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Chapter 1 and 2. SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 and 2. SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 and 2

2 SSWH1 The student will analyze the origins, structures, and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE.

3 a. Describe the development of Mesopotamian societies; include the religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society, with attention to Hammurabi’s law code.Mesopotamian societies

4 b. Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt. Egypt

5 c. Explain the development of monotheism; include the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews, and Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism

6 d. Identify early trading networks and writing systems existent in the Eastern Mediterranean, including those of the Phoenicians.

7 e. Explain the development and importance of writing; include cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and the Phoenician alphabetcuneiform

8 SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.

9 a. Describe the development of Indian civilization; include the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the “Golden Age” under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka.

10 b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism.

11 c. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin.Qin.

12 d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture; include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea.

13 Chapter 1 section 2

14 At the end of the New Stone Age, people in permanent settlements began to advance rapidly, especially in four regions. These regions were (1) the Nile River valley in Africa, (2) the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates (yooFRAYtees) Rivers in southwestern Asia, (3) the Indus River valley in southern Asia, and (4) the Huang, or Yellow, River valley in Eastern Asia. These people first developed civilizations. A civilization is a complex culture with three characteristics. First, people can produce surplus, or extra, food. Second, people establish large towns or cities with some form of government. Third, people perform different jobs, instead of each person doing all kinds of work.

15 The Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and Huang Rivers all flood during rainy periods. During the rest of the year, little rain falls, and the climate is hot. People in these valleys developed irrigation systems, digging ditches and canals to move water from the river into fields to water their crops. They also built dikes to keep rivers from flooding. As a result, they produced surplus food, and population increased. Villages grew into large cities, where people provided labor to build great buildings. Leaders and forms of government emerged to help societies run. Governments made rules to guide people’s work and behavior.

16 As agricultural techniques improved, people could specialize in work other than farming. A division of labor emerged, in which different people performed different jobs. Some became skilled workers, called artisans. They could devote time to improving tools or technologies. Others became merchants or traders. Traders carried not only goods but also ideas. The spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area to another is called cultural diffusion.

17 The four river valley civilizations also developed a calendar and writing. Some historians believe these two achievements are also characteristics of civilization. Calendars helped people to know when the yearly floods would start and stop. As civilizations grew more complex, people needed to develop rules for living together. Written language was developed around 3000 B.C to keep and pass on information and ideas. History began.History

18 The four civilizations also used metals. More than 6,000 years ago, people began using copper. By 5,000 years ago they had begun mixing copper and tin to make bronze.bronze The Stone Age had ended and the Bronze Age had begun. By 3,200 years ago people in southwestern Asia had begun to make iron, which is even stronger than bronze. The Iron Age had begun.

19 In the four river valleys, women managed the family. They may have discovered agriculture and probably invented pottery and weaving. The rise of goddesses during this time suggests that women were powerful. However, with the invention of the plow and use of animals, men became the primary food providers, and their power increased. People believed in gods and goddesses and forces of nature that controlled all aspects of life. People prayed and offered sacrifices to their gods to bring rain.

20 Chapter 2 Section 1

21 Egyptian civilization was built along the Nile, the world’s longest river. It flows 4,160 miles to the Mediterranean Sea. Each summer the Nile flooded, leaving fertile soil behind. Egyptian farmers dug canals to irrigate their fields and harvested crops before the floods came. Thanks to Egypt’s warm climate they grew two or three crops a year.

22 The Nile Valley offered other advantages. People moved goods northward with the river’s flow, and sailed boats southward with the wind, promoting trade. Stone from the valley provided building material. The surrounding deserts and sea provided protection against invaders. The Isthmus of Suez, a land bridge, allowed trade with Asia. Hunger-gatherers lived in the Nile Valley by 12,000 B.C. A Neolithic farming culture developed by 6000 B.C. By 3800 B.C. the people mined copper and made bronze. By 3000 B.C. the people developed hieroglyphics a form of writing using signs, pictures, and symbols. Hieroglyphics were carved in stone and later marked on a kind of paper called papyrus, made from thin slices of the papyrus plant.hieroglyphics papyrus In A.D a French officer discovered a black stone in the village of Rosetta.

23 The Rosetta Stone was carved with hieroglyphics and passages in Greek. It gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.Rosetta Stone Two kingdoms developed, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. After 3200 B.C., Menes united them and formed a dynasty. The people built temples and tombs to honor their ruler or pharaoh, which means “great house.” Historians divide their rule into three periods, or kingdoms. In the Old Kingdom, from 2680 B.C. to 2180 B.C., Egyptians built the Great Sphinx and the largest pyramids. The lower class of peasants and farmers built the canals and pyramids. The upper class included the royal family, priests, and officials. Later the nobles grew powerful, starting 100 years of civil wars. In 2050 B.C. a new dynasty ushered in the Middle Kingdom, Egypt’s “golden age.”

24 By 1780 B.C. powerful nobles and priests were again making the kingdom unstable. By 1650 B.C. The Hyksos or “foreigners,” had conquered Egypt with their new tools of war, including chariots. From 1570 B.C. until 1080 B.C. a new line of pharaohs ruled during the New Kingdom. They conquered new lands and built an empire. Hatshepshut,one of the first female rulers, reigned from 1503 B.C. to 1482 B.C. She and her stepson Thutmose III, who ruled until 1450 B.C., brought Egypt to the height of its power.

25 From 1380 B.C. to 1362 B.C. Amenhotep IV ruled. Most Egyptians believed in many gods, or polytheism. Amenhotep believed in only one god, or monotheism. He changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning “he who is pleasing to Aton,” the sun god. After Akhenaton, few strong pharaohs ruled. Ramses II, who ruled from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C., built many temples and monuments. But by the 300s B.C. Egyptian rule had ended.

