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Ch. 19: Using Pronouns Correctly 604-627. Case  Case is the FORM that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 19: Using Pronouns Correctly 604-627. Case  Case is the FORM that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 19: Using Pronouns Correctly

2 Case  Case is the FORM that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence.  English has three cases:  Nominative (subject)  OBJECTIVE  Possessive

3 Noun cases  Noun forms are the same for nominative and objective cases.  NOM: The cannibal bit my arm off.  OBJ: I shot the cannibal.  Nouns change form in the possessive case by adding an apostrophe.  POSS: I toilet papered the cannibal’s house again.

4 Pronoun cases  Pronouns change forms more often.  NOM:We slept in Mr. Flint’s class.  She and Irving slept past the bell  OBJ:Mr. Flint tried to wake US up.  He kicked Irving and HER.  POSS:Mr. Flint collected OUR work.  He put HER work in the trash.

5 Case forms tell you:  Number – singular or plural  Person – 1 st, 2 nd or 3 rd  Gender – Masculine, feminine or neuter

6 The Nominative Case (subjects & predicate nominatives)  SINGULAR  1 st I  2 nd you  3 rd he, she, it  PLURAL  1 st we  2 nd you  3 rd they

7 Subjects & Predicate Nominatives…  are always in the NOMINATIVE form.  HE AND I will cut your car in half.  Mr. Flint said that I should leave.  The one with the highest grade is SHE.  It was I who made the comment.

8 608: Exercise 1

9 The Objective Case (DO, IO, & objects of prepositions)  SINGULAR  1 st ME  2 nd you  3 rd him, her, it  PLURAL  1 st us  2 nd you  3 rd THEM

10 Direct objects, Indirect objects and Objects of prepositions…  are always in the OBJECTIVE form.  My English teacher robbed ME.  He talks about giving THEM my money.  Let’s pull a prank on Irving and HER.  Did you go with Irving and HIM to see the Justin Beiber movie?

11 611: Exercise 2

12 611: Exercise 3

13 612: Review A

14 The Possessive Case  SINGULAR  1 st my, MINE  2 nd your, yours  3 rd his, her, HERS, its  PLURAL  1 st our, ours  2 nd your, yours  3 rd THEIR, theirs

15 Some are used as pronouns  Pronouns REPLACE nouns or other pronouns.  Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs  Your car and MINE were stolen again.  We stole HIS yesterday.  Compared to YOURS, my dog smells good.

16 Some are used as adjectives  Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.  (These are still pronouns – they replace people’s names – but they are also used to modify a noun/pronoun in the sentence)  MY car is gone!  HIS first attempt at robbery failed.  Do you remember OUR secret handshake?

17 Gerunds  A noun or pronoun that precedes a gerund should be in the possessive case.  Remember: a gerund is:  Verb form  Ends in –ing  Functions as a noun (it’s a thing)  You can replace it with IT

18 Gerund examples  THEIR winning led to a celebration.  Winning is a thing; it is the subject.  IT led to a celebration.  My parents objected to MY working late.  They didn’t object to ME.  They objected to IT – working.  We were thrilled by Irving’s scoring in the top 10.

19 Present participles  Don’t confuse gerunds with present participles.  Present participles  Are verb forms  End in –ing  But do not function as nouns (they aren’t things)  They can’t be replaced by IT

20 Present participle examples  We found him sitting on a bench.  We found HIM. We didn’t find SITTING.  ‘Sitting’ is not a thing. ‘Sitting’ describes a thing: ‘him.’  He didn’t see the dodge ball until he felt it colliding with his face.  He didn’t feel ‘colliding.’ He felt IT.  ‘Colliding’ is not a thing. ‘Colliding’ describes the ball.

21 614: Exercise 4

22 Appositives  An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to IDENTIFY or describe it.  An easy way to remember this: appositives ADD information (positive +)  A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same CASE as the word it identifies

23 Appositive examples  My best friends, Irving and HE, robbed me yesterday.  “Irving and he” identifies my best friends, the subjects. So HE is in the nominative (SUBJECT) case.  My dad paid the two guys, Irving and HIM, to get my stuff back.  “Irving and him” identifies the two guys, the direct objects. So HIM is in the objective case.

