australian Indigenous Culture- Koorie Bunjil the Eagle Kulin Nation William Barak ( ) Read Text: p. 5-7.
15Material culturePhysical objects, artefacts, resources and spaces of a society which are passed onto subsequent generationsArtsCraftsClothingHomesSchoolsTechnologyToolscities
16Non material culture Non physical creations and ideas of a society Knowledge, beliefs, languages, symbols and social norms which are transmitted across generationsWhen analysing non material culture sociologists refer to several processes that a society uses to shape or control its members these areValues, symbols, languages and norms
17Values and symbols Values – abstract ideas about what is good and rightBroad guidelines for acceptable behaviourKey values in Australian culture include; democracy, freedom of speech and a ‘fair go’For AIP values were derived from the ‘Dreaming’Symbols- Anything that acquires a particular meaning that is recognised by the people sharing a culture e.g., a word, sound, graffiti, sculpture and flag
21LanguageAbility to communicate thorough spoken or written word is a unique and important feature of human cultural groupsAustralian Indigenous – oral historyIndigenous languages of VictoriaKulin Languages – Western and Eastern KulinGulidjan or Colac languageGunditjmara/Warrnambool langauge (se pg 11)Languages
22Social norms Social norms Shared rules that exist in every culture that act as a guide for a wide range of behaviourSee difference between norms and mores (more-rayz) pg
23Indigenous cultural heritage article dot 1 - meaning of culture\Indigenous culture article.docx
25Culture – material vs non material Complete material vs non material culture sheet.docdot 1 - meaning of culture\Material Vs non material culture summary activity.docx
26Mills and EllisThe Australian Sociologist, Evan Willis has developed a useful framework to assist in the process of sociological analysis.Willis drew on the work of Mills (1959) and Giddens (1986)* Create a table that explains Gidden's, Mills and Ellis’s theory of the sociological imagination
27Sociological imagination TASK: Analysis of the stolen generation using Willis model using diagram on pg 17 and links on pg 18Complete activity 3.02 pg 17
28Article on stolen generation dot 2 - sociological imagination ethnocentrism and cultural relativism\Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations.docx - sociological imagination analysis.docx
30Stolen generation analysis FactorExplanationHistoricalIndigenous Australians have a feeling of immense resentment toward white Australia for the breaking up of their families.Distrust toward Australian governmentLoss of cultureDisplacement of familiesLack of education regarding parentingCultural factorsWhite people believed their culture and ways to be superior – blinded by ethnocentrism and the idea that “this is for the better” “Victorian board for PROTECTION of Aboriginals”Took children away to educate under western society –resulted in confusion of culturesCulture of ‘Missionaries’ – role of church to ingrain Christianity into Indigenous childrenWhite culture superior to Indigenous culture (culture of savagery and not significant)Culture change occurred through Rudd saying ‘sorry’Structural factorsChurch and missionaries as social institutions had a significant impact on shaping childrenThe organisation 'Stolen Generations Victoria' is set up as a result of the 2003 report of the Stolen Generations taskforce.
