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1 Make sure you understand
ICT - Unit 1 Revision Make sure you understand each topic and the Scenario Image Reflections ICT Exam – January 2015

2 Pre release – Image reflections
Read the pre release and be familiar with the scenario. Think of ‘Olan Mills’, ‘Tempest’ or any other photography company A photography business may employ many different photographers. Each of these photographers will take many photographs that need to be stored for future use (Scenario 1). Photographs may need to be edited to make them suitable for the customers’ needs (Scenario 2). Scenario 1 Image Reflections is a photography business that specialises in taking photographs of family groups in the customers’ own homes. It employs a team of travelling photographers for this purpose. Each photographer is provided with a laptop computer and photographic equipment. Image Reflections has a website that it uses to advertise its products and services. The website uses cookies to personalise the advertisements that are displayed. Customers who would like a set of photographs use the booking form on the Image Reflections website to book a photographic session. Staff at the Head Office then set a date for the session, allocate an available photographer and confirm with the customer via . All photographs are stored on the main server of the computer system at the Head Office. Each photograph is given a reference made up of the first four letters of the surname of the person who booked the session and four digits based on the order in which the photograph was taken during the session. Image Reflections would like to improve this system and is considering using a database to store details of individual photographs. A few days after the photographic session, customers are sent a proof copy of each photograph, so that they can decide which they want to purchase. Until recently, all Head Office staff have worked on desktop computers, but the owners of the business are now considering replacing some, if not all, desktop computers with tablet computers. Image Reflections is keen to gather feedback from customers on the quality of the service it provides and so it makes a form available on the website for this purpose.

3 Pre release – Image reflections
Read the pre release and be familiar with the scenario. Think of ‘Olan Mills’, ‘Tempest’ or any other photography company Scenario 2 Sean is a photographer working for Image Reflections. He is responsible for creating a portfolio of photographs from each session. To prepare this portfolio, Sean has to delete any photographs that he thinks are not up to the standard required, as well as edit other photographs so that they suit the customers’ needs. When Sean has finished preparing each portfolio, he uses the internet to upload it to the main server at the Head Office of Image Reflections. Sean and the owners of Image Reflections are aware that there are potential risks of using the internet to transfer data and so they have taken action to reduce these risks. Sean uses Diary Management Software to record each booking for a photographic session. To avoid clashes, he also records personal appointments on the same diary.

4 Teleworking or working together
Question: Explain the advantages and disadvantages for the employees of Image Reflections to work remotely from the main office. Explain how the Manager can communicate with the employees through teleworking. Image Reflections sends out their photographers to customers therefore they use ‘Teleworking’. Photographers need to be able to connect to the company server to upload images. They then have employees in the office who manage the customer bookings and edit images.. They need to be able to connect with the photographers. Answer: Working in one office (using a laptop/PC) Teleworking - Working from anywhere. Using an internet or wireless connection to work from a place different to the office e.g. train, middle of a field, another company. Remotely connecting to your office. Working from home instead of travelling to a fixed place of work. Advantages of working in one room Working in close proximity – increased productivity Ease of communication Hot-desking / swapping Advantages of teleworking Disadvantage of working in one room No need to travel to work – reduced costs Lack of space, still need somewhere to rest laptop Less stress and work from comfort of own home, work around family, flexible hours Potential file transfer issues Potential incompatibility of software / out-of-date software on laptop compared to school network Use communication media to contact co workers Disadvantage of teleworking Potential setup issues in office No work/home divide and cant account for hours of work Easily distracted by family, no social interaction and lack of motivation Increased running costs at home Pay for internet connection (to contact work/co workers)

