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Ch. 19: Using Pronouns Correctly

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1 Ch. 19: Using Pronouns Correctly

2 Case Case is the FORM that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence. English has three cases: Nominative (subject) OBJECTIVE Possessive

3 Noun cases Noun forms are the same for nominative and objective cases.
NOM: The cannibal bit my arm off. OBJ: I shot the cannibal. Nouns change form in the possessive case by adding an apostrophe. POSS: I toilet papered the cannibal’s house again.

4 Pronoun cases Pronouns change forms more often.
NOM: We slept in Mr. Flint’s class. She and Irving slept past the bell OBJ: Mr. Flint tried to wake US up. He kicked Irving and HER. POSS: Mr. Flint collected OUR work. He put HER work in the trash.

5 Case forms tell you: Number – singular or plural
Person – 1st, 2nd or 3rd Gender – Masculine, feminine or neuter

6 The Nominative Case (subjects & predicate nominatives)
SINGULAR 1st I 2nd you 3rd he, she, it PLURAL 1st we 3rd they

7 Subjects & Predicate Nominatives…
are always in the NOMINATIVE form. HE AND I will cut your car in half. Mr. Flint said that I should leave. The one with the highest grade is SHE. It was I who made the comment.

8 608: Exercise 1

9 The Objective Case (DO, IO, & objects of prepositions)
SINGULAR 1st ME 2nd you 3rd him, her, it PLURAL 1st us 3rd THEM

10 Direct objects, Indirect objects and Objects of prepositions…
are always in the OBJECTIVE form. My English teacher robbed ME. He talks about giving THEM my money. Let’s pull a prank on Irving and HER. Did you go with Irving and HIM to see the Justin Beiber movie?

11 611: Exercise 2

12 611: Exercise 3

13 612: Review A

14 The Possessive Case SINGULAR 1st my, MINE 2nd your, yours
3rd his, her, HERS, its PLURAL 1st our, ours 3rd THEIR, theirs

15 Some are used as pronouns
Pronouns REPLACE nouns or other pronouns. Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs Your car and MINE were stolen again. We stole HIS yesterday. Compared to YOURS, my dog smells good.

16 Some are used as adjectives
Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. (These are still pronouns – they replace people’s names – but they are also used to modify a noun/pronoun in the sentence) MY car is gone! HIS first attempt at robbery failed. Do you remember OUR secret handshake?

17 Gerunds A noun or pronoun that precedes a gerund should be in the possessive case. Remember: a gerund is: Verb form Ends in –ing Functions as a noun (it’s a thing) You can replace it with IT

18 Gerund examples THEIR winning led to a celebration.
Winning is a thing; it is the subject. IT led to a celebration. My parents objected to MY working late. They didn’t object to ME. They objected to IT – working. We were thrilled by Irving’s scoring in the top 10.

19 Present participles Don’t confuse gerunds with present participles.
Are verb forms End in –ing But do not function as nouns (they aren’t things) They can’t be replaced by IT

20 Present participle examples
We found him sitting on a bench. We found HIM. We didn’t find SITTING. ‘Sitting’ is not a thing. ‘Sitting’ describes a thing: ‘him.’ He didn’t see the dodge ball until he felt it colliding with his face. He didn’t feel ‘colliding.’ He felt IT. ‘Colliding’ is not a thing. ‘Colliding’ describes the ball.

21 614: Exercise 4

22 Appositives An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to IDENTIFY or describe it. An easy way to remember this: appositives ADD information (positive +) A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same CASE as the word it identifies

23 Appositive examples My best friends, Irving and HE, robbed me yesterday. “Irving and he” identifies my best friends, the subjects. So HE is in the nominative (SUBJECT) case. My dad paid the two guys, Irving and HIM, to get my stuff back. “Irving and him” identifies the two guys, the direct objects. So HIM is in the objective case.

