Presentation on theme: "Transnational Organized Crime"— Presentation transcript:
1 Transnational Organized Crime The UNODC-WCO Container Control ProgrammeTransnational Organized Crime
2 Criminal Markets Illicit trafficking Trafficking in Stolen Vehicles, global more than records of reported stolen motor vehicles.Tobacco SmugglingIllicit Firearms TraffickingIllegal trafficking in flora and fauna and wasteCrimes against personsIrregular migrantsTrafficking in Human Beings (THB)Exploitation of childrenIllicit traffickingTrafficking in Stolen Vehiclesglobally more 3 million records of reported stolen motor vehicles1.3 million vehicles are currently stolen each year in the EU;Tobacco SmugglingIllicit Firearms Traffickingsome 600 million firearms in circulation, or one weapon for every twelve peopleIllegal trafficking in flora and fauna and wasteGlobally, environmental crime accounts for an estimated US$ billion annually.Crimes against personsIrregular migrantsThere are roughly 30 to 40 million unauthorized migrants worldwide, comprising around 15 to 20 percent of the world's immigrant stockTrafficking in Human Beings (THB)UN Database on THB documents the trafficking of human beings from 127 countries to be exploited in 137 countriesExploitation of children
3 Pharmaceuticals, classified as drugs Drug precursors Drugs and precursorsCocaineHeroinSynthetic DrugsCannabisPharmaceuticals, classified as drugsDrug precursors Financial Crime and other crimes against propertyMoney LaunderingSwindling and FraudCounterfeiting and ForgeryOrganised Robberies, Burglaries and TheftTheft of cultural goodsDrugsCocaineHeroinSynthetic DrugsCannabisPharmaceuticals, classified as drugsFinancial Crime and other crimes against propertyMoney Laundering2 to 5 percent of global GDPSwindling and FraudCounterfeiting and ForgeryOrganised Robberies, Burglaries and TheftTheft of cultural goodsInterpol estimates that art theft is the fourth largest criminal activity after drugs, money laundering and illegal arms trading.only 5 % of stolen arts recoveredInterpol estimates that art theft is the fourth largest criminal activity after drugs, money laundering and illegal arms trading. Only 5 % of stolen arts recovered.
4 TOC New players Traditional forms of TOC Heroine and cocaine traffickingExtortionHuman traffickingMigrant smugglingFirearms traffickingMoney laundering(Re-)emerging forms of TOCTrafficking in fraudulent medicineNatural resource traffickingGlobal environmental crime, worth up to USD 213 billion each year according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and INTERPOL. (report June 2014)Counterfeit goods traffickingCultural property traffickingPiracyCybercrime ( computer hacking, computer fraud or forgery (identity theft)New playersISlide 2: TOC is diverseIn addition to the traditional forms of TOC, the ability to make a profit in new or re-emerging forms of organized crime has led organized criminal groups particularly to areas where there is market demand. The production and trafficking of fraudulent medicine is just one of these forms of crimes. The international community struggles to keep up with new actors and new means, such as the internet.n addition to the traditional forms of TOC, the ability to make a profit in new or re-emerging forms of organized crime has led organized criminal groups particularly to areas where there is market demandThose that have gained particular attention:Trafficking in fraudulent medicinesTrafficking in natural resources: which encompasses two major subheadings. (1) Crime related to pollution, particularly, dumping of hazardous waste and (2) illicit harvesting of natural resources, including threatened species of animals, fish and timber.Trafficking of counterfeit goods :Trafficking in fraudulent medicines:Trafficking in cultural property: has seen an increasing involvement of organized criminal groups. The crime covers stealing and looting of archaeological sites and the illicit the import, export or transfer of ownership of cultural property.Marine piracy:. Encompassing offences of (1) robbery or hijacking where the target is a maritime vessel or its cargo and (2) kidnapping for ransom, where the object of attack is the crew. The acts of piracy that have been occurring off the coast of Somalia have been mostly of the latter form, being carried out against commercial freighters or pleasure crafts.Cybercrime: which covers a broad range of offences including computer hacking, computer fraud or forgery (identity theft) and content offences (dissemination of child pornography)
5 Selected Transnational Organized Crime Flows TOC: GlobalSelected Transnational Organized Crime FlowsSlide 1: In 2010, UNODC published a report on the Globalization of Crime and this chart illustrates the point thatCrime has grown along with globalization and advances in transport and technology. More importantly, crime ,follows market demand for illicit products and is drawn to regions and countries with weak enforcement and rule of law.Most TOC flows begin on one continent and end on another, often by means of a third, so only interventions at the scale of the problem – global – are likely to have a sustained effect.- The Globalization of Crime, UNODC 2010
7 Main global cocaine flows Since 1998, US down, Europe up, but stable
8 Main global methamphetamine flows Since 1998, US down, Europe up, but stable
9 Responding to TOC An effective response must be UNTOC’s contribution: Global, integrated and coordinatedStrategic: including policy and operations in combating TOCComprehensive: Addressing all aspects of the “value chain”UNTOC’s contribution:Facilitation of regional and international cooperationFacilitation of legitimate trade, coordination and communication between actorsOffer tools that are flexible, practical and effectiveSlide 4: How should we respond?An effective response must beGlobal, integrated and coordinatedStrategic: including policy and operations in combating TOCComprehensive: Addressing all aspects of the “value chain”Facilitate regional and international cooperationFacilitate coordination and communication between actorsOffer tools that are flexible, practical and effective
10 UNODC ObjectivesTo assist the UN in issues of:illicit trafficking in and abuse of drugs;crime prevention and criminal justice;international terrorism;corruption.