31FactorExplanationStructural factorsChurch and missionaries as social institutions had a significant impact on shaping childrenThe organisation 'Stolen Generations Victoria' is set up as a result of the 2003 report of the Stolen Generations taskforce. Critical factors
33What is a representation? The creation in any medium of aspects of ‘reality’ such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other intangible conceptsCan be historical or modernCan be presented in many forms – oral speech or writing, still or moving pictureSee analysis table
34Ethnocentrism W.G. Summer Belief that an individuals culture is superior to that of other cultural groupsLeads to a prejudice attitudeExists in all people in all societies
35Ethnocentric representations of Indigenous culture - HISTORICAL Historical representations of AIC influenced by ethnocentric views of British colonistsIndigenous people seen as ‘noble savages’Seen as the lowest form of human kind on the ‘Great Chain of Being’ – Europeans were placed highest and Indigenous Australians lowest nearest to animalsNatural selection/evolution of natural world – scientific racism Indigenous Australians biologically and culturally inferior to British colonisersRace doomed to extinctionIndigenous cultural symbols in art gradually gained acceptance but understood through the category of primitive art
36Contemporary ethnocentrism Exclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from representations such as print and television advertisingStereotypical portrayals of Australian Indigenous people in tourism advertising reflecting the ‘noble savage’The ongoing myth in film and TV that most Indigenous Australians live in remote and regional pars of AustraliaThe over-reporting in news and current affairs programs of Indigenous Australians as victims and perpetrators of violence and/or paternalistic (authoritarian) reporting of social disadvantage
37Complete Activity 3.06 pg 24 and write a detailed summary of what is on the web addresses on pg 25
38Cultural Relativism Practice of judging a society by its own standards Encourages sociologists to refrain from passing judgement on unfamiliar cultural practicesNecessitates a tolerance and respect for cultural practices that may seem strange or unusual to the observerRequires people to avoid being biased when evaluating ‘other’ customs, practices and behaviours
39Culturally relative representations of Indigenous culture Education and awareness programs – Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) repsonsiblke for national curriculum from kinder – 12 (developed in consultation with Indigenous consultation bodies) recognise need for all Australian children to understand Indigenous culture (
40Political activismAlbert Namatjira’s social movement for full citizenship rights in the 1950’sFreedom Ride 1965Australian Human Rights Commission calling for Australian Constitution to be amended to recognise Australia’s first peoples
41Protocols and Sanctions Commonwealth – Racial Discrimination Act (1975)Racial Hatred Act (1995)Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (1986)Victoria Racial and religious Tolerance Act (2001)Equal Opportunity Act (1995)See pg 26 bottom websites and take note of why they are culturally relative representations
42Complete the following activities dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\Media ANALYSIS of issues in jan 2012 holidays and background knowledge sheets.docxdot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\lesson 1 - Understanding Representations 2012.docx
43Media Activity See representation booklet Tent embassy Australia Day Cartoon analysisAnnotated folio task – see pg. 53 of study design
44Film and Indigenous representations dot 3 - range of historical and contemporary reprsentqations\Indigenous film representations.docx
45Watch below – written by Fay June ball – song about white Koories Watch BBQ area
46Film and television titles written and directed by an Indigenous person.
47Australian Indigenous culture for building awareness and perception of that culture HealingChallenging stereotypesStrengthening Indigenous culturedot - implications of different ways of representing\actiivty on implications of representing.docx
48Read pg 28 “British Museum to hand back Indigenous remains” How might the return of the remains potentially lead toHealingChallenging stereotypesSurvival of Australian Indigenous culture?
49Watch first Australians Ep 3 The historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture through protection, segregation, assimilation and integration policiesAnd Australian Indigenous responses to this suppression
50Historical suppression of AIC From colonisation – Australian Indigenous people subject to formal government policies AIMED TO SUPPRESS THEIR CULTURECulture suppression occurs when a culture is overpowered and dominated – coinciding with the promotion of another culture
51First example of attempted cultural suppression was the frontier wars between British colonists and Australian Indigenous peopleWars commenced in 1788 and reports of violent interaction continued as late as the 1930’s
52Arrival of British colonists saw considerable resistance from Australian Indigenous people
53Protection and segregation 1800’s British colonists saw Australian people as primitive and savage raceThe Indigenous Australian customs and lifestyles they observed were very different to their ownBritish believed Australian Indigenous people were an inferior race – led to assumption they need to be protected
54Protection and Segregation Policies Definition: Policies that resulted in the separation of Australian Indigenous people into missions and reserves1. Terra Nullius: Aboriginal land was acquired by British colonists based on the assertion that the land belonged to no one. (1992: Eddie Mabo Vs Queensland Gov overturned terra nullius)
55Protection and Segregation Policies 2. Protection Policies: In the 1800’s through moral conviction or religious faith. Settlers saw it as their duty to help these ‘poor’ indigenous people. A period where aboriginal people were segregated and controlled by protection boards.Paternalism: is the practice of treating a group of people as children.This paternal attitude led to the assumption that the AIC were an inferior race.From the British government had implemented a “Protection Policy”.