26 Chapter 2 Section 2

27 As dynasties rose and fell, ancient Egyptians created a remarkable culture. It is well known for its architecture and arts, such as the Great Sphinx and the pyramids, built ? as for the pharaohs. To move the heavy stones to form the pyramids, Egypt’s architects and engineers designed ramps and levers that were operated by thousands of workers. In art the Egyptians created small statues of rulers and animals. Many buildings were decorated with colorful paintings of everyday life.pyramids

28 Egyptian science, math, and medicine were also advanced. The Egyptians developed a calendar based on the phases of the moon, with twelve cycles of thirty days each. Later they noticed a bright star that rose every year before the floods. They counted 365 days between the times this star rose each year. So they added five days to their calendar for holidays. The Egyptians developed a number system based on ten and used both fractions and whole numbers. They used geometry to build the pyramids and rebuild fields after floods. They also used herbs and medicines to cure illness and learned to preserve bodies after death.death

29 Egyptians also developed an educational system. An elite group of people called scribes, or clerks, learned to read and write so that they could work for the government. Religion was an important part of life. At first each village had its own gods, symbolized by animals such as the cat, bull, crocodile, or scarab beetle. Later other Egyptians adopted some of these gods. The most important was Amon, the creator and sun god. Osiris, Amon’s wife, was goddess of the Nile.catcrocodile Egyptians believed that people and animals had an afterlife. They preserved the body by a process called mummification. They removed the organs and treated the body with chemicals, preserving the body for centuries. They placed the mummy in a tomb with clothing, food, tools and weapons that would be needed in the afterlife. For important persons there were more objects, and they were more valuable. Later a scroll called themummification.organs Book of the Dead was placed in tombs as a guide to the afterlife.

30 Egyptian society was rigidly divided into classes. People in the lower class could never enter the upper class. Egyptian women were the equals of their husbands in social and business affairs and could own property. Farmland was divided into large estates. Peasants farmed using crude hoes and plows. They grew wheat and barley. Flax and cotton (still important to Egypt today) were grown to be woven into cloth. The peasants worked hard but kept only part of the crop. The rest was sent to the pharaoh as rent and taxes.

31 Egypt traded surplus food with other peoples. A merchant class began carrying trade goods on donkeys and later on camels. They formed caravans— groups of people traveling together for safety over long distances. Caravans traveled to Asia and deep into Africa. Egyptians were among the first people to build seagoing ships. These ships traded along the Mediterranean and Red Seas and the African coast.

32 The First Civilizations Section 3: Sumerian Civilization

33 cuneiformcuneiform: Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets arch: A curved structure over an opening that is a very strong form in building ziggurats: Sumerian temples built from baked brick placed in layers city-state: A form of community that includes a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it

34 In this section you will learn about Sumerian civilization. You will learn how geography affected the development of civilization in the region of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent. You will learn about Sumer’s achievements in writing, architecture, and science. You will also learn what life was like in Sumerian society.writing Section 3 Summary Between 5000 B.C. and 4000 B.C., Neolithic farmers built a civilization in the Fertile Crescent, also called Mesopotamia. This strip of fertile land begins at the Isthmus of Suez and arcs through Southwest Asia to the Persian Gulf. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow through the Fertile Crescent. They rivers begin in what is now Turkey and flow southeast, at times up to 250 miles apart. The valley between them is the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Both rivers flood often. Unlike the Nile, their floods were unpredictable in their size and timing. Farmers built canals and dikes to bring water to their fields and return the water to the river after floods.

35 The grasslands and mountains surrounding the Fertile Crescent were not as barren as those around Egypt and offered less protection. Tribes of wandering herders often invaded the valley, conquered it, and established empires. New waves of invaders conquered the old, repeating the cycle. The Tigris and Euphrates deposited rich soil, especially near the Persian Gulf. Neolithic farmers settled in this area, called Sumer. By 3000 B.C. the Sumerians used metal and developed an early form of writing called pictographs, or picture writing. They wrote by pressing marks into clay tablets using a wedge-shaped tool called a stylus. Historians call Sumerian writing cuneiform, from the Latin word for wedge, cuneus. Sumerians had about 600 cuneiform signs.Sumer.claycuneiform In architecture the Sumerians probably invented the arch, a curved structure over an opening. The arch is a very strong form in building. By combining arches, the Sumerians built dome-shaped roofs. They built striking temples to their gods, called ziggurats, made of baked bricks placed in layers.arch ziggurats

36 The Sumerians may have invented the wheel. In mathematics, they divided a circle into 360 degrees. Each degree was divided into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. Compasses and clocks still use this system. The Sumerians also created a lunar calendar. To keep it accurate, they added a month every few years.wheel Sumerians developed a form of community called the city-state, made up of a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it. Some city-states had thousands of residents. Each city-state had one or more gods. Later leaders joined city-states together and ruled as kings over them. Kings, priests, and nobles were at the top of society, followed by merchants and scholars. Below them were peasant farmers and slaves.city-state

37 Sumerians grew dates, grains, and vegetables and raised animals. They grew flax for linen and wove wool for clothing. Surplus food allowed some people to become artisans and traders. By 3000 B.C. Sumerians were trading by land and by boat. Education was important for upper-class boys, who learned to write, spell, draw, and do arithmetic. The Sumerians practiced polytheism. Their gods were linked to nature, the sun, and the moon. A god or goddess also guarded each city. The Sumerians buried food and tools with their dead. They believed the dead went to a shadowy lower world, where there was no reward or punishment.polytheism

38 Organizer Egypt and Sumer

39 The First Civilizations Section 4: Empires of the Fertile Crescent

40 HammurabiHammurabi: Babylonian king who conquered the Tigris-Euphrates Valley in about 1792 B.C. and established laws known as the Code of Hammurabi Zoroaster: A Persian prophet who introduced Zoroastrianism, a religion based on the struggle between good and evil and the concept of a final judgment after death

41 In this section you will learn more about the history of the Fertile Crescent. You will discover why the Sumerians were attacked and conquered by outsiders. You will learn about the Babylonians and their society. You will learn what other invaders conquered Babylon and why they failed to control it. Finally, you will learn about the Persians and the achievements of their civilization.

42 In about 2330 B.C. the Akkadians conquered the Sumerians. The Akkadians spoke a Semitic language related to Arabic and Hebrew. Sargon, an Akkadian king who ruled from 2334 B.C. to 2279 B.C., established a great empire that reached west to theMediterranean Sea. Then the Sumerian city- states returned to power.

43 In about 1792 B.C. Hammurabi, from a new city called Babylon, conquered the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. He established the Code of Hammurabi, containing laws for all aspects of life, including commerce, working conditions, and property rights. Some of its ideas are still found in laws today. Punishment was harsh, based on “an eye for an eye.”HammurabiCode of Hammurabi The Babylonians farmed and kept animals. They wove cotton and wool cloth and were active traders. Babylonian women had some rights and could be merchants, traders, or scribes. Babylonians adopted Sumerian religious beliefs. They made sacrifices to their gods to ask for good harvests and believed priests could tell the future.