11 UNODC MandateThe United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs, transnational organized crime, terrorism and corruption, and is the guardian of most of the related conventions, particularly:The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three protocols (against trafficking in persons, smuggling of migrants and trafficking in firearms);The United Nations Convention against Corruption;The international drug control conventions.Palermo convention – into forceSmuggling of Migrants protocol into forceHuman trafficking protocol into forceFirearms protocol – signatories 52 / parties 18.
12 Overview The three pillars of UNODC’s work are: Research and analytical work;Normative work; andField-based technical cooperation projects.The three pillars of UNODC’s work are:• Research and analytical work to increase knowledge and understanding of drugs and crime issues and expand the evidence basefor policy and operational decisions;• Normative work to assist States in the ratification and implementation of the international treaties, the development of domestic legislation on drugs, crime and terrorism, and the provision of secretariat and substantive services to the treaty-based and governing bodies; and• Field-based technical cooperation projects to enhance the capacity of Member States to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism.
13 Success story of the UNODC-WCO Container Control Programme UNODC-WCO Container Control Programme (CCP) expanded to 9 geographical regions.20 countries have fully operational Port Control Units (50 Ports participate).In 30 countries, the Programme is engaging with relevant authorities to establish Port Control Units and deliver tailor-made training.In 2013, 56 training workshops, study tours and mentorships took place.553 Enforcement officials from different Enforcement Agencies were trained.Results of the programme in 2013: kg cocaine, 6422 kg cannabis,1277 kg heroin, 60,883 kg tramadol and 725 kg ivory.Large quantities of counterfeit goods (119 containers detained), medicines, cigarettes, stolen cars and e-waste were also seized in 2013.There was a significant increase in seized illicit goods in 2013 compared to the year 2012.East Africa, West Africa, North Africa and Middle East, Latin America, South Asia, Central Asia, Europe, Black Sea
16 UNODC-WCO CCP Objectives Establishment of Container Profiling Units to identify high-risk containers;Risk management based controls;Enhanced Partnership with the Private Sector to facilitate legal trade.Less than 2%inspected
17 Participating Enforcement Agencies in the Joint Port Control Unit CustomsMinistry of Transport (Port Authority)PoliceNational Security AgenciesOther Enforcement Agencies
18 Sustainability Elements Formal Agreements between Government and UNODC;Technical Needs Assessments;Inter-agency agreements;WCO ContainerCOMM – global secure information sharing.
19 Available in several languages WCO ContainerCOMMThree types of messages:Warning;Feedback;Seizure.Available in several languages19
21 Risk management based profiling techniques Risk Analysis (targeting)– Commercial Cargo Documents Advanced information from cargo manifests/ Bill of Lading (pre-arrival , pre-departure phase);Entry including transhipments and export.Customs declarationsProactive use of electronic Cargo Data Systems;Effective use of WCO tools and open sources;Active cooperation with the private sector.
22 Some facts since start of the CCP Programme to date Cocaine:90000 kg seizedHeroin:2550 kg seizedPrecursor Chemicals:1240 metric tonsCannabis:55 metric tons22
23 Counterfeit goods: In total More than 300 containers detained by the Port Control Units23
25 Future StrategyGlobal expansion of WCO ContainerCOMM to ports outside the CCP to enhance port-to-port communication;Intensified use of WCO Regional Training Centers, and WCO tools such as the WCO Cargo targeting SystemExpanding the programme to the Air cargo sector ( in preparation);Expanding CCP in Asia, East and North Africa;Facilitation/accreditation of trainers;Private sector cooperation;Anti - Corruption – Human Rights;Connecting prosecutors – Latin America and Europe;Basic evidence handling;
26 THANK YOUFor further information: Nicole Maric Crime Prevention Expert Tel:For further information concerning the UNODC-WCO Container Control Programme: Norbert Steilen WCO Programme manager CCP