56Victoria’s Protection Policy 1839 George Robinson was appointedChief Protector of Aborigines.1841: Recorded many atrocities1860: Victorian Government established a central board for Aborigines. It’s role was to establish reserves and managers to control them.1886: Victorian Aborigines Protection Board was formed. Its aim was to ‘civilise, Christianise and above all train”.Aboriginal children were taken from Families who were seen as bad influences (white socialisation).
57Protection and Segregation Between most states in Australia confined Aboriginal people to certain areas called ‘missions’. This resulted in the beginning of the Stolen Generation
58British government implemented new ways to solve the “Aboriginal problem” through policies which involved the separation of Australian Indigenous people into church run missions and government reserves- Justified by belief that Indigenous people were a dying race and would not survive alone in non Indigenous society
59Recount of missiondot 4- supression of AIC through policies\MISSION CULTURE.docx
60Responses to suppression Many Australian Indigenous people did not adopt the cultural and religious mores of the British settlers and government
61For many living in the missions despite new modes of dress, housing, economic patterns and religious beliefs many Australian Indigenous people did not abandon their traditional values“they still practised kinship ties and obligations, feared the effect of sorcery (witch craft), practised certain rituals, especially relating to personal hygiene and funerals, hunted and collected bush food in their leisure time and maintained a deep attachment to the land and its governing stories”
62Impact of Protection and Segregation The overall impact on many Australian Indigenous people during the era of the protection and segregation policies could be described as one of either “Despair or Defiance”.Resistance Groups: Five Key Elements.Cultural MaintenanceA Sense of InjusticeThe Acting out of someone’s negative oppositional cultureThe Rebuilding of a positive Aboriginal IdentityAboriginal Political Movement led by William Cooper
63William Cooper Born in Yorta Yorta Territory Established the Australian Aboriginal League (AAL) 1934.Log onto:Read the story.dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Cummeragunja mission and responses to it.docx
64Historical suppression of AIC Research policy and responses assignment on PowerPointConstruct an overview of the historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culturedot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suppression - timeline overview.docxdot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suprression - timeline.docx
65Go to the below to construct a timeline of significant events
66Assimilation policyPeriod prior to Second World War – became clear to the government that Australian Indigenous people were not a ‘dying race’Government decided to change its policy to one of ‘assimilation’
67Assimilation Policies In 1937, the Commonwealth Government decided that the ATSI peoples ‘not of full blood’ should be absorbed or assimilated into the wider population. The aim was to make the ‘Aboriginal problem’ gradually disappear. Some examples include separate education, town curfews, no social security and the forcible removal of children who were placed in white controlled institutions or foster homes.
69Work regarding stolen generation dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations.docx - sociological imagination analysis.docxdot 4- supression of AIC through policies\stolen generation info sheet.docxdot 4- supression of AIC through policies\Stolen generation man wins compensation.docxdot 4- supression of AIC through policies\lesson 2-historical suppression\Historical suprression stolen generation timeline.docx
70Integration PolicyThe policy of integration 1965 was to create a better relationship between the Australian indigenous people and the white people of Australia. Indigenous people, their customs, culture, tradition and language needed to be ‘westernised’.‘Assimilation in disguise’?