5 Tablets (OR Smart phones…)
Question: What are the advantages of using a tablets to communicate when you are away from the office? How can a tablets benefit Image Reflections compared to other forms of communications? Image Reflections is thinking about replacing desktop computers with tablets at the Head Office. You may get asked whether Image Reflections can provide and alternative way of communicating with photographers and visa versa, therefore you need to know how a smartphone can be used. Answer: Advantages of Tablets GPS so that Image Reflections can track location Tablets have the ability to browse websites with large amount of data – Photographers can access work website /server Also has QWERTY keyboard which is similar to the computer keyboard. Tablets have applications that can help the office workers/photographers with their jobs Tablets also has a GPS which can be used to locate places that are new to you. When traveling to unknown places it is a good idea to have a GPS to help the Photographers find a customer address. When it comes to messaging, a tablet will send messages and also s. A tablet can synchronize customer information and use Image Reflections account. Some smart phone can support multiple accounts depending on the make and model. Disadvantages of Tablets Tablets are not durable especially when not taken good care of. For example it can malfunction easily when they come into contact with water. It is very expensive to buy compared to other phones so Image Reflections will find it hard to replace Many of the applications which need to be on the tablet, need to be mastered to avoid confusion when operating it. The Photographers would need training in how to use the apps It can only work efficiently where there is accessible internet connection when it comes to browsing – photographers can lose connection. Tablets cannot be used to store large amount of data due to their storage memory – so they might lose information.

6 Tablet synchronising Answer:
Question: How can Image Reflections ensure that all the tablets are synchronised with the computer system or server in the main office. Name 2 ways in which a tablet can be synchronised. Image Reflections is thinking about replacing desktop computers with tablets. They need to be able to sync the tablet with company servers, laptops and computers. Photographers/Office Workers should be able to use the tablets to carry out daily tasks. Answer: Synchronise = connecting your tablet to other devices/software/apps Examples synchronise your Facebook to work on your PC and your tablet synchronise your Facebook with your calendar (remember birthdays) synchronise your phone to your iTunes synchronise your iCloud to your smartphone, PC and tablet Photographers can synchronize a tablet so that it can be used alongside a PC , laptop, smartphone or software They can synchronize their calendar on the tablet with a work schedule They can synchronize the tablet to backup to another device or memory card

7 Understand the different forms of storage and how then can be used.
Data storage Question: Each photographer has to keep a record of the photos that they have taken. This data is vital as part of their daily routine. How can a photographer backup the information on their tablet/laptop? You need to make sure that you know how a photographer can store the photos s/he is taking. Understand the different forms of storage and how then can be used. Answer: Digital cameras keep a log of the date and time of images Image reflections can buy a camera with large built in memory or purchase SD Cards They can attach camera to PC and backup work and visa versa Media / Connectivity Main Features Who would use it & what for (be specific) Memory Cards Large capacity Cheap Small and portable Used in mobile phones, tablets and digital cameras for storing pictures, applications, videos etc. DVD Large capacity (4-8GB) Good quality Read only (cannot overwrite) Portable, light, cheap. Movies, Music, Backups. Cloud Storage Access anywhere Requires an internet connection. Easily share with people. Businesses who work on the move. iPhone/iPad/iPod devices to synchronise data between them. Schools to work online. Families to store data online. External Hard Disk Portable Store a lot of files. Inexpensive. Can be easily broken Mobile users, businesses, teachers, students who need to access all their files on the move without having to rely on an internet connection.

8 Wireless Technology Question: How will Image Reflections benefit from installing a wireless system? What type of wireless system will the photographers connect to in order to communicate with the main office? You need to make sure that you understand how and why the photographers need the internet. They need to be able to connect to the internet while they are on a job so they can send photos back to the company. They can also use it to back up what they have done on a job. You could be questioned on how a photographer can connect. Image Reflections might want to upgrade internet within the business. Answer: Uses of wireless technology Photographers can use: WIFI, Hotspots, Internet allowance with contract, Tethering Wireless communications can be available all of the time, almost anywhere. They have several advantages over wired communications. These include: no wires need to be run through buildings, over ground or underground wireless devices can be portable Many devices can connect using one provider It can be free for all to use Does not rely on physical connection

9 Wireless connection Question: Explain how The Photographers can connect to a wireless system. You might get a question on how a photographer can connect to a WIFI connection. Alternatively look below and make sure that you know how to connect to cloud technology or hotspots. Answer: To use Wi-Fi you will need certain equipment: A wireless transmitter, also known as a Wireless Access Point (WAP) A Wi-Fi adapter on every computer that will use Wi-Fi You may find that you already have a Wi-Fi network, as many ISPs (internet service providers) are setting up new customers with Wi-Fi from the outset. If not, you could call your ISP and ask to upgrade. They might even upgrade you for free - and send you some or all of the equipment. If not, you might consider checking whether other ISPs are offering Wi-Fi to new customers. Many ISPs will supply you with a router, modem and wireless transmitter combined in one device, which it calls ‘the router’. To make your Wi-Fi set-up as simple as possible, you should consider using a similar device. The router plugs directly into a phone socket and doesn’t need a computer to run it, so you don’t have to set up your computer next to the router. Computers – mainly laptops/tablets – increasingly have built-in Wi-Fi receivers. If not, the simplest method of installing a receiver is a dongle - a little device that plugs into a USB port and transmits between your PC and wireless router.

