2SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE.
3a. Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabi’s law code.
4b. Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt.
5c. Explain the development of monotheism; include the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews, and Zoroastrianism.
6d. Identify early trading networks and writing systems existent in the Eastern Mediterranean, including those of the Phoenicians.
7e. Explain the development and importance of writing; include cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and the Phoenician alphabet
8SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.
9a. Describe the development of Indian civilization; include the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the “Golden Age” under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka.
10b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism.
11c. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin.
12d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture; include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea.
14At the end of the New Stone Age, people in permanent settlements began to advance rapidly, especially in four regions. These regions were (1) the Nile River valley in Africa, (2) the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates (yoo•FRAY•tees) Rivers in southwestern Asia, (3) the Indus River valley in southern Asia, and (4) the Huang, or Yellow, River valley in Eastern Asia. These people first developed civilizations.A civilization is a complex culture with three characteristics. First, people can produce surplus, or extra, food. Second, people establish large towns or cities with some form of government. Third, people perform different jobs, instead of each person doing all kinds of work.
15The Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and Huang Rivers all flood during rainy periods. During the rest of the year, little rain falls, and the climate is hot. People in these valleys developed irrigation systems, digging ditches and canals to move water from the river into fields to water their crops. They also built dikes to keep rivers from flooding. As a result, they produced surplus food, and population increased.Villages grew into large cities, where people provided labor to build great buildings. Leaders and forms of government emerged to help societies run. Governments made rules to guide people’s work and behavior.
16As agricultural techniques improved, people could specialize in work other than farming. A division of labor emerged, in which different people performed different jobs.Some became skilled workers, called artisans. They could devote time to improving tools or technologies. Others became merchants or traders. Traders carried not only goods but also ideas. The spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area to another is called cultural diffusion.
17The four river valley civilizations also developed a calendar and writing. Some historians believe these two achievements are also characteristics of civilization.Calendars helped people to know when the yearly floods would start and stop. As civilizations grew more complex, people needed to develop rules for living together.Written language was developed around 3000 B.C to keep and pass on information and ideas. History began.
18The four civilizations also used metals The four civilizations also used metals. More than 6,000 years ago, people beganusing copper. By 5,000 years ago they had begun mixing copper and tin to make bronze.The Stone Age had ended and the Bronze Age had begun. By 3,200 years ago people insouthwestern Asia had begun to make iron, which is even stronger than bronze. The IronAge had begun.
19In the four river valleys, women managed the family In the four river valleys, women managed the family. They may have discovered agriculture and probably invented pottery and weaving. The rise of goddesses during thistime suggests that women were powerful. However, with the invention of the plow and use of animals, men became the primary food providers, and their power increased.People believed in gods and goddesses and forces of nature that controlled all aspects of life. People prayed and offered sacrifices to their gods to bring rain.
21Egyptian civilization was built along the Nile, the world’s longest river. It flows 4,160 miles to the Mediterranean Sea. Each summer the Nile flooded, leaving fertile soil behind.Egyptian farmers dug canals to irrigate their fields and harvested crops before the floods came. Thanks to Egypt’s warm climate they grew two or three crops a year.
22The Nile Valley offered other advantages The Nile Valley offered other advantages. People moved goods northward with the river’s flow, and sailed boats southward with the wind, promoting trade. Stone from the valley provided building material. The surrounding deserts and sea provided protection against invaders. The Isthmus of Suez, a land bridge, allowed trade with Asia. Hunger-gatherers lived in the Nile Valley by 12,000 B.C. A Neolithic farming culture developed by 6000 B.C. By 3800 B.C. the people mined copper and made bronze. By 3000 B.C. the people developed hieroglyphics a form of writing using signs, pictures, and symbols. Hieroglyphics were carved in stone and later marked on a kind of paper called papyrus, made from thin slices of the papyrus plant. In A.D a French officer discovered a black stone in the village of Rosetta.