71Integration policy 1965 – assimilation was replaced by ‘integration’ Recognised Australian Indigenous cultureAcknowledged that Australian Indigenous people had their own culture, languages, customs and traditions which needed to be ‘westernised’
72Some AI protest groups argued that integration was a more suitable policy as it allowed for individuals to choose the extent to which they wished to join broader society while at the same time being able to practice their own culture and beliefs
73Others argued that while integration was an improvement on assimilation it contained some elements is assimilation in disguiseIt was expected that future generations would assimilate into non- Indigenous society, letting go of their beliefs and customs
74dot 4- supression of AIC through policies\graphic organiser - protection segregation assimialtion and integration.docx
76Constitution Prior to 1967When the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia was drawn up, Aboriginal people had no political power and most of the leaders of the colonial delegations who met to debate the terms of the document considered them to be ‘a dying race’.
77Constitution Prior to 1967 Consequently, the only two specific references made to Aboriginal people in the Constitution were in a clause1 of section 51, relating to a power granted to the Commonwealth to enact special laws with regard to racial minorities:The Parliament shall subject to this Constitution, have power tomake laws for the peace, order, and good government of theCommonwealth with respect to…(xxvi) The people of any race,other than the aboriginal race in any State, for whom it is deemednecessary to make special laws.and, section 127:In reckoning the numbers of people of the Commonwealth, or of aState or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted.
78The 1967 ReferendumBy 1966, most racially discriminatory legislation had been repealed and most Aboriginal people had been granted the legal rights associated withcitizenship. However, when the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders and its supporters campaigned for a ‘Yes’ vote for the Aboriginal question in the referendum of 27 May 1967,it equated the constitutional changes with the overthrow of discriminatory laws and the winning of rights or citizenship for Aborigines.
79The Australian Constitution The Australian Constitution does not recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.The last few years have seen a growing feeling that the Constitution needs to be brought up to date to reflect the reality of Australia in the 21st century.It is time for a genuine national conversation on the best option for constitutional recognition that will be supported by the majority but is also meaningful for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
80The Australian Government, the Opposition, the Australian Greens and the Independent members of Parliament all support recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in the ConstitutionTowards this end, the Prime Minister has established an Expert Panel to lead a national conversation on constitutional recognition.The Constitution which underpins our federal laws and institutions can only be changed by the people.This site provides you with information that will help you to be part of this once-in-a-generation opportunity to help shape the future of Australia.There is also a webpage set up by the Expert Panel where you can find virtually all the information you need - go towww.youmeunity.org.au
81Constitutional change - video- full text of constitution
83Write a paragraph explaining the historical suppression of Australian Indigenous culture through protection, segregation, assimilation and integration policies. Explain Indigenous responses to this suppression using material you have studied this yearIncl info off Right to vote DVD
84Complete Activity 3.08 pg 33 Explain Protection Segregation AssimilationIntegrationComplete table of suppression and response
85AFL HOMEWORK TASKExplore the initiatives in place by the Australian Football League (AFL) regarding Australian Indigenous players as a way of building awareness and perception of Indigenous culture
86Public awareness and perception of Australian Indigenous Culture There have been a number of national and international factors that have supported/limited the public awareness and perception of Australian Indigenous cultureWhat do you think these may be?
87ReconciliationThe Redfern Park SpeechNorthern Territory InterventionThe ApologyUnited Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
88Create a table like the below ReconciliationRedfern park speechNorthern Territory InterventionThe ApologyUnited Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous peopleTake notes in each of the columns from both the textbook and the videos you will see
89Reconciliation Reconciliation – “coming together” As an Australian government policy it aims to achieve justice, recognition and healingPurpose – has been to help Australians move forward with a better understanding of the past and how the past affects the lives of Indigenous peoples today
90ReconciliationInvolves recognition that Indigenous peoples were the first AustraliansAcknowledges how the past impacts their culture and lives todayInvolves both SYMBOLIC and PRACTICAL approaches
91Symbolic and Practical reconciliation Focus on social justice componentRecognising historical injustice and Indigenous right such as the formal sorry in 2008Education programs designed to combat racism and discriminationSymbolicFocus on providing services to address the inequalities that exist in our societyProviding funding for the “Close the Gap” programPractical