Presentation on theme: "STRUCTURALISM: MORAL DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1STRUCTURALISM: MORAL DEVELOPMENT QUESTION: WHERE DOES NOVELTY COME FROM?HOW DOES A CHILD DEVELOP A SYSTEM OF MORALS?
2THREE METAPHORS FOR ANSWERS TO THE QUESTION CHILD BORN GOODROUSSEAUROLE OF SOCIETY: DON’T CORRUPTCHILD BORN EVILORIGINAL SINFREUDROLE OF SOCIETY: PUT CONTROLS ON CHILDCHILD BORN NEUTRALSKINNERROLE OF SOCIETY: PROVIDE POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT THAT GETS INTERNALIZED
4STRUCTURALIST APPROACH TO MORAL DEVELOPMENT WHAT ARE THE BASIC TENETS OF THE STRUCTURALIS APPROACH?
5STRUCTURALIST APPROACH TO MORAL DEVELOPMENT UNIVERSAL DEVELOPMENTINVARIANT SEQUENCE OF STRUCTURESQUALITATIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STRUCTURES
6STRUCTURALIST APPROACH TO MORAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM WITH UNIVERSAL MORAL DEVELOPMENT?ENORMOUS DIVERSITYWHERE IS UNIVERSALITY?
7STRUCTURALIST APPROACH TO MORAL DEVELOPMENT KOHLBERG ARGUES THAT THERE ARE 25 UNIVERSAL ASPECTS TO MORAL JUDGMENTSCOMMON TO ALL CULTURESPROPERTY RIGHTSPUNISHMENTCONSIDERING MOTIVES IN JUDGING ACTIONSCONSIDERING CONSEQUENCES IN JUDGING ACTIONSCONTRACT
8METHODOLOGY GIVE A PERSON A HYPOTHETICAL SITUATION IN STORY FORM STORY CONTAINS A MORAL DILEMMAASK THE PERSON TO JUDGE ANOTHER’S ACTIONS (JUDGMENT)ASK THE PERSON TO JUSTIFY HIS/HER JUDGMENTWHY DO YOU THINK …?
9METHODOLOGYPEOPLE’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE IS DETERMINED BY THEIR JUSTIFICATIONS
10EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY HYPOTHETICAL SITUATION:In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get together about half of what it cost.
11EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY HYPOTHETICAL SITUATION (continued)He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay it later. But the druggist said, “no.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.
12EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY MORAL DILEMMA: STEALING VERSUS SAVING A LIFEJUDGMENT: SHOULD THE HUSBAND HAVE STOLEN?JUSTIFICATION: WHY DO YOU THINK HE SHOULD HAVE/SHOULD NOT HAVE STOLEN?
13EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY IF KOHLBERG BASED HIS STAGE ANALYSIS ON JUDGMENTS, THERE WOULD BE TWO STAGESYES STEALNO STEALINGKOHLBERG BASED STAGE ANALYSIS ON PEOPLE’S JUSTIFICATIONSPEOPLE AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT COULD GIVE THE SAME JUDGMENT BUT JUSTIFY IT WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL JUSTIFICATIONS
14LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING THREE LEVELS AND SIX STAGESLEVEL 1STAGE 1STAGE 2LEVEL 2STAGE 3STAGE 4LEVEL 3STAGE 5STAGE 6
15LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 1 LEVEL 1: MORAL VALUE RESIDES IN EXTERNAL EVENTS OR PHYSICAL NEEDS RATHER THAN IN PEOPLE AND STANDARDSSTAGE 1: ORIENTATION TO OBEDIENCE AND PUNISHMENTDEFERENCE TO SUPERIOR POWER OR PRESTIGEAVOID TROUBLE SO AS NOT TO BE IN A POSITION WHERE YOU CAN BE PUNISHEDRESPONSIBILITY IN OBJECTIVE SITUATION (RESULTS) NOT IN SUBJECTIVE INTENTIONS
16LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 1 TYPICAL STAGE 1 JUSTIFICATIONS, RELATING TO ACTION MOTIVATED BY AVOIDANCE OF PUNISHMENTPRO: If you let your wife die, you will get into trouble. You’ll be blamed for not spending your money to save her and there will be an investigation of you and the druggist for your wife’s death.CON: You should not steal the drug because you’ll be caught and sent to jail if you do. If you do get away, your conscience would bother you thinking how the police would catch you at any minute.
17LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 2 STAGE 2: NAIVELY EGOISTIC ORIENTATIONCORRECT ACTION TO TAKE IS ONE THAT SERVES ONE’S NEEDS AND OCCASIONALLY OTHERS’SOME AWARENESS OFRELATIVITY OF VALUESEACH PERSON’S NEEDSOTHERS’ PERSPECTIVESQUASI-EGALITARIANISM AND ORIENTATION TO EXCHANGE AND RECIPROCITY
18LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 2 TYPICAL STAGE 2 JUSTIFICATIONS, RELATING TO ACTION MOTIVATED BY DESIRE FOR REWARD OR BENEFIT. POSSIBLE GUILT REACTIONS ARE IGNORED AND PUNISHMENT IS VIEWED IN A PRAGMATIC MANNER. DIFFERENTIATES OWN FEAR, PLEASURE, OR PAIN FROM PUNISHMENT-CONSEQUENCESPRO: If you do happen to get caught you could give the drug back and you wouldn’t get much of a sentence. It wouldn’t bother you much to serve a little jail term if you have your wife when you get out.CON: He may not get much of a jail term if steals the drug, but his wife will probably die before he gets out so it won’t do him much good. If his wife dies, he shouldn’t blame himself. It wasn’t his fault that she has cancer.
19LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 3 MORAL VALUES RESIDING INPERFORMANCE OF GOOD AND RIGHT ROLESMAINTAINING THE CONVENTIONAL ORDERMAINTAINING EXPECTANCIES OF OTHERSSTAGE 3: GOOD BOY ORIENTATIONORIENTATION TO APPROVAL AND PLEASING AND HELPING OTHERSCONFORMITY TO STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES OF THE MAJORITYJUDGMENTS MADE ACCORDING TO INTENTIONS
20LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 3 TYPICAL JUSTIFICATION OF STAGE 3 INDIVIDUALS WHERE ACTION IS MOTIVATED BY DISAPPROVAL OF OTHERS, ACTUAL OR HYPOTHETICAL (GUILT)THERE IS A DIFFERENTIATION OF DISAPPROVAL FROM PUNISHMENT, FEAR, OR PAIN
21LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 3 PRO: Nobody will think you’re bad if you steal the drug but your family will think you’re an inhuman husband if you don’t. If you let your wife die, you’ll never be able to look anybody in the face again.CON: It isn’t just the druggist who will think you are a criminal, everyone else will, too. After you steal it, you’ll feel bad thinking about how you’ve brought dishonor on your family and yourself. You won’t be able to face anyone again.
22LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 4 STAGE 4: AUTHORITY AND SOCIAL ORDER MAINTAINING ORIENTATIONORIENTATION TO DOING ONE’S DUTY AND TO SHOW RESPECT FOR AUTHORITYMAINTAINING THE SOCIAL ORDER FOR ITS OWN SAKEREGARD FOR EARNED EXPECTATIONS OF OTHERS
23LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 4 TYPICAL JUSTIFICATIONS FOR STAGE 4, WHERE ACTION IS MOTIVATED BYANTICIPATION OF DISHONORINSTITUTIONAL BLAME FOR FAILURE OF DUTYGUILT OVER CONCRETE HARM DONE TO OTHERSDIFFERENTIATES FORMAL DISHONOR FROM INFORMAL DISAPPROVALDIFFERENTIATES GUILT FOR BAD CONSEQUENCES FROM DISAPPROVAL
24LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 4 PRO: If you have any sense of honor, you won’t let your wife die because you’re afraid to do the only thing that will save her. You’ll always feel guilty that you caused her death if you don’t do your duty to her.CON: You’re desperate and you may not know you’re doing wrong when you steal the drug. But you’ll know you did wrong after you’re punished and sent to jail. You’ll always feel guilty for your dishonesty and lawbreaking
25LEVEL 3LEVEL 3 HAS MORAL VALUES RESIDING IN CONFORMITY BY THE SELF TO SHARED OR SHAREABLE STANDARDS, RIGHTS, OR DUTIES
26LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 5 STAGE 5: CONTRACTUAL, LEGALISTIC ORIENTATIONRECOGNITION OF ARBITRARY ELEMENT OR STARTING POINT IN RULES OR EXPECTATIONS FOR THE SAKE OF AGREEMENTDUTY DEFINED IN TERMS OF CONTRACTGENERAL AVOIDANCE OF THE WILL OR RIGHTS OF OTHERSMAJORITY WILL AND WELFARE IS AIMED TOWARDS
27STAGE 5 JUSTIFICATIONSPRO: The law wasn’t set up for these circumstances. Taking the drug in this situation isn’t really right, but it’s justified to do it.CON: You can’t completely blame someone for stealing but extreme circumstances don’t really justify taking the law in your own hands. You can’t have everyone stealing whenever they get desperate. The end may be good, but the ends don’t justify the means.
