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Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor:

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor: Jorge Pierrott

2 Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER SEVENTH EDITION Crimes Against Property 11

3 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, students should be able to answer the following questions: What are the major forms of property crime discussed in this chapter? What constitutes the crime of burglary? What are some of its characteristics? What constitutes the crime of larceny-theft? What forms does it take? What is motor vehicle theft? How prevalent is it? What constitutes the crime of arson? What are some characteristics of persistent and professional thieves? What are the typical activities of receivers of stolen property, and how are stolen goods distributed?

4 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Stolen Art Business

5 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Burglary Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) /FBI definition  The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft  Nevada definition – entry into a structure to commit a grand or petit larceny, assault or battery on any person or any felony, or to obtain money or property by false pretenses Residential burglaries do not involve direct confrontation between victim and offender but can cause fear with lasting effects Commercial burglaries can affect the continued viability of the business

6 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Social Ecology of Burglary Lifestyle and routine activities theories emphasize how criminal opportunity is affected by victims' and offenders' everyday activities/environments  Structure of social life affects ease/difficulty of carrying out inclination to offend  Three ingredients are necessary: Motivated offender Suitable target and Lack of a capable guardian Highest risk are those with the highest and lowest incomes.

7 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger A Typology of Burglars Low-level burglars  Spur of the moment crimes  Mainly juveniles, work with others, easily deterred by locks, alarms, security devices  Rewards not significant, many desist as get older continued on next slide

8 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger A Typology of Burglars Middle-range burglars  Older, vacillate between crime and legitimate activities  Less easily deterred High-level burglars  Professionals, work in organized crews  Earn a good living from burglary

9 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Locales and Times of Burglary Nighttime residential and daytime commercial burglary are considered the most serious Burglary is a “cold crime” because there usually is little physical evidence to link the offender to the crime

10 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Motivation of Burglars The most prevalent rationale is the need for fast cash Selection of burglary as the “crime of choice”  Burglary is familiar, the “main line”  It is less risky than other offenses  The offender may not own the necessary equipment for robbery

11 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Target Selection for Burglary Commercial burglaries  Suitability  Retail establishments preferred continued on next slide

12 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Target Selection for Burglary Residential burglaries  Key factors include knowledge of occupants, tips, observation of potential target  Other influential factors include signs of occupancy, security devices, dogs, access to area

13 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Costs of Burglary Most household burglaries involve economic loss  Stolen property/money  Time lost from work Property crimes like burglary have a greater effect on the decision to move than violent crimes

14 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Burglary-Drug Connection Increased demand for crack cocaine in the 1980s affected crime rates  Burglary rates decreased  Robbery rates increased Crack trade created preference for cash-intensive crimes (robbery) over burglary continued on next slide

15 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Burglary-Drug Connection Shift in crimes consistent with the view that property offenders tend to be generalists

16 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Sexualized Context of Burglar Some burglaries have associated sexual dynamics  key types include fetishists and voyeurists Some sexually motivated homicides begin as burglaries Can be explained from the perspective of opportunity theory Home-intrusion rape

17 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Professional Burglar ns-burglar

18 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Larceny-Theft UCR definition  the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession, or constructive possession, of another Most frequently occurring property offense.  This includes stolen motor vehicles, followed by shoplifting and thefts from a building  FBI estimated that 6.2 million larceny thefts occurred in 2012 for an estimated 68.5% continued on next slide

19 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Larceny-Theft Does not involve force or other means of illegal entry Generally less frightening than burglary A crime of opportunity

20 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Shoplifting and Employee Theft Some retail theft is shoplifting, some committed by store employees  Most are short-term workers  Internal theft more serious than loss due to shoplifting Technology is one of the best ways to address both types of theft Crosses class lines, not committed primarily be women

21 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Who Shoplifts? Juveniles overrepresented as shoplifters  More common in lower-income youths Majority of juveniles admit to shoplifting at some point in their lifetime Maturing out pattern? Caroline Giuliani

22 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Flash Mobs and Larceny Flash mobs  Purposeful crowds brought together at a moment's notice through use of social media web sites Some involve organized criminal activity Larcenies committed by flash mobs are considered multiple-offender crimes