23The Rosetta Stone was carved with hieroglyphics and passages in Greek The Rosetta Stone was carved with hieroglyphics and passages in Greek. It gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.Two kingdoms developed, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. After 3200 B.C., Menes united them and formed a dynasty. The people built temples and tombs to honor their ruler or pharaoh, which means “great house.” Historians divide their rule into three periods, or kingdoms.In the Old Kingdom, from 2680 B.C. to 2180 B.C., Egyptians built the Great Sphinx and the largest pyramids. The lower class of peasants and farmers built the canals and pyramids. The upper class included the royal family, priests, and officials. Later the nobles grew powerful, starting 100 years of civil wars.In 2050 B.C. a new dynasty ushered in the Middle Kingdom, Egypt’s “golden age.”
24By 1780 B.C. powerful nobles and priests were again making the kingdom unstable. By 1650 B.C. The Hyksos or “foreigners,” had conquered Egypt with their new tools of war, including chariots.From 1570 B.C. until 1080 B.C. a new line of pharaohs ruled during the New Kingdom. They conquered new lands and built an empire. Hatshepshut ,one of the first female rulers, reigned from 1503 B.C. to 1482 B.C. She and her stepson Thutmose III, who ruled until 1450 B.C., brought Egypt to the height of its power.
25From 1380 B. C. to 1362 B. C. Amenhotep IV ruled From 1380 B.C. to 1362 B.C. Amenhotep IV ruled. Most Egyptians believed in many gods, or polytheism. Amenhotep believed in only one god, or monotheism. He changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning “he who is pleasing to Aton,” the sun god. After Akhenaton, few strong pharaohs ruled. Ramses II, who ruled from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C., built many temples and monuments. But by the 300s B.C. Egyptian rule had ended.
27As dynasties rose and fell, ancient Egyptians created a remarkable culture. It is well known for its architecture and arts, such as the Great Sphinx and the pyramids, built ? as for the pharaohs. To move the heavy stones to form the pyramids, Egypt’s architects and engineers designed ramps and levers that were operated by thousands of workers. In art the Egyptians created small statues of rulers and animals. Many buildings were decorated with colorful paintings of everyday life.
28Egyptian science, math, and medicine were also advanced Egyptian science, math, and medicine were also advanced. The Egyptians developed a calendar based on the phases of the moon, with twelve cycles of thirty days each. Later they noticed a bright star that rose every year before the floods. They counted365 days between the times this star rose each year. So they added five days to their calendar for holidays. The Egyptians developed a number system based on ten and used both fractions and whole numbers. They used geometry to build the pyramids and rebuild fields after floods. They also used herbs and medicines to cure illness and learned to preserve bodies after death.
29Egyptians also developed an educational system Egyptians also developed an educational system. An elite group of people called scribes, or clerks, learned to read and write so that they could work for the government. Religion was an important part of life. At first each village had its own gods, symbolized by animals such as the cat, bull, crocodile, or scarab beetle. Later other Egyptians adopted some of these gods. The most important was Amon, the creator and sun god. Osiris, Amon’s wife, was goddess of the Nile. Egyptians believed that people and animals had an afterlife. They preserved the body by a process called mummification. They removed the organs and treated the body with chemicals, preserving the body for centuries. They placed the mummy in a tomb with clothing, food, tools and weapons that would be needed in the afterlife. For important persons there were more objects, and they were more valuable. Later a scroll called the Book of the Dead was placed in tombs as a guide to the afterlife.
30Egyptian society was rigidly divided into classes Egyptian society was rigidly divided into classes. People in the lower class could never enter the upper class. Egyptian women were the equals of their husbands in social and business affairs and could own property.Farmland was divided into large estates. Peasants farmed using crude hoes and plows. They grew wheat and barley. Flax and cotton (still important to Egypt today) were grown to be woven into cloth. The peasants worked hard but kept only part of the crop.The rest was sent to the pharaoh as rent and taxes.
