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1803 President Jefferson commissioned Corps of Discovery 1803 President Jefferson commissioned Corps of Discovery scientific expedition to explore the.

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Presentation on theme: "1803 President Jefferson commissioned Corps of Discovery 1803 President Jefferson commissioned Corps of Discovery scientific expedition to explore the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1803 President Jefferson commissioned Corps of Discovery 1803 President Jefferson commissioned Corps of Discovery scientific expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. scientific expedition to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. "to explore the Missouri River and such principal stream of it as by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean, whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river that may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purpose of commerce". "to explore the Missouri River and such principal stream of it as by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean, whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river that may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purpose of commerce". Lewis and Clark were not the first explorers to travel west Lewis and Clark were not the first explorers to travel west Did not find waterway across North America Did not find waterway across North America Significant in other areas Significant in other areas Geography and mapping Geography and mapping Natural resources Natural resources Native American relations Native American relations

2 Native Americans and Westward Expansion

3 Lewis and Clark and Native Americans "Left Pittsburgh this day at 11 o'clock with a party of 11 hands 7 of which are soldiers, a pilot and three young men on trial they having proposed to go with me throughout the voyage." August 31, 1803, Meriwether Lewis

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5 Video Time

6 The Southern West 1848

7 Spain brought Missions to the Southwest Spain brought Missions to the Southwest Mexicans secularized the missions Mexicans secularized the missions Both attempted to civilize the local native population Both attempted to civilize the local native population Led to loss of life through disease, overwork, and murder Led to loss of life through disease, overwork, and murder

8 1848 US invades California Part of Mexican American War February 2 nd 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ratified by US Senate

9 US occupation a period of tremendous destruction for Native Americans US occupation a period of tremendous destruction for Native Americans A situation exacerbated by events in Northern California in 1848 A situation exacerbated by events in Northern California in John Sutter decided to erect a saw mill 1847 John Sutter decided to erect a saw mill

10 Sutter put James Marshall in charge of construction Sutter put James Marshall in charge of construction 1847 an Indian guide led Marshall to a Maidu village, Coloma, in a heavily wooded 1847 an Indian guide led Marshall to a Maidu village, Coloma, in a heavily wooded Marshall constructed the mill with the aid of Maidu Marshall constructed the mill with the aid of Maidu During construction an unknown Maidu Indian came across a gold nugget During construction an unknown Maidu Indian came across a gold nugget The rest is history….. The rest is history…..

11 Initially local Californios brought their Indian workers to pan for gold Initially local Californios brought their Indian workers to pan for gold E.g. Charles M. Weber E.g. Charles M. Weber Took 1000 Indians to work at Dry Diggings Took 1000 Indians to work at Dry Diggings Placerville Placerville Within a couple of months Weber and William Daylor had earned approx $50,000 of the backs of their labor force Within a couple of months Weber and William Daylor had earned approx $50,000 of the backs of their labor force

12 Independent white miners began to move in resentment grew Independent white miners began to move in resentment grew Californios have an unfair advantage Californios have an unfair advantage Weber Creek March 1849 Weber Creek March 1849 Group of Oregonians attacked a Maidu village of workers Group of Oregonians attacked a Maidu village of workers Killed many, raped women and took several captives Killed many, raped women and took several captives Returned captives to Coloma Returned captives to Coloma Told them to join their friends Told them to join their friends As the walked off they shot them all in the back As the walked off they shot them all in the back

13 Not the first attack but a notorious event in the decimation of Californian Indians Not the first attack but a notorious event in the decimation of Californian Indians White from Oregon generally “hunt [Indians] as they would wild beasts” White from Oregon generally “hunt [Indians] as they would wild beasts” William McCollum William McCollum Not only murder but also kidnapping became a major industry Not only murder but also kidnapping became a major industry

14 1861 Superintendant George M. Hansen 1861 Superintendant George M. Hansen Found 3 men kidnapping Indian Children Found 3 men kidnapping Indian Children Asked one why Asked one why Taking them “as an act of charity... [to] provide homes for them, because their parents had been killed, and the children would have perished” Taking them “as an act of charity... [to] provide homes for them, because their parents had been killed, and the children would have perished” How did he know this How did he know this “killed some of them myself” “killed some of them myself”

15 1850 An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians 1850 An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians April 22, 1850 April 22, 1850 Series of 20 laws, similar to the black codes for African Americans in the south Series of 20 laws, similar to the black codes for African Americans in the south

16 Discussion Week two

17 Navajo’s and the Long Walk

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19 Indian Wars Crazy Horse Sitting Bull

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21 Native Woman in Seattle 1911

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23 1. In what way did the Navajo Indians resist reservation life and in what ways did the assimilate to the changes that were forced upon them? How big of a role did religion play in resistance and assimilation? 1. In what way did the Navajo Indians resist reservation life and in what ways did the assimilate to the changes that were forced upon them? How big of a role did religion play in resistance and assimilation? 2. At the end of the essay, Osburn states that the Navajo were active members in the failure and success of the reservation. Do you agree with this statement? Were they more active in the failing or the success of the reservation? 2. At the end of the essay, Osburn states that the Navajo were active members in the failure and success of the reservation. Do you agree with this statement? Were they more active in the failing or the success of the reservation?

24 1. What were the main reasons and/or events that led to the Sioux War of ? 1. What were the main reasons and/or events that led to the Sioux War of ? 2. What were the goals of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse? 2. What were the goals of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse? 3. Why did Crazy Horse lose his followers? 3. Why did Crazy Horse lose his followers? 1. What do you think would have been more difficult for Crazy Horse to handle, the large amount of lodges that surrendered when he was still fighting, or members of some tribes (like the Cheyenne) that said upon surrender because of their grievances with him would volunteer as army scouts for a campaign against him? 1. What do you think would have been more difficult for Crazy Horse to handle, the large amount of lodges that surrendered when he was still fighting, or members of some tribes (like the Cheyenne) that said upon surrender because of their grievances with him would volunteer as army scouts for a campaign against him? 2. Do you think Crazy Horses’ “change of heart” came from genuine belief that a new reservation would be established for northern Indians in their hunting grounds, or because his failed vision quests gave him no guidance to continue fighting? 2. Do you think Crazy Horses’ “change of heart” came from genuine belief that a new reservation would be established for northern Indians in their hunting grounds, or because his failed vision quests gave him no guidance to continue fighting?

25 1. What were some of the reasons that it was so common at that time for white men to take Native American wives? What were some of the reasons for the interdependence between the Native American tribes and the immigrants? 2. Why wasn't Xwelas hung for the murder of George Philips, a white man? It was an unheard of outcome at that time. 1. What were some of the reasons that it was so common at that time for white men to take Native American wives? What were some of the reasons for the interdependence between the Native American tribes and the immigrants? 2. Why wasn't Xwelas hung for the murder of George Philips, a white man? It was an unheard of outcome at that time.


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