10 Diary Management Question: How can the photographers use Diary Management software are part of their job? Give an example of how the Image reflections/Sean could use DM software to manage their customers? Image Reflections heavily relies on the booking system otherwise they cannot keep track of customers. The booking form would be linked as you don’t want double bookings. The DM software can be used to remind photographers and customers about appointments. Answer: Diary management software Diary Management software allows us to have a digital calendar. The major benefit is that it can be accessed on a range of devices by multiple people. The key features are: Creating appointments / meetings (Image Reflections will be scheduling appointments and sending these to each photographer) Invite people to the meetings/appointments (Allow customers to book appointments that suit them) Create a task or to-do lists (which can be synchronised to database, priorities can be set for priority customers) Set reminders of daily appointments You can then: Be alerted on your computer or mobile Change appointments dynamically Share your diary with other people Change/move appointments quickly Alert your invited people quickly. Access it anywhere, any time. Let’s have a look at one.

11 Data Security Question: What threats can The Photographers face when working with personal information? As part of the ICT Policy the Photographers need to make sure that they follow the Data Protection Act. List 3 rules they must follow. Image Reflections holds personal data and images of customers. They need to make sure that all these files are kept secure and not open to hacking, loss or deletion. Answer: Data security is about keeping data safe. Image Reflections relies heavily on their computer systems. Data may get: lost or damaged during a system crash - especially one affecting the hard disk, corrupted as a result of faulty disks, disk drives, or power failures, lost by accidentally deleting or overwriting files lost or become corrupted by computer viruses, hacked into by unauthorised users and deleted or altered destroyed by natural disasters, acts of terrorism, or war. deleted or altered by employees wishing to make money or take revenge on their employer Keeping data secure Measures that can be taken to keep data secure include: making regular backups of files (backup copies should be stored in fireproof safes or in another building) protecting yourself against viruses by running anti-virus software, using a system of passwords so that access to data is restricted, safe storage of important files stored on removable disks, e.g. locked away in a fireproof and waterproof safe

12 Data transfer Question: The Photographers need to be able to transfer data between desktop computers and their laptop. Suggest one method of data transfer that would make this possible. How can Sean transfer images back to the office so they can be edited. Image Reflections and Sean need to be able to transfer photos to and from company servers/computers. You need to know what methods/how and why they need to transfer images/data. Sean has to transfer images back to the office so they can be edited and sent out to customers. Answer: Wired Transfer0 The most secure way of sending files – down a private line. Wireless (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) Sending through the air, either by Bluetooth or a shared wireless connection. This is worth doing if the data is not that important and security isn’t a major issue Mobile (3G, 4G, HSDPA) Using mobile technology – e.g. sending an with an attachment. Again this is worth doing when security is not a major concern and speed is not important as the file size is small. Internet ( , Cloud, P2P, Torrents) Files can be sent across the internet: – small files and data where you are not worried about security. Cloud – Larger files which can be accessed anywhere. P2P/Torrents – where you need to share data between lots of people. Very insecure but a fast way of sending and receiving data.

13 Data security - Password
Question: The Photographers are working with sensitive data/images that belong to customers. Can you advise them on how to set a suitable system password. How can Image reflection monitor access to the Diary Management System? Image Reflections need to keep data secure and they are dealing with customer information and images. They need to follow measures such as ‘Strong’ Passwords to keep their Desktop computers, Tablets & Laptops secure when they are away from their machines. Answer: Companies store a lot of data about us when we make purchases or register on their websites. It is important that they keep data secure and protected both from people outside and so that only required people can use the data inside the company. Measures which could be taken are discussed below. Access Levels – give different people different levels of access. For example, someone may be able to see customer records but not change them. A senior manager may have a higher level of access where they can change them.  Firewalls – prevent unauthorised access from outside.  Audit Transaction Logs – these are files which keep a record of everything is done on a computer system. Should anything be changed, the log file can be checked. What makes a good password? What makes a bad password? Mixture of CaSe Symbols and characters *&(^ Longer than 8 characters. Changed regularly. Not related to you. One word simple All one case. Something which relates to you. One which is written down. Never changed.