44 The warlike Hittites invaded the Tigris-Euphrates Valley during the 1600s B.C. They were among the first people to make iron. Their government was efficient and their laws were less harsh than Babylonian law. Hittite kings were also chief-priests. The Hittites conquered and looted Babylon but were too far from their homeland to maintain control..

45 They withdrew to the western Fertile Crescent From about 900 B.C. to 650 B.C., the Assyrians from the north built a mighty empire across the Fertile Crescent and into Egypt. Fierce warriors, the Assyrians were the first people to use cavalry—soldiers on horseback. They often enslaved the people they conquered. In about 700 B.C. the Assyrians captured and destroyed Babylon. The Assyrian capital, Nineveh, was surrounded by a huge double wall. A great library in Nineveh held clay tablets with writings from throughout the empire, including the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, among the world’s earliest works of literature

46 In 612 B.C. the Chaldean leader Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Nineveh and conquered the Fertile Crescent. Babylon again became a fine city with magnificent buildings and canals. The king’s palace had lovely terraced gardens known as the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The Chaldeans were skilled astronomers, were advanced in math, and had accurate calendars. Once Nebuchadnezzar died, the Chaldean empire fell.Hanging Gardens

47 By 850 B.C. the Persians were living in present-day Iran, ruled by the Medes. In about 550 B.C. Cyrus the Great of Persia rebelled against the Medes and captured Babylon and the Fertile Crescent. Later rulers expanded the Persian Empire. Persian kings were effective rulers, fair in collecting taxes and enforcing the law. They allowed conquered people to keep their religion and culture. Secret agents kept the king informed. The Persians built roads over 1,000 miles long to connect their empire, allowed the exchange of customs, goods, and ideas.

48 Until about 600 B.C. the Persians worshipped many gods. Then a prophet named Zoroaster introduced a religion based on the struggle between good and evil. People who chose good would be rewarded with eternal blessings, but those who chose evil would be punished. Someday good would triumph and Earth would disappear. Zoroastrianism had a great impact on the world’s religions. The Persian Empire ended when Alexander the Great conquered Persia in 331 B.C.

49 Section 5: The Phoenicians and the Lydians

50 Section 5 Summary At the western end of the Fertile Crescent lay Phoenicia. Today this region forms part of Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. Phoenicia was a loose union of city-states, each governed by a king. There was little fertile land, and the Lebanon Mountains blocked expansion to the east. So the Phoenicians began trading on the sea.Phoenicia Phoenician sailors sailed throughout the Mediterranean, using sails and oars. They may have sailed as far as Britain and the western coast of Africa. Phoenicians became the greatest traders of the ancient world. The Phoenician city of Carthage in North Africa became a major regional power. Phoenicia established other colonies in what is now Italy and Spain.Carthage

51 Phoenicians traded lumber from cedar forests in the Lebanon Mountains. They also traded beautiful gold and silver objects made using methods learned from the Egyptians. Phoenicia invented the art of glassblowing and traded beautiful glass objects. Phoenicians made a purple dye from a shellfish. Cloth dyed with this purple dye was highly valued. A favorite of royalty, the color became known as royal purple. The cities of Sidon and Tyre became centers of the dyeing trade. The Phoenicians also exported dried fish, linen, olive oil, and wine.

52 The Phoenicians borrowed from the cultures of other peoples, especially the Egyptians and Babylonians. Through trade they spread these cultures throughout the Mediterranean region. Phoenician religion was focused on winning the favor of the many gods they worshipped. Sometimes they even sacrificed their children. The Phoenicians never established a major empire. Their cities were eventually conquered by the Assyrians. Their major contribution to world culture was the Phoenician alphabet. Phoenicians used writing in business to draw up contracts and record bills. Their trading partners saw these written records and recognized their advantages. Phoenician traders spread their writing throughout the Mediterranean. The Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels. The Romans adapted this alphabet into the one we use today.Phoenician alphabet

53 Section 6: The Origins of Judaism

54 To the south of Phoenicia lay a strip of land called Canaan. According to the Bible, Abraham, the founder of the Hebrews, led his people to Canaan from Sumer. Modern Jews trace their heritage through Abraham’s son Jacob (or Israel), whose twelve sons established the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The descendants of Abraham left Canaan and traveled to Egypt, probably to escape drought. Later the Egyptians enslaved the Hebrews. After 400 years a great leader, Moses, led the Hebrews’ escape from Egypt, known as the Exodus. According to the Bible, Moses climbed Mount Sinai and returned carrying tablets bearing the Ten Commandments. These were moral laws from their god, Yahweh. When the Hebrews agreed to follow the commandments, they entered into a covenant, or solemn agreement, with Yahweh. Moses said that Yahweh promised the land of Canaan to his people. The Hebrews wandered in the desert for years before entering the “promised land.”Mount Sinai Ten Commandments

55 David’s son, Solomon, brought Israel to the height of its power. He increased Israel’s wealth through trade, established peace, and built a magnificent temple in Jerusalem. After Solomon’s death the kingdom split into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah. They were conquered by the Assyrians and later the Chaldeans, who destroyed Jerusalem and Solomon’s temple. When Cyrus of Persia conquered the Chaldeans, he allowed the Hebrews to return and rebuild their temple.

56 The Hebrews from Egypt joined those living north of Canaan. A loose alliance of tribes, they were ruled by leaders known as Judges. Sometimes holy men, called prophets, appeared and warned that people were straying from the covenant. The Hebrews struggled for more than 200 years to establish a homeland in Canaan. They finally conquered the Canaanites and drove the Philistines closer to the coast. During these years the twelve tribes of Israel were united under one king, Saul. Saul was succeeded by David, who formed a new dynasty. David made the city of Jerusalem the capital of Israel. Hebrew scriptures, also known as the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, contain Hebrew history, law, poetry, prophecy, and religious instruction. The first five books, known as the Torah, include the Hebrew code of laws. Like the Code of Hammurabi, it demanded an “eye for an eye,” but it placed a higher value on human life and demanded kindness and respect toward all people.