31Egypt traded surplus food with other peoples Egypt traded surplus food with other peoples. A merchant class began carrying trade goods on donkeys and later on camels. They formed caravans—groups of people traveling together for safety over long distances. Caravans traveled to Asia and deep into Africa. Egyptians were among the first people to build seagoing ships. These ships traded along the Mediterranean and Red Seas and the African coast.
32The First Civilizations Section 3: Sumerian Civilization
33cuneiform: Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets arch: A curved structure over an opening that is a very strong form in buildingziggurats: Sumerian temples built from baked brick placed in layerscity-state: A form of community that includes a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it
34In this section you will learn about Sumerian civilization In this section you will learn about Sumerian civilization. You will learn how geography affected the development of civilization in the region of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent. You will learn about Sumer’s achievements in writing, architecture, and science. You will also learn what life was like in Sumerian society. Section 3 Summary Between 5000 B.C. and 4000 B.C., Neolithic farmers built a civilization in the Fertile Crescent, also called Mesopotamia. This strip of fertile land begins at the Isthmus of Suez and arcs through Southwest Asia to the Persian Gulf. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow through the Fertile Crescent. They rivers begin in what is now Turkey and flow southeast, at times up to 250 miles apart. The valley between them is the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Both rivers flood often. Unlike the Nile, their floods were unpredictable in their size and timing. Farmers built canals and dikes to bring water to their fields and return the water to the river after floods.
35The grasslands and mountains surrounding the Fertile Crescent were not as barren as those around Egypt and offered less protection. Tribes of wandering herders often invaded the valley, conquered it, and established empires. New waves of invaders conquered the old, repeating the cycle.The Tigris and Euphrates deposited rich soil, especially near the Persian Gulf. Neolithic farmers settled in this area, called Sumer. By 3000 B.C. the Sumerians used metal and developed an early form of writing called pictographs, or picture writing. They wrote by pressing marks into clay tablets using a wedge-shaped tool called a stylus. Historians call Sumerian writing cuneiform, from the Latin word for wedge, cuneus. Sumerians had about 600 cuneiform signs.In architecture the Sumerians probably invented the arch, a curved structure over an opening. The arch is a very strong form in building. By combining arches, the Sumerians built dome-shaped roofs. They built striking temples to their gods, called ziggurats, made of baked bricks placed in layers.
36The Sumerians may have invented the wheel The Sumerians may have invented the wheel. In mathematics, they divided a circle into 360 degrees. Each degree was divided into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. Compasses and clocks still use this system. The Sumerians also created a lunar calendar. To keep it accurate, they added a month every few years. Sumerians developed a form of community called the city-state, made up of a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it. Some city-states had thousands of residents. Each city-state had one or more gods. Later leaders joined city-states together and ruled as kings over them. Kings, priests, and nobles were at the top of society, followed by merchants and scholars. Below them were peasant farmers and slaves.
37Sumerians grew dates, grains, and vegetables and raised animals Sumerians grew dates, grains, and vegetables and raised animals. They grew flax for linen and wove wool for clothing. Surplus food allowed some people to become artisans and traders. By 3000 B.C. Sumerians were trading by land and by boat. Education was important for upper-class boys, who learned to write, spell, draw, and do arithmetic.The Sumerians practiced polytheism. Their gods were linked to nature, the sun, and the moon. A god or goddess also guarded each city. The Sumerians buried food and tools with their dead. They believed the dead went to a shadowy lower world, where there was no reward or punishment.
39The First Civilizations Section 4: Empires of the Fertile Crescent
40Hammurabi: Babylonian king who conquered the Tigris-Euphrates Valley in about 1792 B.C. and established laws known as the Code of HammurabiZoroaster: A Persian prophet who introduced Zoroastrianism, a religion based on the struggle between good and evil and the concept of a final judgment after death
41In this section you will learn more about the history of the Fertile Crescent. You will discover why the Sumerians were attacked and conquered by outsiders. You will learn about the Babylonians and their society. You will learn what other invaders conquered Babylon and why they failed to control it. Finally, you will learn about the Persians and the achievements of their civilization.