24 We/Us with appositives

25 615: Exercise 5

26 Pronouns in elliptical constructions  An elliptical construction is a word group from which words are MISSING.  We use these when making comparisons.  These usually begin with THAN or AS.  I can read as fast as you (can).  See how CAN is missing? That’s what makes this an elliptical construction.

27 Elliptical constructions  A pronoun in an elliptical construction is the same CASE as it would be if the construction were completed.  Most of us would say:  I run as fast as him.  But complete the construction by adding the VERB from the beginning of the comparison:  I run as fast as him runs ???  Correct: I run as fast as he runs.  I run as fast as HE.

28 More ellipticals  Irving is a better robber than ______  He IS a better robber than I AM.  Even my dog is smarter than ____  My dog is smarter than HE IS.  Irving has as much money as ____  He has as much money as WE HAVE.

29 Different cases, different meanings  Dan misses New York as much as her.  Verb = misses. Put that after “as.”  Dan misses NY as much as (he) misses her.  Dan misses New York as much as she.  Verb = misses.  Dan misses NY as much as she misses (it).  Or “as much as she does.”

30 Another example  Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as I?  Verb = pay.  Did he pay you as much as I paid (you)?  Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as me?  Verb = pay.  Did he pay you as much as (he) paid me?

31 616: Exercise 6

32 Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns  SINGULAR  1 st myself  2 nd yourself  3 rd himself, HERSELF, itself  PLURAL  1 st ourselves  2 nd yourselves  3 rd THEMSELVES

33 Reflexive Pronouns Review  Reflexives refer to the subject of a verb and function as a complement (DO, IO, OC, PN, PA) or an object of a preposition.  Bill is not himself today. (PN)  I hurt myself. (DO)  Give yourself a pat on the back. (IO)  She would rather be by herself. (OP)

34 Intensive Pronouns Review  An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and has no grammatical function in the sentence.  My dad and I restored the car ourselves.  We didn’t restore ourselves.  Rather than forcing an underling to do it, I myself did the dirty work.

35 -self & -selves pronouns must refer to something in the sentence  Irving and myself robbed another bank.  Myself doesn’t refer to anything in the sentence.  Correct: Irving and I robbed another bank.  “How are you?” “OK. How about yourself?”  Yourself doesn’t refer to anything.  Correct: “How about you?”  Give these to Mr. Flint or (myself/me).

36 618: Exercise 7

37 Who and Whom  These are different cases.  Nominative:WHOwhoever  Objective:whomwhomever  Possessive:whoseWHOSEVER  So “who” is for subjects and PNs  “Whom” is for DO, IO, OP

38 Mr. Bulgrien’s method  Nominative (subject) forms:  Singular: HEWHO(whoever)  Plural:theywho(whoever)  Notice how they sound familiar.  Objective forms:  Singular: HIMWHOM(whomever)  Plural: THEMwhom(whomever)  They sound familiar and have Ms.  Possessive forms:  Singular: HISWHOSE(whosever)  Plural:Theirwhose(whosever)  They sound familiar and have Ss.

39 How it works  When you have or need Who/Whom in a sentence:  1. Find the verb after it.  2. Put the subject of that verb first.  3. Try plugging in HE or HIM where you need who or whom.  4. If HE works, use WHO. If him works, use whom.

40 Who/Whom examples  Who did you get to take care of your cats?  Verb = did get.Subject of that: YOU.  Put subject first and plug in he/him.  You did get (him) to take care of your cats?  So it should be “WHOM did you get…”  Whom gave us that stolen money?  V = gave.Subject = … not sure?  Plug in he/him  HE gave us that stolen money?  So it should be “WHO gave us…”

41 Try these  _____ did the expert recommend?  _____ took my Doritos?  You were arrested by ____?  The prize will go to ____-ever robs the most banks.  Yes, I am the one ____ cut your car in half.  ____ do you think will win the Super Bowl?  Irving is ____ I think will be valedictorian.

42 621: Exercise 8

43 621: Review B

44 623: Review C

45 623 Review D


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