57 The Hebrews worshiped Yahweh as their only god and believed he protected them from enemies. They also feared punishment of those who sinned against Yahweh. Later the Hebrews believed that Yahweh allowed people to choose between good and evil. Unlike other ancient peoples, the Hebrews viewed Yahweh as a spiritual force, not a glorified human being, and their leaders were not seen as gods. Because Hebrew religion had only one god and emphasized ethics, or proper conduct, it is often called ethical monotheism. This ethical system carried over into Christianity and is sometimes called Judeo-Christian ethics—perhaps the Hebrews’ most important contribution to the world.

58 Games search Barnett Chapter 1 and 2Barnett Chapter 1 and 2

59 Chapter 3 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 1 [Chapter 3] Ancient Indian Civilizations The first civilizations arose in northeastern Africa and southwestern Asia. As you have learned, civilizations have the ability to produce surplus food, towns or cities with governments, and a division of labor. In this chapter you will learn how civilizations in ancient India fulfilled these requirements for civilization. They also went on to develop complex social and religious systems and to make great advances in science and culture. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 2 Ancient Indian Civilizations Section 1: Indus River Valley Civilization In this section you will learn about civilization in the Indus River Valley. You will learn about the role geography and climate played in the settlement of the Indian subcontinent. You will also discover how people lived in the first Indus River Valley civilization. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 3 Section 1 Summary The first Indian civilization developed about 4,500 years ago in the Indus River valley. Geography and climate played important roles in Indian civilization. The Indian subcontinent extends southward from central Asia into the Indian Ocean. It is cut off from immigrants or invaders from Asia by towering mountain ranges including the Himalayas, the world’s highest peaks. South of these mountains flow two great rivers: the Ganges, which flows southeast, and the Indus, which flows southwest. The region drained by these two rivers is the Indo- Gangetic Plain. South of these rivers lies a high plateau called the Deccan, which is bordered by the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats. A narrow coastal plain lies in the west along the Arabian Sea, and a broader plain lies in the east facing the Bay of Bengal. The peoples of these coastal plains became sea traders. Two features dominate India’s climate: monsoons and high temperatures. Monsoons are winds that mark the seasons in India. From November until March, monsoons blow from the northeast, dropping moisture on the Himalayas before reaching India. From mid-June until October, the southwest monsoon carries warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains fall along the coastal plains. The southwest monsoon brings much of the year’s rainfall. If it arrives late or brings little rain, crops fail. If the monsoon brings too much rain, floods destroy the countryside. Temperatures can reach 120ºF in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. A great civilization developed in the Indus River valley from 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C. Archaeologists call it the Harappan Civilization after one of the two cities they have Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 4 unearthed, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Both cities were large and carefully planned, with wide streets, water systems, public baths, and brick sewers. Some Harappans lived in two-story brick homes with bathrooms and garbage chutes. Each city had a strong central fortress, or citadel, on a brick platform. Storehouses held grain for 35,000 people. Storage of so much food shows careful planning and probably a strong central government. Harappan farmers grew cotton, wheat, barley, and rice on rich farmland. They built canals and ditches for irrigation. They also raised cattle, sheep, pgs, and goats. As early as 2300 B.C., the Harappans traded with people of the Tigris-Euphrates valley. They traded surplus food and fine crafts such as cotton cloth, pottery, bronze items, and gold and silver jewelry. Traders and craft workers lived in the cities. Harappans developed a written language in the form of pictographs, but scholars cannot read it. No temples have been found, but scholars believe the people worshiped a god and used images of animals such as the bull, buffalo, and tiger in rituals. There is also evidence of a mother goddess who symbolized fertility. No one knows why the Indus River valley civilization disappeared. Perhaps the Indus River changed course and flooded. There may have been an earthquake or violence from invading forces. People appear to have abandoned their homes and possessions suddenly, suggesting disaster. Back Print

60 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 5 Ancient Indian Civilizations Section 2: Indo-Aryan Migrants In this section you will learn how life in northern India changed with the coming of the Indo-Aryans from the north. You will learn about the Indo-Aryan religion and other major contributions that the India Aryans made to ancient Indian society. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 6 Section 2 Summary In about 1750 B.C. tribes of Indo-European people began to cross the mountains into India in slow waves from north of the Black and Caspian Seas. These nomadic peoples, called the Indo-Aryans, were sheep and cattle herders and skilled warriors. India’s rich pasturelands drew them south. Their archers and charioteers helped conquer all of northern India. The great literature of the Indo-Aryan religion is called the Vedas. For centuries people memorized the Vedas and retold them to their children. Later they developed writing and recorded the Vedas in Sanskrit, the Indo-Aryan language. We call the period of India’s history from 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C. the Vedic Age. The earliest gods in the Vedas personified nature. Thus the sky became a father, the earth a mother. In addition to gods and goddesses there was one supreme god who created order in the universe. Later each god had particular characteristics. Varuna, for example, was the guardian of cosmic order who lived in a great palace in the sky. At first there were no temples. Ceremonies were performed in open spaces. Fires were lit on altars and foods and plant juices were offered as sacrifices. As these rituals became more complicated, only special Indo-Aryan priests called Brahmins knew the proper forms and rules. Brahmins held great importance. Sanskrit was used only by priests in rituals, and no longer for everyday speech. Indo Aryans no longer wandered although they continued to herd animals. In time their settlements joined into small states. Each city-state was governed by a raja, or Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 7 prince, who was also the military leader, lawmaker, and judge. A royal council assisted him. Usually Indo-Aryans lived in peace with neighboring groups. Physical and social differenced between the Indo-Aryans and earlier residents were the source of a complex system of social orders. The light-skinned, nomadic Indo-Aryans placed themselves above the dark-skinned, settled people of the Indus Valley. Warriors and priests were at the top of the social structure, with merchants, traders, farmers, and servants below them. The Vedas also tell us about family life. Rules governed marriage ceremonies and restricted marriage among the social orders. Parents usually arranged marriages. Society strongly valued sacrifice. The Indo-Aryans raised wheat and barley and used irrigation to grow rice. Other crops included sugar cane, vegetables, gourds, peas, beans, and lentils. Poor transportation limited trade, which was conducted by barter. The Indo-Aryans brought with them a new social order, new language, and new religious ideas. A new society resulted in which social classes were more rigid and more identified with ritual purity. The southern part of the Indian subcontinent was cut off from the north by the Vindhya Range. There people were able to hold on to their distinct ways of life. People there remained divided into diverse social groups. Some were farmers, while others were hunter-gatherers. Those living along the coast turned to trade. A few became wealthy trading cotton, spices, and ivory. Through trade, southern Indians made contact with other civilizations in Southeast Asia. Back Print