14 Data Protection Act Question: What are the 8 principles of the Data Protection Act? Image Reflections need to ensure that all data of customers (including images) and employees of the company, is safe and secure by using Passwords and installing appropriate software. They also need to keep data up-to-date and make sure it is used appropriately in line with these principles. Answer: 1.It must be collected and used fairly and inside the law. 2.It must only be held and used for the reasons given to the Information Commissioner 3.It can only be used for those registered purposes and only be disclosed to those people mentioned in the register entry. You cannot give it away or sell it unless you said you would to begin with. 4.The information held must be adequate, relevant and not excessive when compared with the purpose stated in the register. So you must have enough detail but not too much for the job that you are doing with the data. 5.It must be accurate and be kept up to date. There is a duty to keep it up to date, for example to change an address when people move. 6.It must not be kept longer than is necessary for the registered purpose. It is alright to keep information for certain lengths of time but not indefinitely. This rule means that it would be wrong to keep information about past customers longer than a few years at most. 7.The information must be kept safe and secure. This includes keeping the information backed up and away from any unauthorised access. It would be wrong to leave personal data open to be viewed by just anyone. 8.The files may not be transferred outside of the European Economic Area (that's the EU plus some small European countries) unless the country that the data is being sent to has a suitable data protection law.

15 Data Protection Act Question:
Describe one legal implication for Image Reflections if images are stolen. Explain one possible implication for a customer/company if their personal information/image is stolen. Image Reflections could get sued (if data OR images of customers are lost) if they have not followed the correct procedures. Image Reflections and Sean needs to make sure that he knows the principles of the law and the consequences of breaking it. Answer: Legal implication For serious breaches the organisation can be made to pay up to £500,000 The company could be prosecuted/fined/sued because they have not kept the data securely Data held has to be protected from loss so if the data is lost, an offence has occurred / the company has to inform those whose data has been lost (that it has been lost) The Information Commissioner can issue the company with an undertaking to comply to force the company to improve their data security The Information Commissioner can serve an assessment notice on the company and investigate its data security. Implication on individuals The individual would need to change some of their details because the personal data that is lost may allow access to private and personal information / other named security breach Individuals and/or family/parents may get money taken out the bank as personal details allow others to impersonate them. Someone might create false accounts (Fraud), send and receive calls on their behalf.

16 Copyright Law Question: How does this apply to: Photographers? Image Reflections? Explain three actions that Image Reflections must take in order to comply with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act when conducting their business Image Reflections must get permission of customers if they wish to use any images in their promotional material OR on their website. The photographers must also get permission for use of any material for portfolio/website purposes. Actions that should be taken to comply with this law: Gain permission to use images, etc. Pay usage fee for images Quote source of images Answer: Copyright gives the creators of some types of media rights to control how they're used and distributed. It applies to music, books, video and software can all be covered by copyright law. Image Reflections can not use any material that belongs to others without: • Checking whether copyright applies to a picture / photo as many pictures / photos are not covered/copyright free • Seeking permission to use the resource (before using it) from the copyright holder • Acknowledging the source/original producer of the resource any acceptable method • Paying a fee if requested • Purchasing the resource ensuring it’s a legal copy • Finding out if the Copyright holder has placed conditions which the photographers would have to follow This applies to taking photos of customers and their families Downloading apps for free without permission (onto tablet) which Image reflections is thinking about buying.

17 Computer Misuse Act Question: Image Reflections has access to all areas of their computer systems. Identify two ways in which the Computer Misuse Act may be breached. Computer Misuse Act may be breached by: Someone Hacking into the Image Reflections computer systems/Server/Website and stealing data/images. The Law may be breached by not having appropriate protection software. If Sean uses the laptop for personal use. Sean uses the Diary Management system for his personal appointments as well – so he must make sure that he does not misuse the system. Answer: Hacking - Unauthorised user who attempts to or gains access to an information system Virus - A virus is a program written to cause mischief or damage to a computer system. The Computer Misuse Act (1990) was developed to cope with the problems of computer hackers and viruses. There are three principles to the act It is illegal to access unauthorised data e.g. Hacking. It is illegal to access unauthorised data with the intent to commit a crime. It is illegal to access unauthorised data and change it e.g. Planting viruses and deleting files. Sean needs to comply with this law because he is using the Dairy Management System for personal appointments. He needs to make sure that he doesn’t mix business with his social life. Access to his devices must be password protected (because if the laptop, etc, gets into the wrong hands then images/information could get misused). Sean must not use the laptop for use other than for his work i.e. no inappropriate websites, games apps or personal use