42In about 2330 B. C. the Akkadians conquered the Sumerians In about 2330 B.C. the Akkadians conquered the Sumerians. The Akkadians spoke a Semitic language related to Arabic and Hebrew. Sargon, an Akkadian king who ruled from 2334 B.C. to 2279 B.C., established a great empire that reached west to theMediterranean Sea. Then the Sumerian city-states returned to power.
43In about 1792 B.C. Hammurabi, from a new city called Babylon, conquered the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. He established the Code of Hammurabi, containing laws for all aspects of life, including commerce, working conditions, and property rights. Some of its ideas are still found in laws today. Punishment was harsh, based on “an eye for an eye.”The Babylonians farmed and kept animals. They wove cotton and wool cloth and were active traders. Babylonian women had some rights and could be merchants, traders, or scribes. Babylonians adopted Sumerian religious beliefs. They made sacrifices to their gods to ask for good harvests and believed priests could tell the future.
44The warlike Hittites invaded the Tigris-Euphrates Valley during the 1600s B.C. They were among the first people to make iron. Their government was efficient and their laws were less harsh than Babylonian law. Hittite kings were also chief-priests. The Hittites conquered and looted Babylon but were too far from their homeland to maintain control..
45They withdrew to the western Fertile Crescent From about 900 B. C They withdrew to the western Fertile Crescent From about 900 B.C. to 650 B.C., the Assyrians from the north built a mighty empire across the Fertile Crescent and into Egypt. Fierce warriors, the Assyrians were the first people to use cavalry—soldiers on horseback. They often enslaved the people they conquered. In about 700 B.C. the Assyrians captured and destroyed Babylon. The Assyrian capital, Nineveh, was surrounded by a huge double wall. A great library in Nineveh held clay tablets with writings from throughout the empire, including the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, among the world’s earliest works of literature
46In 612 B.C. the Chaldean leader Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Nineveh and conquered the Fertile Crescent. Babylon again became a fine city with magnificent buildings and canals. The king’s palace had lovely terraced gardens known as the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The Chaldeans were skilled astronomers, were advanced in math, and had accurate calendars. Once Nebuchadnezzar died, the Chaldean empire fell.
47By 850 B.C. the Persians were living in present-day Iran, ruled by the Medes. In about 550 B.C. Cyrus the Great of Persia rebelled against the Medes and captured Babylon and the Fertile Crescent. Later rulers expanded the Persian Empire. Persian kings were effective rulers, fair in collecting taxes and enforcing the law. They allowed conquered people to keep their religion and culture. Secret agents kept the king informed. The Persians built roads over 1,000 miles long to connect their empire, allowed the exchange of customs, goods, and ideas.
48Until about 600 B. C. the Persians worshipped many gods Until about 600 B.C. the Persians worshipped many gods. Then a prophet named Zoroaster introduced a religion based on the struggle between good and evil. People who chose good would be rewarded with eternal blessings, but those who chose evil would be punished. Someday good would triumph and Earth would disappear. Zoroastrianism had a great impact on the world’s religions. The Persian Empire ended when Alexander the Great conquered Persia in 331 B.C.
50Section 5 SummaryAt the western end of the Fertile Crescent lay Phoenicia. Today this region forms part of Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. Phoenicia was a loose union of city-states, each governed by a king. There was little fertile land, and the Lebanon Mountains blocked expansion to the east. So the Phoenicians began trading on the sea.Phoenician sailors sailed throughout the Mediterranean, using sails and oars.They may have sailed as far as Britain and the western coast of Africa. Phoenicians became the greatest traders of the ancient world. The Phoenician city of Carthage in North Africa became a major regional power. Phoenicia established other colonies in what is now Italy and Spain.