61 Ancient Indian Civilizations Section 3: Hinduism and Buddhism In this section you will learn about the importance of religion in ancient Indian society. You will learn about India’s great religious texts and its complex form of social organization. You will learn about the principal elements of Hinduism and the basic beliefs of Buddhism, and how each religion influenced Indian society. Section 3 Summary In about 700 B.C. some religious thinkers broke away from the Brahmins. Their teachings were collected in the Upanishads (oo·PAH·ni·shahdz), which were written explanations of the Vedic religion. Ordinary people could not read the Upanishads. Instead they listened to heroic tales designed to explain the religion. Over time these stories were combined into two epics—long poems based on historical or religious themes. One, the Mahabharata (muh·HAH·BAHR·uh·tuh), tells of a great battle. The last 18 chapters, called the Bhagavad Gita, are the most famous Hindu scripture. The other epic, the Ramayana, tells the story of Rama, a prince and incarnation of the god Vishnu, and his wife Sita. Both stories offered role models to Hindus. Indian society developed a complex form of social organization known as the caste system. There were four varnas, or social classes. At the top were rulers and warriors. Next were the Brahmins, the priests and scholars, who later moved to the top varna. The third class included merchants, traders, and farmers. Peasants and laborers made up the fourth varna. A fifth group were called Pariahs, or “untouchables.” They performed only jobs viewed as unclean, such as skinning animals. One’s caste determined whom one could marry and what jobs one could hold. Although abolished, the caste system still influences Indian society. Hinduism became India’s major religion. It teaches that a divine essence called Brahman is the essence of all things in the universe. This belief in the unity of God and creation is called monism. Hinduism teaches that the world we see is an illusion, called maya. People can gain salvation by recognizing and rejecting maya, which takes many lifetimes. Hindus believe in the rebirth of souls, or reincarnation. Souls advance by doing their dharma, or moral duty in this life. Karma is the good or bad created by one’s actions. Souls who grow spiritually can reach nirvana, a perfect spiritual peace. To outsiders, Hinduism appears polytheistic— based on a belief in many gods. To Hindus their gods represent different aspects of creation, so Hinduism is monistic. The Hindu god Brahma, for example, can be represented as Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva the destroyer. Other gods are represented as trees, animals, or people. Hindus practice mental and physical exercises called yoga. They celebrate religious festivals with rituals, music, dancing, eating, and drinking. Cows are viewed as sacred and are protected by law. Another great religion, Buddhism, also arose in India. Its founder, Siddhartha Gautama, became known as the Buddha, or “the Enlightened One.” The son of a prince, Siddhartha Gautama was raised in luxury, shielded from reality. At age 29 he left his palace and was shocked to see disease, poverty, and death. He left his family and spent years wandering, meditating and fasting, searching to understand human suffering. One day, sitting under a tree, Siddhartha Gautama suddenly understood. In that moment he became the Buddha. He devoted his life to teaching the way to enlightenment. The Buddha accepted some Hindu ideas, such as reincarnation, but not the Hindu gods or the Vedas. He taught ethics, or good conduct, more than ceremonies. He taught that desire caused suffering and that all people should practice poverty and nonviolence. A person of any caste could reach nirvana. Brahmins opposed these teachings, and Buddha gained few followers in India during his lifetime. After his death, however, Buddhism spread throughout Asia. It split into two branches. Theravada Buddhism followed Buddhism’s traditional beliefs. Its followers believe that the Buddha was a great teacher and spiritual leader. Followers of Mahayana Buddhism regard the Buddha as a god and savior. Mahayana took hold mainly in China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.Mahabharata the Bhagavad Gita Pariahs. Theravada Buddhism

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63 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 12 Ancient Indian Civilizations Section 4: Ancient Indian Dynasties and Empires In this section you will learn about ancient Indian Dynasties and Empires. You will learn how the Mauryan rlers increased their power and built an empire. You will also learn how the Gupta family came to power and the reasons for the decline of their rule. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 13 Section 4 Summary The rulers of the Magadha kingdom were the first to unify India and protect it from invasions. The kingdom of Magadha was at the height of its power in 540 B.C. Then Darius the Great of Persia conquered the Indus River valley, but Magadha soon regained control and ruled until about 320 B.C. As Magadha was declining, a powerful young adventurer named Chandragupta Maurya seized power and established the Mauryan Empire. A Greek diplomat kept a detailed record of events during his rule. Chandragupta built a grand palace and raised an army of 600,000 soldiers with thousands of chariots and elephants. He united most of northwestern India. Chandragupta Maurya established a rigid bureaucracy. He had workers dig mines and build centers for spinning and weaving. He standardized weights and measures and established standards for physicians. Chandragupta also made many enemies and took many precautions for fear of assassination. In about 300 B.C. rule passed to his son. Chandragupta’s grandson, A_oka, proved to be an even greater ruler than his grandfather. A_oka fought bloody wars to enlarge his empire. His dynasty became the first to include all of India except the southern tip. Later A_oka sickened of battle, ordered and end to the killing, and became a Buddhist. Many other Indian people also became Buddhists. A_oka sent missionaries to other countries to spread the Buddhist faith. He reversed many policies of his father and grandfather. He supported religious freedom for all people. His laws were carved into stone pillars in public places. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 14 A_oka worked to unite the diverse peoples and states in his empire by improving living conditions. Along trade routes he ordered workers to plant banyan trees for shade, dig wells for water, and build houses for rest. Many cultural and political advances were made. After A_oka died, however, the Mauryan Empire began a slow decline. His sons battled each other for control of the throne, and invaders attacked the northern provinces. In 184 B.C. the last Mauryan emperor was killed by a Brahmin general, who declared the start of a new imperial dynasty. Chandra Gupta I, the founder of the Gupta Empire, took power in the A.D. 300s in Magadha, the old capital of the Mauryans. The Gupta family expanded their territory through conquest and marriage. By the A.D. 400s the Gupta Empire included all of the northern part of India. Under the early Gupta rulers, Indian civilization flourished. During the reign of Chandra Gupta II (A.D. 374–415), great progress was made in society and the arts. The Guptas favored Hinduism although they allowed Buddhism. During Gupta rule Hinduism became the dominant religion of India. It remains so today. Under later rulers the Gupta empire was weakened. The Gupta political system was less centralized than the Mauryan government; it gave much power to local leaders. During the late A.D.400s invaders from central Asia began to control northern India. The last great Gupta king, Skanda Gupta, drained the treasury trying to defend the empire. Back Print

