Paid Parental Leave Scheme to pay new mothers up to $50,000 (500 万円） Higher uni fees Pension age rises to 70 from 2035 A $500 million cut to indigenous programs over 5 years… （連邦予算）
“Closing the gap”: 150 indigenous programs consolidated to cut waste The government plans to save $500 million by consolidating more than 150 indigenous programs into a five-pronged strategy Indigenous Affairs Minister Nigel Scullion said $4.8 billion would be spent on the streamlined programs of jobs, land and the economy, children and schooling, safety and wellbeing, culture and capability and remote Australia strategies. May 14, 2014
English narration by David Gulpilil. First major Australian feature film completely filmed in an indigenous Aboriginal language.. DVD-2223 /4
Aboriginal adoption plans spark new 'stolen generation' fears Politicians in northern Australia said Tuesday they were considering putting neglected Aboriginal children up for adoption ( 養子縁組 ), sparking fears of a new “stolen generation.” Northern Territory Chief Minister Adam Giles, Australia’s first indigenous state or territory leader, said he was advocating the plan on a case-by-case basis to protect vulnerable children. CRITICISM: “the loss of culture, land and language has a long-term impact on the social and emotional wellbeing of those children who are removed.” May 2013
The ‘Stolen’ Generation ( 盗まれた世代・奪われた子供 達 ) 1890s+ Policy of Protection ( 保護 ) Segregation ( 人類分離 ) 1905+New law: half-caste and (some) ‘pure’ Aboriginal and children up to 16 could be removed from parents (in actual fact mostly ‘half’ children only were removed) 1970
1905-1970 20,000 – 25,000 children “stolen” (1 in 10) forcible removal removal under threat or duress official deception uninformed voluntary release voluntary release
Mr A.O. Ｎｅｖｉｌｌｅ， Ｃｈｉ ｅｆ Ｐｒｏｔｅｃｔｏｒ， Western Ａｕｓｔｒａｌｉａ （１９１５－４０）
Why? Why were Ａ boriginal (and particularly mixed blood) children (forcibly) removed from their parents?
Imagine you lived 70 years ago: – rapidly falling aboriginal population – rising numbers of ‘half-castes’ Put yourself in the government’s shoes: imagine why such a policy of removal might be necessary (i.e. the reasons behind such a policy) 政府の立場に立って考え る。。。
Humanitarian reasons ( 人道主義 ) “Assist, Help, Save, Rescue” Superiority of white race
Protection Assimilation （同 化） “It is expected that all persons of Aboriginal or mixed blood in Australia will live like white Australians” (Government Minister, 1951 )
What to do with half-caste children? 1)Go “back to black”? 2)Remain unwanted ‘3 rd race’? 3)Advance to white status? (‘breed out [ 飼育 ] the black’)
“I would not hesitate to separate any half-caste from its Aboriginal mother, no matter how frantic momentary grief might be at the time. They soon forget their offspring.” James Liddel, Traveling Protector of the North What about mother’s pain and grief?
“The half-castes will rapidly become an increasing incubus [ 負担 ] on the community…They have to be protected against themselves…The sore spot requires the application of the surgeon's knife for the good of the patient, and probably against the patient's will…The native must be helped." Neville, Protector of Western Australia What about mother’s pain and grief?
Missions and Reserves ( 宗教団体が作った奥地のアボリ ジニー集落・保護区域 ) Training as domestic servants and farm labourers
‘Bringing Them Home’ Report The National Inquiry into the Stolen Generations (1997) 535 Indigenous people gave evidence or submissions about their experiences of (forcible) removal. Recommended a compensation fund, but… “This report is dedicated to the generations of Aboriginal children taken from their families and communities, who are still searching for home, and to the memory of the children who will never return. It is dedicated to the mothers, fathers and families of the 'stolen generations‘.” Click to read
Government says NO to Compensation Indigenous Affairs minister Jenny Macklin said the Government had other priorities: "We won't be creating a compensation fund. What we will be doing is putting the funding... into health and education services.” Finance minister Lindsay Tanner said individuals were free to pursue legal action if they chose…
First Compensation [ 補償金 ] win for the Stolen Generation (Oct. 2002) Valerie Linow, 61, Awarded $35,000 for sexual assault and violence she suffered as a domestic servant when she was 16
Bruce Trevorrow, 50, won more than $500,000 damages when a Supreme Court judge accepted his forced removal had caused his later depression (August 2007)
BUT was it really ‘wrong’? ‘Generation’ not an appropriate term –10% isn’t a whole generation Children weren’t ‘stolen’ but removed in order to give them a better life –Some mothers voluntarily surrendered their children The policy was a product of the society and values at that time, and was entirely legal –It cannot be judged against modern standards ‘1 in 10’ figure widely exaggerated –Doubtful whether children were really removed from any state except Queensland