51Phoenicians traded lumber from cedar forests in the Lebanon Mountains Phoenicians traded lumber from cedar forests in the Lebanon Mountains. They also traded beautiful gold and silver objects made using methods learned from the Egyptians. Phoenicia invented the art of glassblowing and traded beautiful glass objects.Phoenicians made a purple dye from a shellfish. Cloth dyed with this purple dye was highly valued. A favorite of royalty, the color became known as royal purple. The cities of Sidon and Tyre became centers of the dyeing trade. The Phoenicians also exported dried fish, linen, olive oil, and wine.
52The Phoenicians borrowed from the cultures of other peoples, especially the Egyptians and Babylonians. Through trade they spread these cultures throughout the Mediterranean region. Phoenician religion was focused on winning the favor of the many gods they worshipped. Sometimes they even sacrificed their children.The Phoenicians never established a major empire. Their cities were eventually conquered by the Assyrians. Their major contribution to world culture was the Phoenician alphabet. Phoenicians used writing in business to draw up contracts and record bills. Their trading partners saw these written records and recognized their advantages. Phoenician traders spread their writing throughout the Mediterranean. The Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels. The Romans adapted this alphabet into the one we use today.
54To the south of Phoenicia lay a strip of land called Canaan To the south of Phoenicia lay a strip of land called Canaan. According to the Bible, Abraham, the founder of the Hebrews, led his people to Canaan from Sumer. Modern Jews trace their heritage through Abraham’s son Jacob (or Israel), whose twelve sons established the Twelve Tribes of Israel.The descendants of Abraham left Canaan and traveled to Egypt, probably to escape drought. Later the Egyptians enslaved the Hebrews. After 400 years a great leader, Moses, led the Hebrews’ escape from Egypt, known as the Exodus. According to the Bible, Moses climbed Mount Sinai and returned carrying tablets bearing the Ten Commandments. These were moral laws from their god, Yahweh. When the Hebrews agreed to follow the commandments, they entered into a covenant, or solemn agreement, with Yahweh. Moses said that Yahweh promised the land of Canaan to his people. The Hebrews wandered in the desert for years before entering the “promised land.”
55David’s son, Solomon, brought Israel to the height of its power David’s son, Solomon, brought Israel to the height of its power. He increased Israel’s wealth through trade, established peace, and built a magnificent temple in Jerusalem. After Solomon’s death the kingdom split into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah. They were conquered by the Assyrians and later the Chaldeans, who destroyed Jerusalem and Solomon’s temple. When Cyrus of Persia conquered the Chaldeans, he allowed the Hebrews to return and rebuild their temple.
56The Hebrews from Egypt joined those living north of Canaan The Hebrews from Egypt joined those living north of Canaan. A loose alliance of tribes, they were ruled by leaders known as Judges. Sometimes holy men, called prophets, appeared and warned that people were straying from the covenant. The Hebrews struggled for more than 200 years to establish a homeland in Canaan. They finally conquered the Canaanites and drove the Philistines closer to the coast. During these years the twelve tribes of Israel were united under one king, Saul. Saul was succeeded by David, who formed a new dynasty. David made the city of Jerusalem the capital of Israel.Hebrew scriptures, also known as the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, contain Hebrew history, law, poetry, prophecy, and religious instruction. The first five books, known as the Torah, include the Hebrew code of laws. Like the Code of Hammurabi, it demanded an “eye for an eye,” but it placed a higher value on human life and demanded kindness and respect toward all people.
57The Hebrews worshiped Yahweh as their only god and believed he protected them from enemies. They also feared punishment of those who sinned against Yahweh. Later the Hebrews believed that Yahweh allowed people to choose between good and evil. Unlike other ancient peoples, the Hebrews viewed Yahweh as a spiritual force, not a glorified human being, and their leaders were not seen as gods. Because Hebrew religion had only one god and emphasized ethics, or proper conduct, it is often called ethical monotheism.This ethical system carried over into Christianity and is sometimes called Judeo-Christian ethics—perhaps the Hebrews’ most important contribution to the world.