64 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 15 Ancient Indian Civilizations Section 5: Ancient Indian Life and Culture In this section you will learn more about ancient Indian life and culture. You will learn about Indian economy and society and particularly about the limitations of women’s rights. You will also learn about the most important cultural achievements of the Gupta period in art, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 16 Section 5 Summary While the highest classes in northern India enjoyed luxury, most people barely survived. During the Indo-Aryan period, the rajas drew wealth from the farmers who worked the land. During the Mauryan Empire, the rulers claimed one-fourth of each harvest. In southern India many people made their living through foreign trade. Traders sold silk, cotton, wool, ivory, spices, and precious gems. Indian goods appeared in the Far East, Southwest Asia, Africa, and Europe. Although Hindu custom gave women some protections, they had fewer rights than men. The Hindu Laws of Manu required girls to obey their fathers, wives to obey their husbands, and widows to obey their sons. Women were prohibited from owning property or studying sacred writings. Men could have more than one wife. This practice, called polygyny, became widespread. So did a practice called suttee, in which widows committed suicide by throwing themselves on their husbands’ flaming funeral pyres. Among the cultural achievements of the Gupta period were the stories of the Panchatantra, or “Five Books.” These fables, or stories with morals, taught the benefits of being adaptable, shrewd, and determined. The Panchatantra has been translated into more languages than any other book except the Bible. Indian drama developed greatly. Plays were often performed in the open air. They contained tragic scenes but ended happily. The only paintings that survived are murals in caves depicting the Buddha and his followers. They show the influence of Greek and Roman art. Sculpture became more rigid and formal during the Gupta period. Architects Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 3/ page 17 designed and built great Hindu temples to enclose a statue of a god. The Mauryan ruler A_oka also built thousands of stupas, or dome-shaped shrines to Buddha. Education was advanced, but only for children of the higher castes. They studied the Vedas and the great epics. They also learned astronomy, mathematics, warfare, and government. Nalanda was a famous Buddhist university where thousands of students attended for free. Although it was Buddhist, the university also taught the Vedas, Hindu philosophy, logic, grammar, and medicine. Indian science was highly developed. Mathematicians understood the concepts of abstract and negative numbers, zero, and infinity. Aryabhata, a mathematician born in the late A.D. 400s, was one of the first people to use algebra and to solve quadratic equations. Although we call the digits 1 through 9 “Arabic” numerals, they were probably invented in India. Indian astronomers identified seven planets, understood the earth’s rotation, and predicted eclipses. Indian physicians understood the importance of the spinal cord. They could set bones and perform plastic surgery. They developed inoculation—the practice of infecting a person with a mild form of a disease so that he or she will not become ill with the more serious form. They successfully inoculated people against smallpox. Smallpox vaccines were unknown in the West until the 1700s. Indian rulers built free hospitals. Physicians practiced cleanliness before operations and disinfected wounds, another procedure not known in Western medicine until recently. Back Print

65 Chapter 4 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 1 [Chapter 4] Ancient Chinese Civilization You have now studied ancient civilizations that grew along the fertile valleys of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, and Indus Rivers. These civilizations shared many characteristics while also developing distinct cultures and patterns of life. In this chapter you will learn how China’s earliest civilizations developed and how they compare with other ancient cultures. You will learn the history of China’s great dynasties. You will also study its philosophies, life, and culture and discover its greatest achievements. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 2 Ancient Chinese Civilization Section 1: Geographic and Cultural Influences In this section you will learn about the geography of China and the role that rivers played in ancient Chinese life. You will also learn how geography isolated China and influenced the development of Chinese culture. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 3 Section 1 Summary The vast land of China varies greatly in geography and climate. Snow-capped mountains in the west slope down to wind-swept desert plateaus. In the south there are rolling hills. In the north the North China Plain runs along the coast. A mountain range called the Qinling (CHIN·LING) Shandi runs west to east, dividing northern from southern China. This range separates the valleys of two great rivers—the Huang and the Chang, or Yangtze. Northern China receives less rain and has more extreme temperatures. The growing season is short, and wheat is the principal crop. In central and southern China, rainfall is more plentiful, and rice is the main crop. China is made up of many regions with different histories. The heart of China, called China Proper, stretches from the coast inland and includes the Huang, Chang, and Xi (SHEE) rivers. At times during its history China has conquered and ruled Tibet, Xinjiang (SHIN-JYAHNG), Mongolia, Manchuria, and northern Korea, which form a semicircle around China Proper. Sometimes nomads from these regions conquered and ruled China Proper. The Huang, Chang, and Xi rivers are important in Chinese history. The Huang River valley has a fertile yellow soil called loess (LES). So much loess washes into the river that the Chinese called it Huang, meaning “yellow.” Nicknamed “China’s Sorrow,” the Huang is prone to terrible floods. Early farmers built earthen dikes, or walls, along the Huang to protect crops from floods. The dikes, however, slowed the river’s flow, causing the river to deposit more silt on the bottom. Eventually the silt forced the river higher, and it again flooded. The Chinese built the dikes higher and higher. Today the Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 4 Huang River flows 12 feet above the land. Every few years the Huang broke through the dikes, causing great destruction. The floodwater could not drain into the higher riverbed and remained on the land. Since rainfall was unpredictable, floods alternated with drought and famine. The Chang River, in central China, cuts a deep channel through its valley. It is very long. Today ships can navigate many hundreds of miles upstream. The Xi River, in southern China, is shorter but is also an important commercial waterway. Great distances, rugged mountains, and harsh deserts isolated China from civilizations to the west. As a result, China developed a distinctive culture, borrowing only a few ideas from other cultures. The Chinese did trade with the nomadic peoples to the north, who had their own cultures and languages. Sometimes mounted warriors from these cultures attacked Chinese settlements. The Chinese considered these people inferior and called them barbarians. China’s isolation helped give the Chinese a strong sense of identity and superiority. They called China the Middle Kingdom, the center of the world. They believed that other people became fully civilized only when they adopted the Chinese language and culture. Outsiders who overran parts of China often lost their identity over time and blended into Chinese culture. Back Print