24 We/Us with appositives
When these have appositives, try each form without the appositive to see which case to use. (We, Us) students learned many interesting things. The counselor talked to (we, us) students.

25 615: Exercise 5

26 Pronouns in elliptical constructions
An elliptical construction is a word group from which words are MISSING. We use these when making comparisons. These usually begin with THAN or AS. I can read as fast as you (can). See how CAN is missing? That’s what makes this an elliptical construction.

27 Elliptical constructions
A pronoun in an elliptical construction is the same CASE as it would be if the construction were completed. Most of us would say: I run as fast as him. But complete the construction by adding the VERB from the beginning of the comparison: I run as fast as him runs ??? Correct: I run as fast as he runs. I run as fast as HE.

28 More ellipticals Irving is a better robber than ______
He IS a better robber than I AM. Even my dog is smarter than ____ My dog is smarter than HE IS. Irving has as much money as ____ He has as much money as WE HAVE.

29 Different cases, different meanings
Dan misses New York as much as her. Verb = misses. Put that after “as.” Dan misses NY as much as (he) misses her. Dan misses New York as much as she. Verb = misses. Dan misses NY as much as she misses (it). Or “as much as she does.”

30 Another example Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as I?
Verb = pay. Did he pay you as much as I paid (you)? Did Mr. Flint pay you as much as me? Did he pay you as much as (he) paid me?

31 616: Exercise 6

32 Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
SINGULAR 1st myself 2nd yourself 3rd himself, HERSELF, itself PLURAL 1st ourselves 2nd yourselves 3rd THEMSELVES

33 Reflexive Pronouns Review
Reflexives refer to the subject of a verb and function as a complement (DO, IO, OC, PN, PA) or an object of a preposition. Bill is not himself today. (PN) I hurt myself. (DO) Give yourself a pat on the back. (IO) She would rather be by herself. (OP)

34 Intensive Pronouns Review
An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and has no grammatical function in the sentence. My dad and I restored the car ourselves. We didn’t restore ourselves. Rather than forcing an underling to do it, I myself did the dirty work.

35 -self & -selves pronouns must refer to something in the sentence
Irving and myself robbed another bank. Myself doesn’t refer to anything in the sentence. Correct: Irving and I robbed another bank. “How are you?” “OK. How about yourself?” Yourself doesn’t refer to anything. Correct: “How about you?” Give these to Mr. Flint or (myself/me).

36 618: Exercise 7

37 Who and Whom These are different cases. Nominative: WHO whoever
Objective: whom whomever Possessive: whose WHOSEVER So “who” is for subjects and PNs “Whom” is for DO, IO, OP

38 Mr. Bulgrien’s method Nominative (subject) forms: Objective forms:
Singular: HE WHO (whoever) Plural: they who (whoever) Notice how they sound familiar. Objective forms: Singular: HIM WHOM (whomever) Plural: THEM whom (whomever) They sound familiar and have Ms. Possessive forms: Singular: HIS WHOSE (whosever) Plural: Their whose (whosever) They sound familiar and have Ss.

39 How it works When you have or need Who/Whom in a sentence:
1. Find the verb after it. 2. Put the subject of that verb first. 3. Try plugging in HE or HIM where you need who or whom. 4. If HE works, use WHO. If him works, use whom.

40 Who/Whom examples Who did you get to take care of your cats?
Verb = did get. Subject of that: YOU. Put subject first and plug in he/him. You did get (him) to take care of your cats? So it should be “WHOM did you get…” Whom gave us that stolen money? V = gave. Subject = … not sure? Plug in he/him  HE gave us that stolen money? So it should be “WHO gave us…”

41 Try these _____ did the expert recommend? _____ took my Doritos?
You were arrested by ____? The prize will go to ____-ever robs the most banks. Yes, I am the one ____ cut your car in half. ____ do you think will win the Super Bowl? Irving is ____ I think will be valedictorian.

42 621: Exercise 8

43 621: Review B

44 623: Review C

45 623 Review D

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