23 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Identity Theft The misuse of another's personal information to commit fraud Main types  Existing account fraud thieves obtain information on open accounts  New account fraud thieves use personal information to open new accounts in the victim's name continued on next slide

24 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Identity Theft Costs of identity theft  Direct losses to victims  Indirect costs to businesses for fraud prevention and harm mitigation  Indirect costs to victims – civil litigation, obstacles in obtaining or retaining credit  Consumers' fears of victimization can also harm the digital economy continued on next slide

25 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Identity Theft 1998 Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act made identity theft a federal crime 2004 Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act

26 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Incidence of Identity Theft BJS definition of identity theft  Unauthorized use/attempted use of existing credit cards  Unauthorized use/attempted use of other existing accounts  Misuse of personal information to obtain new accounts or loans, or to commit other crimes

27 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Identity Thieves: Who They Are Hard to classify identity thieves Often have no prior criminal background, sometimes have preexisting relationship with victim Increased involvement of foreign organized criminal groups in computer- or Internet-related schemes

28 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Motor Vehicle Theft UCR definition  The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle Automobiles are the most commonly- stolen type of vehicle Car theft violates victim beyond financial loss continued on next slide

29 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Motor Vehicle Theft Largest percentage of vehicles stolen from parking lot or garage Most motor vehicle thefts reported to police

30 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Theft of Car Parts Motivations  Car parts may be worth a lot  Can be sold easily  Harder to identify than entire cars 1984 Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act called for marking of cars' major sheet metal parts with VINs

31 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Joyriders Car theft for fun  Opportunistic car theft committed for fun or thrills, usually by groups of teens Expressive act with little or no extrinsic value Most vehicles stolen by joyriders are recovered, usually found abandoned, often after having been crashed

32 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Professional Car Theft Less common as thefts for other uses Professional auto thieves work in groups characterized by planning and calculation in target selection Professional thefts have lowest recover rates

33 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Arson UCR definition  The willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, of a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Majority of arrestees white males Motives vary from profit to thrill seeking

34 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Fire Setters Majority of those involved in arson are juveniles General groups of juvenile fire setters  Children under 7 start fires accidentally or out of curiosity  Children between 8-12 fire setting represents underlying psychosocial conflict continued on next slide

35 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Fire Setters General groups of juvenile fire setters  Children between have history of fire setting, usually undetected ory/shickshinny-firefighter-arrested-for- arson/34800/0ZKfRfPT_EW9FlldSPhv7w

36 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Persistent and Professional Thieves Professional criminal  a criminal offender who makes a living from criminal pursuits, is recognized by other offenders as a professional, and engages in offending that is planned and calculated continued on next slide

37 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Persistent and Professional Thieves Persistent thief  one who continues in common law property crimes despite no better than an ordinary level of success continued on next slide

38 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Persistent and Professional Thieves Offense specialization  a preference for engaging in a certain type of offense to the exclusion of others Cafeteria-style offending  the heterogeneous and unplanned nature of offending among gang members continued on next slide

39 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Persistent and Professional Thieves Occasional offender  a criminal offender whose offending patterns are guided primarily by opportunity

40 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Criminal Careers of Property Offenders Criminal career  Criminal behavior that is an integrated, dynamic structure of sequential unlawful acts that advances within a wider context of causal and correlative influences… continued on next slide

41 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Criminal Careers of Property Offenders Phases of criminal career in property crime  Break-in period – early years of an offender’s career years old  Stable period – highest commitment. Most identifies with the criminal lifestyle. Period where rehabilitative efforts are more likely to fail.  Burnout phase – 40 years of age, where the criminal begin to drop out of the lifestyle.

42 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Property Offenders and Rational Choice Rationality  activities identified by their impersonal, methodological, efficient, and logical components (rational choice) Burglars employ a “limited, temporal rationality”

43 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Receivers of Stolen Property Basic elements  Buying and receiving  Stolen property  Knowing it to be stolen Fence is least common method of disposing of stolen goods for most thieves  most common method used by professional burglars

44 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Role of Criminal Receivers Professional receiver  Purchase stolen goods on regular basis for resale  May be generalist or specialist Avocational receiver  buys stolen property part-time, secondary to but associated with primary business activity continued on next slide

45 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Role of Criminal Receivers Amateur receiver  otherwise honest people who buy stolen property on relatively small scale


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