66 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 5 Ancient Chinese Civilization Section 2: The Shang Dynasty In this section you will learn more about ancient China. You will learn how the Chinese created legends to explain their early history. You will learn about the rise of the Shang dynasty, and how its government and economy were organized. You will earn about the religious beliefs of the Shang and their language and writing. Finally, you will discover why the Shang dynasty collapsed. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 6 Section 2 Summary The early Chinese created legends to explain China’s past and its role in history. One tells how a heroic figure name Yu drained away floodwaters so people could live in China. Yu established a line of kings called the Xia (SHAH), who lived in the Huang River region. Little evidence supports these legends, but scholars agree that the Xia people existed. They developed agriculture and possibly written symbols but were unable to control floods or drought. Sometime before 1500 B.C. the Shang conquered the valley. The Shang introduced simple irrigation and flood control and created China’s first dynasty. Shang rulers created a complex bureaucracy—a government organized into different levels and tasks. A well-organized army, with chariots and bronze weapons, increased Shang territory. Shang farmers grew millet and rice and raised pigs, chicken, and horses. The Shang also raised silkworms. In the Shang towns lived merchants and artisans. Shang potters developed the forms of later Chinese vases, using fine clay and hard glazes. The Chinese lunar, or moon-based, calendar was used to record events such as births. Each month began with a new moon and had about 29 days. To make up the 365 days of the solar, or sun-based, calendar, priest-astronomers added days. Their accuracy helped determine the success of the harvest and the king’s popularity. The Shang religion combined animism—the belief that spirits inhabit everything—with ancestor worship. They worshiped gods of the wind, sun, clouds, and moon. A powerful dragon became the symbol of Chinese rulers. Festivals were held in the spring to ensure good crops and in the fall to give thanks for the harvest. The Shang also Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 7 believed in Shangdi, a god who controlled nature and human destiny. Rulers offered sacrifices to their ancestors, asking them to plead with Shangdi. Priests predicted events and interpreted divine messages. Some wrote questions on oracle bones—the shoulder bones of cattle or tortoise shells. They then heated the bones and interpreted the cracks that appeared. Some marked their interpretations on the bone or shell. Rulers claimed to base all decisions upon the will of Shangdi. The Shang also developed a written language. The Chinese spoke many dialects, or variations of their language. Their written language represented all dialects. At first words were assigned pictographs, or drawings of objects. These later developed into ideographs, which join an idea sign with a sign for the sound of the word. New characters were invented by combining existing signs. Each character, however, had to be memorized. For centuries only clerks, scribes, and teachers could read and write. Using brushes, they wrote characters from top to bottom on a page, starting at the right. Eventually, writing became an art called calligraphy. Herders from the desert and the foothills who settled along the borders of Shang China battled continually with the Shang. Finally the Zhou (JOH) allied with nearby tribes and overthrew the Shang. They claimed that the Shang were corrupt and unfit to rule—an excuse used frequently in China’s history. Back Print

67 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 8 Ancient Chinese Civilization Section 3: The Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties In this section you will learn about the three dynasties that succeeded the Shang Dynasty in China: the Zhou, Qin (CHIN), and Han Dynasties. You will learn why the Zhou fell from power. You will discover how the Qin dynasty used power to maintain its authority. And you will learn about the achievements of the Han emperors. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 9 Section 3 Summary The Zhou dynasty conquered China in about 1050 B.C. Zhou kings granted territories to their kin and allies to rule. In return these rulers gave military service and tribute to the Zhou kings. Zhou kings believed that their god gave them the right to rule. By the 700s B.C. Zhou kings were losing control as local leaders were fighting among themselves. Invasions were frequent. Zhou kings may also have become poor leaders. One legend claims that a wicked king sent his troops to fight an imaginary enemy. Later, troops ignored warnings when a real army attacked. In any case, invaders destroyed the Zhou capital in the 700s B.C. The Zhou fled eastward to a new capital but controlled little more than their own city-state. After centuries of battles between the so-called Warring States, the Qin (CHIN) conquered China in 221 B.C. Cheng, who founded the Qin dynasty, took the title Shih Huang Ti, meaning “first emperor.” The Qin dynasty lasted only 15 years but profoundly changed China. China’s Western name, “China,” comes from Qin. The Qin established an autocracy, in which the emperor held total power. He executed those who criticized the government. The Qin built 1,500 miles of walls to defend their borders, which were added to by later dynasties to form the Great Wall of China. But people who were forced to labor on projects like the Great Wall grew angry. In 206 B.C. Liu Bang, a commoner and a Qin general, overthrew the empire and founded the Han dynasty. The Han were moderate rulers who kept power for 400 years. The longest-ruling Han emperor was Liu Ch’e, commonly known as Wu Ti. He extended Han rule into Manchuria and Korea, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia. The Han dynasty established a Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 10 civil service, a centralized system to run the day-to-day business of government. The Han created examinations to select the best candidates, and an imperial university trained people for service. Usually, however, only those with connections and money for schooling could train. China’s well-trained civil service helped govern its complex society until the early 1900s. Rising and falling prices often caused hardship for peasant farmers. Liu Ch’e invented leveling, a policy in which the government used price controls to balance the effects of surpluses or shortages. It stored surplus grains for lean years. Liu Ch’e established military colonies to expand control over warring tribes to the north and keep the peace. Trade prospered along the Silk Road, a trade route that stretched from China across central Asia to the Mediterranean. Camel caravans carried jade, silk, and other Chinese goods to sell to wealthy Greeks and Romans. The caravans returned with gold, silver, wool, and luxury goods from Europe and Asia. Paper, a Chinese invention, spread to the Western world. China’s population grew to about 50 million during the Han dynasty. The Han dynasty ruled for four centuries. After the fall of the last Han emperor, nomadic peoples swept across northern China, pushing Han subjects south. Back Print

68 Chapter 4 Section 3 1. What factors led to the decline of the Zhou dynasty? 2. Why might Cheng have felt that free discussion was dangerous to his rule? 3. How did the civil service system affect China?

