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The Great War. Overview This was the first war that was considered Total War – Total War – the use of ALL of society’s resources to wage war This was.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War. Overview This was the first war that was considered Total War – Total War – the use of ALL of society’s resources to wage war This was."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War

2 Overview This was the first war that was considered Total War – Total War – the use of ALL of society’s resources to wage war This was the war that changed warfare forever – New Technology, New Tactics, New Horrors This war was one of the first to use widespread propaganda to encourage people – Product of Nationalism This war saw the emerging role of women

3 Major Battles of Western Front Italian Front (1915) – Italy joins the Russsians, British, and French against Austria-Hungary and Germany. – Italy attacks Austria-Hungary = no gains!! Battle of Verdun (1916) – Whole point of this battle to was to “bleed the French white” because they had to defend the city – 400,000 French die – Nearly the same amount of Germans perish

4 Major Battles of Western Front Battle of the Somme (1916) – British attack Germans to pull them away from Verdun – No one wins or gains an advantage Third Battle of Ypres (1917) – Another failed British attempt to push back the Germans in Belgium Three years of battles = unchanged lines – War became a Stalemate – No nation or side could gain an advantage over other nation or side

5 Technology/Innovation of Western Front Enfield Rifle – deadly accurate British rifle Machine Gun – British invented/German perfected – changed war forever Trench Warfare – complete change from old style of meeting on the field and charging, instead troops dig in (causes stalemate) Heavy Artillery

6 Technology/Innovation of Western Front Barbed Wire – along with machine gun and heavy artillery, ended horse mounted calvary Tanks Planes Poison Gas – used to force men out of trenches Military Railroad Use – massive troop movement for first time

7 Global Campaigns Gallipoli Campaign (1915) – Fought between the Allies and Ottoman Empire (sided with Germans) to reopen the Dardanelles – Dardanelles – waterway Allies used to supply the Russians – Allies failed – lost nearly 200,000 troops – T.E. Lawrence – British commander (Lawrence of Arabia) led a group of Arabs in an overthrow of Ottoman Turks in the Middle East

8 Global Campaigns Armenian Massacre (1915) – A group of people within the Ottoman controlled Caucasus Mountains were thought to be helping the Russians fight the Turks, and Turks had them forcibly removed killing nearly 600,000 – Turks accused of genocide – Genocide – deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group

9 Global Campaigns Battles in Asia – Japan declares war on Germany (1914) Captured German colonies in Pacific and China Battles in Africa – French and British forces fought against German colonies in Africa

10 United States Enters War Where have you been USA? – Declared themselves a neutral country – war was seen as Europe’s problem – President Woodrow Wilson saw himself as the defender and preserver of peace in the United States When did we join war? – April 1917

11 United States Enters War Why did we get involved? – German use of U-Boats (submarines) to blow British cargo ships and passenger ships coming or leaving from the U.S. Lusitania – sunk and killed 1200 people including Americans – Zimmermann Note – secret message sent to Mexico by Germans wanting Mexicans to sneak attack US and promising to give them Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico

12 Impact of American Involvement Forced Germany to risk everything – Tried to take Paris – lost 800,000 troops Fresh troops for Allies – U.S. had thousands of troops who had not been worn down by fighting – Brought new energy and hope to Allies

13 Impact of American Involvement Brand new resources and equipment and supplies – German supplies were gone – Allies got a whole new supply of food and weapons American innovation and industry brought new ideas and vast amounts of new technology – German industry was exhausted but American industry was now finally at Total War Production

14 War Ends Armistice signed – November 11, 1918 – Germany surrendered following Allied breaking of the well defended Hindenburg Line – Armistice – a truce declaring that aggressions will end and guns will be laid down (Cease-fire)

15 Propaganda of War Propaganda – information designed to influence people’s opinions in order to encourage support for the war effort. How was this done? – Posters – Fliers – Movie Reels – Newspapers – State sponsored media – radio – Schools taught nationalism and propaganda

16 Propaganda of War Impact: – People joined army in record numbers – Created national excitement for war – lengthened war – Made surrender or retreat a non-option – Brought younger and younger kids into war Germans had year olds in Army

17 Role of Women Women had a key role in this war because of Total War idea – Factory workers – Shipped food and resources – Served as nurses for the wounded Some were battlefield nurses

18 Role of Women Impact of Involvement: – Transformed public opinion of women’s role Seen as workers Became more than housewives – Gained them the right to vote 19 th Amendment in U.S. – May 1919

19 Question Set 1 of 2 1.What is Total War? 2.Propaganda was inspired by what key idea from history? 3.What were the major Western Front battles? Did these battles create major gains for either side? Explain your answer. 4.What was the Gallipoli Campaign? Why did the Allies take it on? 5.What is genocide? What major global campaign was characterized as a genocide? 6.Explain to me why this is a “World” War. What are some examples that show this to be a World Conflict?

20 Question Set 2 of 2 7.What was the American view of the war prior to 1917? 8.What caused the U.S. involvement in the war? 9.What impact did the U.S. becoming involved have on the War? 10.When did the war end? What is an armistice? 11.How was government propaganda distributed? What impact did it have on people? 12.What role did women play in the war? 13.What impact did women involvement in the war have on them socially?


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