18 Databases Question: Answer:
Describe three features of database software that make it suitable for storing and analysing customer appointments. Image Reflections needs to find a list of customers who live in one area, which database feature could they use and why? Image Reflections would like to produce a document to show the results of the above search, which database feature would be most appropriate for this task? DO NOT MENTION MS ACCESS IN THE EXAM AS YOUR ANSWER WILL NOT COUNT. (Use the Term Database) Image Reflection stored the information and images for each customer in a database. They use an ID Number (primary key) which is unique to each customer. Do not confuse this with the name each image which is saved 4 digits of the customer surname & order in which photo was taken. This question might be linked to the Data Protection Act. Answer: Fields-to store each category of information e.g. Customer name, address, telephone, appointment date and time Records -to enable each customers information to be stored Primary key -to ensure each customer record can be identified by a unique number Tables-to store sets of related information e.g. Customer in certain area, etc. Queries/searches-enable information in tables to be interrogated Reports-to produce visual displays of query results Switchboard/Main menu - to enable access to the main parts of a database/user interface Forms-to enter data instead of into tables (better user interface) Sort-so that data can be put in order (ascending or descending) Easy to edit-so records can be updated, deleted or inserted.

19 Data validation and verification
Question: Sean is entering data into the system individually. What validation/verification can be put into place to avoid incorrect data entry? Image Reflections can set up Data Validation rules with their database to reduce the number of mistakes that are made when entering information into the company database. They can use some of the methods mentioned below. E.g. They could use Format Check to allow only NUMBERS in the telephone field/section. Think of other examples for address fields/ image reference fields, etc. Answer:  Format Check – checks what is entered is of the correct structure. E.g. Postcode (LLNN NLL) E.g. TS23 3DX. E.g. a phone number is STD: NNNNN Num: NNNNNN Validation and verification are two ways to check that the data entered into a computer is correct. Data entered incorrectly is of little use.  Length Check – Ensures that information is of a specified length. For example a name field may be more than 2 characters. If it is less it would not be accepted. Types of validation Type Check – checks something of the correct type is entered. E.g. a date in a date field, a number in a number field etc. Range Check – checks something is within a specific range. E.g. an order quantity is between 1 and 10, > 18years old, or <21 etc.  Verification Checks: Entering the data twice. Checking the data on the screen against the original paper document Presence Check – checks that something is there. E.g. Mandatory field. Makes sure REQUIRED fields are entered. Printing out a copy of the data and comparing the printout to the original paper document.

20 Dropdown menus, Check boxes, Tick boxes
Online forms Question: Discuss how an online form could be designed to allow for information to be easily captured about an appointment. In your answer make sure to explain any appropriate data validation which could occur when they submit the completed form. Image Reflections have an online form on their website for customers to fill-in to make bookings for photographs. To make the Form user friendly AND so that there are very little mistakes, they can use validation methods in the online form. Here are some of the elements that could be used: Dropdown menus, Check boxes, Tick boxes Date formats Answer: Validation rules to make sure the data meets the requirements or that all specific questions have to be answers before the user can press submit. Error message or dialogue box appears if fields are missed out or filled in incorrectly Areas for consideration may include: Form should have a title and make it clear to users what online form they are about to fill in Mandatory fields: Full name, address, night of performance, no of tickets should be highlighted by using a (*) or user can not continue unless it is filled in Form should have clear instructions so users can fill the form in with little confusion Other sensible fields e.g. address is a sensible size and shows errors if correct symbols not used Online data capture forms can limit the type of data entered to make sure the data is entered by the user in the correct format: Text box for “other general” comments should be limited to the amount of characters is can contain Drop down menus: to force a pre-set selection of choices (performance night, no. of tickets) Submit button – once form is filled in user can submit the form. Boxes to force a yes or no response A pre-set format for a date so that all forms are completed in the same way Message should appear to acknowledge if online form has been successful Radio buttons forcing a single choice from several options (performance night, no. of tickets)