69 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 11 Ancient Chinese Civilization Section 4: Philosophies of Ancient China In this section you will learn about the philosophies of ancient China. You will discover why the Chinese valued the concept of balance. You will learn about the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his teachings. You will also learn about another Chinese philosopher, Laozi, and the philosophy called Daoism. Daoism and Confucianism worked together in Chinese society, and you will find why. Finally, you will learn how beliefs such as Legalism and Buddhism influenced Chinese history. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 12 Section 4 Summary Chinese philosophy flourished during the political upheavals at the end of the Zhou dynasty. Philosophers looked for ways to restore harmony. According to ancient Chinese beliefs, the world is a balance between two forces. The yin force is female, dark, and passive. Yang is male, bright, and active. Yin and yang are not in conflict; instead, they depend on each other. At best they are balanced. For example, day, which is yang, gives way to night, which is yin. The Chinese also valued balance in human affairs. A leading philosopher of the Zhou era, Confucius, influenced China more than any other philosopher.Confucius’s ideas and teachings are collected in a work called the Analects. Confucius taught the importance of family, respect for one’s elders, and reverence for the past and one’s ancestors. Confucius said little about religion. He sought ethical solutions to the social unrest of his time. Confucius believed that each person should accept his or her role and duties in society. He also taught that government leaders should be virtuous—that is, honest and honorable. They should not seek wealth or power but only their people’s welfare. Moral, well-educated officials would set good examples, and people would gladly follow such leaders. Two centuries after Confucius a philosopher name Mencius built on these ideas. Mencius taught that individuals contain goodness that can be strengthened in the proper environment. Mencius taught that people had a right to rebel against weak, harsh, or unjust rulers. Mencius’s teachings were also influential. During Confucius’s time another philosopher, Laozi, founded the philosophy called Daoism (DOW·ih·zuhm). Laozi saw the Dao, or “the Way,” as a force governing all Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 13 of creation. He taught that people should withdraw from the world and contemplate nature. Instead of seeking wealth or power, people should come into harmony with the Dao by being humble, quiet, and thoughtful. Laozi’s teachings, compiled in the Dao De Jing, became second only to Confucianism in their influence on Chinese life. Peasants were drawn to Daoism’s concern with nature. Artists liked its spontaneity. Confucianists appreciated balancing political concerns with contemplation of nature. Like yin and yang, Daoism and Confucianism balanced each other. Like Confucianism, the philosophy called Legalism concerned itself with politics. But Legalists believed in power and in harsh laws rather than virtuous officials. They believed people were selfish by nature. Harsh punishment was necessary to enforce the law and achieve peace. Qin rulers followed the ideas of Legalism, but their dynasty did not last long, possibly because of its cruelty. The long-lived Han dynasty accepted Legalist principles, but balanced them with the more moderate ideas of Confucianism. Buddhism was brought to China by missionaries at the end of the Han dynasty. Competing military leaders were leading destructive raids through the land. Many Chinese turned to Buddhist temples and ceremonies, which offered peace during turbulent times. Buddhism also emphasized charity and compassion, ideals lacking in other philosophies. Mahayana, the main form of Buddhism in China, teaches that the Buddha helps human beings escape from the world’s miseries. All four philosophies strongly influenced Chinese society. Confucianism established reverence for the past and the family. Confucianism and Legalism provided strong Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 14 foundations for government. Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism provided guides to right living. Back Print

70 Section 4 1. What other natural events might be classified as yin and yang? 2. What were Confucius’s views on politics? 3. What were the main beliefs of the Daoists? 4. In what major way did Legalism differ from the teachings of Confucius?

71 HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 15 Ancient Chinese Civilization Section 5: Chinese Life and Culture In this section you will learn more about Chinese life and culture. You will find out why the family was a central institution in Chinese society. You will learn more about the lives of farmers in ancient China. You will also discover the greatest achievements of the ancient Chinese in the arts and sciences. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 16 Section 5 Summary Three key values that shaped Chinese culture were reverence for one’s family, respect for age, and acceptance of decisions made by one’s superiors. The well-being of the state depended on the well-being of the family, and the family was more important than the individual. Each upper-class family kept a genealogy, or record of its family tree. Most families constructed altars to honor their ancestors. A typical upper-class family included a father, his wife, sons with their wives and children, and unmarried daughters. Often they all lived in the same house. The father ruled the family, arranged marriages, and decided his sons’ careers. Women had few legal rights. Chinese society, however, taught great respect for mothers and mothers-inlaw, and they held great power within the household. Daughters-in-law were sometimes treated like servants in their husbands’ families until they gave birth to sons. Although Chinese towns grew, most people were village farmers. Life was hard. Groups of families sometimes worked fields together, using ox-drawn plows. They had complex systems of irrigation and flood control. The governments required peasants to pay taxes and perform labor on canals, roads, and other projects. Trade first became important during the Qin dynasty. Qin leaders brought important reforms to the economy. They standardized the currency and the system of weights and measures. Trade also during the Han Dynasty. In education, five texts known as the Five Classics were used to train scholars and civil servants. The Book of Poems contains more than 300 poems about domestic life, joy, love, and politics. The Book of History contains government speeches and documents. Back Print HRW/World History ©2003 Audio Summary/Chapter 2/ page 17 The Book of Changes is about predicting the future. The Spring and Autumn Annals is a record of events in one city-state from 722 B.C. to 481 B.C. The Book of Rites deals with manners and ceremonies. In addition to the Five Classics, educated young men read the Analects of Confucius. The Qin and Han periods saw dramatic advances in science and technology. In 28 B.C. Chinese astronomers first observed sunspots, which were not seen by Europeans until the A.D. 1600s. Before A.D. 100 Chinese astronomers built instruments to track the planets’ motion. The Chinese invented a seismograph that registered even faint earthquakes. In 150 B.C. they made the world’s first paper from fishing nets, hemp, old rags, and tree bark. By the A.D. 700s paper reached the Middle East and replaced papyrus. The Chinese also invented the sundial, the water clock, and the process of printing. In chemistry the Chinese discovered cloth dyes and pottery glazes. They developed medicines from herbs and minerals. The therapy known as acupuncture developed from the Daoist belief that health depends on the movement of life-force energy through the body. The doctor inserts needles at certain points to help move this energy. Today the Chinese use acupuncture to stop pain during surgery. Many Americans use it to relieve pain from arthritis or cancer. Back Print

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