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©2009 Justin C. Klein Keane PHP Code Auditing Session 4.3 – Information Disclosure & Authentication Bypass Justin C. Klein Keane

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Presentation on theme: "©2009 Justin C. Klein Keane PHP Code Auditing Session 4.3 – Information Disclosure & Authentication Bypass Justin C. Klein Keane"— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2009 Justin C. Klein Keane PHP Code Auditing Session 4.3 – Information Disclosure & Authentication Bypass Justin C. Klein Keane

2 Auth Bypass Authentication bypass is a vulnerability that allows an attacker to gain access to functionality without providing valid credentials Attackers may seek to steal an authenticated users session May also be possible to initiate a privileged session without credentials Some functionality may not need a session

3 Session Handling PHP controls “session” data via a PHPSESSID cookie

4 Session Cookies Difficult to predict/guess However, stored on the filesystem Location determined by settings in /etc/php.ini session.save_path = "/var/lib/php/session" ; Whether to use cookies. session.use_cookies = 1 ; This option enables administrators to make their users invulnerable to ; attacks which involve passing session ids in URLs; defaults to 0. ; session.use_only_cookies = 1 ; Name of the session (used as cookie name). session.name = PHPSESSID ; Initialize session on request startup. session.auto_start = 0 ; Lifetime in seconds of cookie or, if 0, until browser is restarted. session.cookie_lifetime = 0 ; The path for which the cookie is valid. session.cookie_path = / ; The domain for which the cookie is valid. session.cookie_domain =

5 Permissions on Session Dir # ls -lah /var/lib/php total 156K drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4.0K Jun 2 12:13. drwxr-xr-x 21 root root 4.0K Jun 2 12:42.. drwxrwx--- 2 root apache 132K Jun 22 14:37 session Note that apache can read and write in this directory

6 phpinfo() Disclosure

7 Data Can be Leaked If attacker can leverage webapp to list the cookie directory they can modify their own cookies Cookie isn't tied to an IP, so cookie holder automatically gains session access Cookie can also be stolen from the end user  JavaScript can access cookies with domain restrictions

8 Logical Flaws Application fails to check credentials properly Name collisions for instance These will not be programming errors so are much more difficult to detect

9 Limited Authentication Application may only check for authentication in one place Some files may assume that authentication has taken place but may be accessible outside of that flow

10 Brute Force Steps should be taken to limit authentication attempts At the very least log auth attempts and alert someone on multiple failures Be sure to limit login failure feedback (don't alert an attacker to whether or not a username or password exists) Be wary of password recovery functionality and information it might disclose to an attacker

11 Logout Failure Applications that don't properly end sessions could leave them open for exploitation Kiosks or other public terminals are prime offenders in these circumstances

12 Unencrypted Authentication Cookies and/or post data may be stolen Forms themselves should be encrypted, not just their post targets  MITM plain text keystroke loggers could be utilized on unencrypted login forms

13 Information Disclosure There are many seemingly innocuous ways that information valuable to an attacker can be disclosed  Debugging messages  phpinfo() output can reveal configuration informaiton  Plain text files such as.ini or.htaccess or.htpasswd files could be exposed  Directory listing could show files that would otherwise be difficult to find  HTML comments

14 Exposed Information Assume any web accessible file can be read by an attacker Tools for brute force guessing filenames and directories exist Look at include files to make sure they can't be abused by being called directly

15 For Next Time Download the next exercise Identify at least one of the following:  Arbitrary code execution vulnerability  Information disclosure vulnerability  Arbitrary file include vulnerability  Arbitrary file upload vulnerability  Authentication bypass vulnerability  Credential exposure (how can the admin password be easily recovered)


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