21 Paper Based Forms versus Online Forms
Question: Image Reflections is going to adopt an online form system to get feedback for each customer. Can you compare a paper based form and online form Give three reasons why an online form is more favourable over a paper based one Image Reflections have an online form on their website for customers to make bookings and to get customer feedback. Online Forms would clearly benefit the company and speed up bookings and customer feedback. Answer: Paper-based forms Means they are more accessible than having to log on People who are not familiar with computers may prefer paper based Easy to monitor and collect More likely to be seen by customer f they are filled in whilst on job Online registration forms can help you reduce cost Web-based registration forms are eco-friendly Tracking and reporting on the registration process is easier and more efficient online Online registration forms will increase registration numbers Web-based registration forms allow you to customise your form. Insert option (radio button), dropdown list, check box and text boxes

22 Storing feedback from forms
Question: Image Reflections needs to make sure that the feedback from the eForms is stored securely, suggest a way she can store feedback. Which law would apply to storing data/images securely? Answer Answer: Areas for consideration may include: Using a database linked to the online form Save forms on a secure drive Save feedback onto online storage (cloud) Laws that Image Reflections would need to be following are: Data Protection Copyright Law Computer Misuse Act

23 File types Question: State a suitable file type for Image Reflections to save their images or database. Explain why the file type you mentioned above would be appropriate Answer Answer: Proprietary File Formats: created and owned by a company and can only be used properly in the software they create. Open File Formats: general formats which do not need one specific software package and can be adopted and used by any developer File Format .bmp .png .jpg/jpeg .tiff .gif .rif .psd Used for Bitmap image Every pixel is saved Portable Network Graphics 24bit or 48bit true colours Joint photographic [Experts] group Everyday use Tagged Image File Format Graphics Interchange Format 256 colours Raw Image Format Some digital;#l cameras Small file oompression Paint shop Pro Vector graphics editable image File Format .doc .docx .xls .xlsx .ppt .pptx .fla .wma .aac Creator Microsoft Adobe Apple Used for Word processing documents made in Word. Spreadsheets made in Excel Presentations made in PowerPoint Animation files made in Flash. Music to be played back in Windows Media Player. Music to be played back in Apple iTunes.

24 Graphics editing software
Question: State one example of graphics editing software that could be used by Image Reflections/Sean to edit photos taken? What editing can be done using this software? Answer Answer: Graphics Editing Software (e.g. Photoshop) Photoshop is often used to clean-up/enhance images on photo shoots, magazines and used for many other publications. Photoshop files have default file extension as .PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document.“ Because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are widely used and supported to some extent by most competing software. Editing Options: These editing options could be used by Sean to edit the customer photos to prepare them for the customers portfolio. Brightness Slicing etc… Sharpness Blur Contrast Magic Wand Cropping Transparency

25 Printing photographs (proof copies)
Question: State what type of printer would be required by Image Reflections for printing proof copies? What information would be required to go on the proof copies to customers? Image Reflections send customers ‘Proof copies’ of the photographs that have been taken. They will be dealing with many customers so they would need a good quality colour printer that has a fast printing speed. The type of printer that would be best suited for their company would be a Colour Laser Printer. The Type of information that would be referenced on the Proof photos would be Date, reference number, etc. Answer: Types of Printers: LASER PRINTERS Advantages High quality printouts - better than ink-jet or dot-matrix Fast printouts - faster than ink-jet or dot-matrix Prints very quietly - quieter than ink-jet or dot-matrix Cost per page is low - cheaper than ink-jet or dot-matrix Disadvantages Most expensive printer type to buy, especially colour lasers Toner is more expensive than ink-jet cartridges Expensive to repair - lots of complex equipment inside Fairly bulky - larger than ink-jet printers Can't use continuous or multi-part stationary to create carbon copies like you can with a dot-matrix printer INK JET PRINTERS Advantages Cheap to buy More compact than a laser printer Cartridges cost less than toners Quality is better than dot-matrix printers Speed – faster than dot-matrix Disadvantages Noisier than laser printer (less than dot-matrix) Colour printing slow Cost of printout per page is higher than laser Ink can smudge – still wet Colours can become dull compared to screen Cartridges can dry out, if not used for a while

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