61Ancient Indian Civilizations Section 3: Hinduism and Buddhism In this section you will learn about the importance of religion in ancient Indian society. You will learn about India’s great religious texts and its complex form of social organization. You will learn about the principal elements of Hinduism and the basic beliefs of Buddhism, and how each religion influenced Indian society. Section 3 Summary In about 700 B.C. some religious thinkers broke away from the Brahmins. Their teachings were collected in the Upanishads (oo·PAH·ni·shahdz), which were written explanations of the Vedic religion. Ordinary people could not read the Upanishads. Instead they listened to heroic tales designed to explain the religion. Over time these stories were combined into two epics—long poems based on historical or religious themes. One, the Mahabharata (muh·HAH·BAHR·uh·tuh), tells of a great battle. The last 18 chapters, called the Bhagavad Gita, are the most famous Hindu scripture. The other epic, the Ramayana, tells the story of Rama, a prince and incarnation of the god Vishnu, and his wife Sita. Both stories offered role models to Hindus. Indian society developed a complex form of social organization known as the caste system. There were four varnas, or social classes. At the top were rulers and warriors. Next were the Brahmins, the priests and scholars, who later moved to the top varna. The third class included merchants, traders, and farmers. Peasants and laborers made up the fourth varna. A fifth group were called Pariahs, or “untouchables.” They performed only jobs viewed as unclean, such as skinning animals. One’s caste determined whom one could marry and what jobs one could hold. Although abolished, the caste system still influences Indian society. Hinduism became India’s major religion. It teaches that a divine essence called Brahman is the essence of all things in the universe. This belief in the unity of God and creation is called monism. Hinduism teaches that the world we see is an illusion, called maya. People can gain salvation by recognizing and rejecting maya, which takes many lifetimes. Hindus believe in the rebirth of souls, or reincarnation. Souls advance by doing their dharma, or moral duty in this life. Karma is the good or bad created by one’s actions. Souls who grow spiritually can reach nirvana, a perfect spiritual peace. To outsiders, Hinduism appears polytheistic—based on a belief in many gods. To Hindus their gods represent different aspects of creation, so Hinduism is monistic. The Hindu god Brahma, for example, can be represented as Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva the destroyer. Other gods are represented as trees, animals, or people. Hindus practice mental and physical exercises called yoga. They celebrate religious festivals with rituals, music, dancing, eating, and drinking. Cows are viewed as sacred and are protected by law. Another great religion, Buddhism, also arose in India. Its founder, Siddhartha Gautama, became known as the Buddha, or “the Enlightened One.” The son of a prince, Siddhartha Gautama was raised in luxury, shielded from reality. At age 29 he left his palace and was shocked to see disease, poverty, and death. He left his family and spent years wandering, meditating and fasting, searching to understand human suffering. One day, sitting under a tree, Siddhartha Gautama suddenly understood. In that moment he became the Buddha. He devoted his life to teaching the way to enlightenment. The Buddha accepted some Hindu ideas, such as reincarnation, but not the Hindu gods or the Vedas. He taught ethics, or good conduct, more than ceremonies. He taught that desire caused suffering and that all people should practice poverty and nonviolence. A person of any caste could reach nirvana. Brahmins opposed these teachings, and Buddha gained few followers in India during his lifetime. After his death, however, Buddhism spread throughout Asia. It split into two branches. Theravada Buddhism followed Buddhism’s traditional beliefs. Its followers believe that the Buddha was a great teacher and spiritual leader. Followers of Mahayana Buddhism regard the Buddha as a god and savior. Mahayana took hold mainly in China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.
70Section 41. What other natural events might be classified as yin and yang?2. What were Confucius’s views on politics?3. What were the main beliefs of the Daoists?4. In what major way did Legalism differ from the teachings of Confucius?