Presentation on theme: "Growth and Expansion CHAPTER 10. Key Words 1.Industrial Revolution 2.capitalism 3.capital 4.free enterprise 5.technology 6.cotton gin 7.patent 8.factory."— Presentation transcript:
Growth and Expansion CHAPTER 10
Key Words 1.Industrial Revolution 2.capitalism 3.capital 4.free enterprise 5.technology 6.cotton gin 7.patent 8.factory system 9.interchangeable parts
the change from an agrarian society to one based on industry which began in Great Britain and spread to the United States around INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
This is the economic system of the United States. Under capitalism, individuals put their money into a business in hopes of making a profit. CAPITALISM
People are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they wish. The major elements of free enterprise: competition profit private property economic freedom. FREE ENTERPRISE
technology-scientific discoveries that simplify work. cotton gin- a simple machine that removed seeds from the cotton fiber. patent-gives the inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time. factory system- brings manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency. interchangeable parts- identical machine parts that could be quickly put together to make a complete product.
Section 1 Economic Growth Colonial Era -workers in short supply - Americans developed tools - tools made work easier - mid 1700’s ways began to change -changes appeared in Europe first - British inventors created machines that did some of the work involved in making cloth that ran on waterpower - British cloth makers built mills along rivers and installed machines in these mills -people left homes and farms to work in these mills and earn money. The Industrial Revolution began to emerge 1 st in New England Why New England? Poor soil-farming difficult People willing to work elsewhere Had many rushing rivers Close to resources such as coal & iron from nearby Pennsylvania Had many ports
Eli Whitney In 1794, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, which separated cotton fibers from seeds. The machine's success led to both massive growth in American cotton production and a substantial increase in the importation of slave labor. Cotton Gin
SSSHHHH! It’s a Secret Samuel Slater Slater memorized the memorized the design of Richard Arkwright’s machines. Once in the United States he managed a cotton mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. There he duplicated the machines that turned cotton into thread. Slater’s mill marked an important step in the Industrial Revolution. The British tried to keep their technology a secret. Laws were passed to keep mechanics from leaving the country. Samuel Slater slipped out of the country.
Francis Cabot Lowell Factory System: Another important part of the Industrial Revolution. All manufacturing steps were brought together in one place. It increased efficiency! Opened a textile plant in Waltham, Massachusetts. Factory System was launched.
Agriculture Expands Economic Independence Most new industries were financed by small investors. merchants/shopkeepers/farmers What motivated them? profits, low taxes, few government regulations & competition. More than 65 % of Americans were farmers. Agriculture expanded as the demand for cotton grew. Cotton gin encouraged the planters to raise larger crops. In the West, agriculture expanded because Southern farmers moved west to plant cotton. Western farmers north of the Ohio River concentrated on raising pork and cash crops such as corn and wheat.
Corporations & Stock First Bank of the United States charter had expired in In 1816 Congress chartered the Second Bank of the United States for 20 years. Had the power to make large loans to businesses. Large businesses were called corporations developed rapidly in the 1830’s. Corporations sold stock –shares of ownership in a company-to finance improvement and development.
Chapter 10 - Section 2 WESTWARD BOUND
Moving West Key Words census- official count of population. turnpike- toll roads canal- artificial waterway lock- separate compartments where water levels were raised or lowered that provided a way to raise or lower boats at places where canal levels changed. The huge amount of territory added to the United States during the early 1800’s gave the country a large store of natural resources and provided land for more settlers. Objectives: Explain how transportation improved in the early 1800’s Understand how Western settlements affected the nation’s economy and politics.
Steam Engines Moving West -census was taken in population of nearly 4 million. - Most lived east of Appalachian Mountains. Roads 30 years later the population was about 10 million. To make travel easier- private companies built turnpikes. Rivers Travel by river was more comfortable. Robert Livingston hired Robert Fulton to develop a steamboat with a powerful engine. Livingston wanted the steamboat to carry cargo and passengers up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany. In 1807 Fulton had his steamboat, the Clermont, ready for a trial. Steamboats ushered in a new age in river travel.
The East & the Midwest Were Joined The Erie Canal The Erie Canal opened on October 26, De Witt Clinton came up with a plan to link New York City with the Great Lakes. It took 2 years to create this artificial waterway across New York State, connecting Albany on the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie. Steamboats were not allowed on the canal. Teams of mules or horses hauled the boats and barges. A two-horse team pulled a 100 ton barge about 24 miles in one day. The Erie Canal led to an explosion in canal building. By 1850 the US had more than 3,600 miles of canals. Canals lowered cost of shipping goods, brought prosperity to towns and helped unite the growing country.
Paul Bunyan & John Henry Western Settlement Wave Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee & Ohio were admitted. Wave new western states were created. Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama & Missouri Paul Bunyan was a mythical figure. Imaginary stories were passed along about how this giant lumberjack dug the Mississippi River. John Henry was a real person who worked on the railroads. He was an African American renowned for his strength and skill in driving the steel drills into solid rock.
As the nation grew, difference in economic activities and needs increased sectionalism. Section 3 Unity and Sectionalism The absence of major political divisions after the War of 1812 helped forge a sense of national unity. James Monroe won the presidential election of He was the Republican candidate and faced almost no opposition. The Federalists, weakened by doubts of their loyalty during the War of 1812, barely existed as a national party. Objectives Describe why sectional differences grew in the 1820’s. Identify the effect the Monroe Doctrine had on foreign policy.
What/Who is Important Key Terms sectionalism- loyalty to one’s region Internal improvement- federal, state and privately funded projects such as canals and roads to develop the nation’s transportation system. American System-policies devised by Henry Clay to stimulate the growth of industry. Disarmament- removal of weapons Demilitarize- to remove armed forces from an area. Court-martial-to try by a military court. John C. Calhoun Daniel Webster Henry Clay The Missouri Compromise McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden Rush –Bagot Treaty Jose de San Martin Monroe Doctrine