2 CaseCase is the FORM that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence.English has three cases:Nominative (subject)OBJECTIVEPossessive
3 Noun cases Noun forms are the same for nominative and objective cases. NOM: The cannibal bit my arm off.OBJ: I shot the cannibal.Nouns change form in the possessive case by adding an apostrophe.POSS: I toilet papered the cannibal’s house again.
4 Pronoun cases Pronouns change forms more often. NOM: We slept in Mr. Flint’s class.She and Irving slept past the bellOBJ: Mr. Flint tried to wake US up.He kicked Irving and HER.POSS: Mr. Flint collected OUR work.He put HER work in the trash.
5 Case forms tell you: Number – singular or plural Person – 1st, 2nd or 3rdGender – Masculine, feminine or neuter
6 The Nominative Case (subjects & predicate nominatives) SINGULAR1st I2nd you3rd he, she, itPLURAL1st we3rd they
7 Subjects & Predicate Nominatives… are always in the NOMINATIVE form.HE AND I will cut your car in half.Mr. Flint said that I should leave.The one with the highest grade is SHE.It was I who made the comment.
9 The Objective Case (DO, IO, & objects of prepositions) SINGULAR1st ME2nd you3rd him, her, itPLURAL1st us3rd THEM
10 Direct objects, Indirect objects and Objects of prepositions… are always in the OBJECTIVE form.My English teacher robbed ME.He talks about giving THEM my money.Let’s pull a prank on Irving and HER.Did you go with Irving and HIM to see the Justin Beiber movie?
14 The Possessive Case SINGULAR 1st my, MINE 2nd your, yours 3rd his, her, HERS, itsPLURAL1st our, ours3rd THEIR, theirs
15 Some are used as pronouns Pronouns REPLACE nouns or other pronouns.Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirsYour car and MINE were stolen again.We stole HIS yesterday.Compared to YOURS, my dog smells good.
16 Some are used as adjectives Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.(These are still pronouns – they replace people’s names – but they are also used to modify a noun/pronoun in the sentence)MY car is gone!HIS first attempt at robbery failed.Do you remember OUR secret handshake?
17 GerundsA noun or pronoun that precedes a gerund should be in the possessive case.Remember: a gerund is:Verb formEnds in –ingFunctions as a noun (it’s a thing)You can replace it with IT
18 Gerund examples THEIR winning led to a celebration. Winning is a thing; it is the subject.IT led to a celebration.My parents objected to MY working late.They didn’t object to ME.They objected to IT – working.We were thrilled by Irving’s scoring in the top 10.
19 Present participles Don’t confuse gerunds with present participles. Are verb formsEnd in –ingBut do not function as nouns (they aren’t things)They can’t be replaced by IT
20 Present participle examples We found him sitting on a bench.We found HIM. We didn’t find SITTING.‘Sitting’ is not a thing. ‘Sitting’ describes a thing: ‘him.’He didn’t see the dodge ball until he felt it colliding with his face.He didn’t feel ‘colliding.’ He felt IT.‘Colliding’ is not a thing. ‘Colliding’ describes the ball.
22 AppositivesAn appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to IDENTIFY or describe it.An easy way to remember this: appositives ADD information (positive +)A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same CASE as the word it identifies
23 Appositive examplesMy best friends, Irving and HE, robbed me yesterday.“Irving and he” identifies my best friends, the subjects. So HE is in the nominative (SUBJECT) case.My dad paid the two guys, Irving and HIM, to get my stuff back.“Irving and him” identifies the two guys, the direct objects. So HIM is in the objective case.
24 We/Us with appositives When these have appositives, try each form without the appositive to see which case to use.(We, Us) students learned many interesting things.The counselor talked to (we, us) students.
26 Pronouns in elliptical constructions An elliptical construction is a word group from which words are MISSING.We use these when making comparisons.These usually begin with THAN or AS.I can read as fast as you (can).See how CAN is missing? That’s what makes this an elliptical construction.
27 Elliptical constructions A pronoun in an elliptical construction is the same CASE as it would be if the construction were completed.Most of us would say:I run as fast as him.But complete the construction by adding the VERB from the beginning of the comparison:I run as fast as him runs ???Correct: I run as fast as he runs.I run as fast as HE.
28 More ellipticals Irving is a better robber than ______ He IS a better robber than I AM.Even my dog is smarter than ____My dog is smarter than HE IS.Irving has as much money as ____He has as much money as WE HAVE.
29 Different cases, different meanings Dan misses New York as much as her.Verb = misses. Put that after “as.”Dan misses NY as much as (he) misses her.Dan misses New York as much as she.Verb = misses.Dan misses NY as much as she misses (it).Or “as much as she does.”
30 Another example Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as I? Verb = pay.Did he pay you as much as I paid (you)?Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as me?Did he pay you as much as (he) paid me?
33 Reflexive Pronouns Review Reflexives refer to the subject of a verb and function as a complement (DO, IO, OC, PN, PA) or an object of a preposition.Bill is not himself today. (PN)I hurt myself. (DO)Give yourself a pat on the back. (IO)She would rather be by herself. (OP)
34 Intensive Pronouns Review An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and has no grammatical function in the sentence.My dad and I restored the car ourselves.We didn’t restore ourselves.Rather than forcing an underling to do it, I myself did the dirty work.
35 -self & -selves pronouns must refer to something in the sentence Irving and myself robbed another bank.Myself doesn’t refer to anything in the sentence.Correct: Irving and I robbed another bank.“How are you?” “OK. How about yourself?”Yourself doesn’t refer to anything.Correct: “How about you?”Give these to Mr. Flint or (myself/me).
37 Who and Whom These are different cases. Nominative: WHO whoever Objective: whom whomeverPossessive: whose WHOSEVERSo “who” is for subjects and PNs“Whom” is for DO, IO, OP
38 Mr. Bulgrien’s method Nominative (subject) forms: Objective forms: Singular: HE WHO (whoever)Plural: they who (whoever)Notice how they sound familiar.Objective forms:Singular: HIM WHOM (whomever)Plural: THEM whom (whomever)They sound familiar and have Ms.Possessive forms:Singular: HIS WHOSE (whosever)Plural: Their whose (whosever)They sound familiar and have Ss.
39 How it works When you have or need Who/Whom in a sentence: 1. Find the verb after it.2. Put the subject of that verb first.3. Try plugging in HE or HIM where you need who or whom.4. If HE works, use WHO. If him works, use whom.
40 Who/Whom examples Who did you get to take care of your cats? Verb = did get. Subject of that: YOU.Put subject first and plug in he/him.You did get (him) to take care of your cats?So it should be “WHOM did you get…”Whom gave us that stolen money?V = gave. Subject = … not sure?Plug in he/him HE gave us that stolen money?So it should be “WHO gave us…”
41 Try these _____ did the expert recommend? _____ took my Doritos? You were arrested by ____?The prize will go to ____-ever robs the most banks.Yes, I am the one ____ cut your car in half.____ do you think will win the Super Bowl?Irving is ____ I think will be valedictorian.