28LEVELS AND STAGES OF MORAL REASONING: STAGE 6 CONSCIENCE OR PRINCIPLE ORIENTATIONORIENTATION NOT ONLY TO ACTUAL SOCIAL RULES BUT TO PRINCIPLES OF CHOICE INVOLVING APPEAL TO LOGICAL UNIVERSALITY AND CONSISTENCYORIENTATION TO CONSCIENCE AS A DIRECTING AGENTDIRECTING AGENTMUTUAL RESPECT AND TRUST
29STAGE 6 JUSTIFICATIONSPRO: This is a situation which forces him to choose between stealing and letting his wife die. In a situation where the choice must be made, it is morally right to steal. He has to act in terms if the principle of preserving and respecting life.CON: Heinz is faced with the decision of whether to consider the other people who need the drug just as badly as his wife. Heinz ought to act not according to his particular feelings toward his wife, but considering the value of all the loves involved.
30PROGRESSION BETWEEN LEVELS LEVEL 1 PEOPLE ATTEND TO THEMSELVESLEVEL 2 PEOPLE ATTEND TO OTHERS AND WHAT OTHERS THINK OF THEMLEVEL 3 PEOPLE ATTEND TO SOCIETY’S STANDARDS AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THEM AND TO THEIR OWN PRINCIPLES
31MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT WHAT DOES KOHLBERG, A STRUCTURALIST, CLAIM ABOUT THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT?
32MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT DISEQULIBRIUMADAPTATIONALORGANIZATIONAL
33RELATIONS BETWEEN PIAGET AND KOHLBERG PIAGET POSITS COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL STRUCTURES ABOUT LOGICO-MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL DOMAINSKOHLBERG POSITS COGNITIVE STRUCTURES ABOUT MORAL REASONING
34RELATIONS BETWEEN PIAGET AND KOHLBERG THE DOMAINS OF LOGICO-MATHMATICAL AND PHYSICAL REASONING DEAL WITH THE WORLD OF THE MIND AND OBJECTSTHE DOMAIN OF MORAL REASONING DEALS WITH INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
35RELATIONS BETWEEN PIAGET AND KOHLBERG KOHLBERG BELIEVED THAT AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT THAT ALSO SEPARATES IT FROM THE PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES IS:EMPATHY AND INDENTIFICATIONTHE ABILITY TO TAKE ANOTHER’S POINT OF VIEW AND TO FEEL AS IF YOU WERE THAT PERSON
36RELATIONS BETWEEN PIAGET AND KOHLBERG Langer, Kuhn, and Hahn (1969)TESTED CHILDREN AT DIFFERENT AGESPIAGETIAN TASKSKOHLBERG TASKS
37RELATIONS BETWEEN PIAGET AND KOHLBERG FOUND THAT PIAGETIAN STAGES ARE A NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR KOHLBERG’S STAGESEXAMPLE:A STAGE 5 PERSON IN KOHLBERG’S SYSTEM “MUST BE” IN PIAGET’S FORMAL OPERATIONS STAGE BUTA FORMAL OPERATIONS STAGE PERSON COULD BE IN ANY OF KOHLBERG’S STAGES
38TURIELTHOUGHT THAT KOHLBERG MERGED THE MORAL DOMAIN AND SOCIAL CONVENTIONSTURIEL IS A STRUCTURALIST WHO WORKED ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL CONVENTIONS
39TURIEL THREE KINDS OF SOCIAL ACTION (MAX WEBER) CUSTOM A PATTERN OF BEHAVIOREATING BREAKFAST FOOD IN THE MORNING
40TURIEL CONVENTION A PART OF CUSTOM THAT IS CONSIDERED BINDING REGULATED BY SANCTIONS OF DISAPPROVALMODES OF DRESSFORMS OF GREETING