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Driver Recert 2012 Topics Update on Fire Hose Friction Loss Coefficients Fire Flow Through Long LDH Supply Lines Rural Water Supply Flow Rates Booster Tank Fill Rate Data Engine Deck Gun Flow Rate Data Tower Monitor Flow Rate Data Rescue 351 Topics Other Stuff in General

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**Fire Hose Friction Loss Calculation Changes Are On the Way**

Fire Protection Research Foundation (supports the NFPA) Project: “Developing Friction Loss Coefficients For Modern Fire Hose” Start: Jun Expected Completion: Fall 2011 Summary: Current baseline friction loss coefficients used to calculate fire hose pressure loss were derived using 50 year-old hose design technology. Modern fire hose has substantially less friction loss and different performance characteristics than the hose on which these coefficients were originally based. Calculating pressure loss in modern fire hose cannot be done with reasonable accuracy using currently recognized friction loss coefficients. Pressures that are calculated with these current coefficients are typically higher than those which occur in practice In some cases this could result in elevated and potentially dangerous nozzle pressures. Research Objective: This project will develop baseline friction loss coefficients for the types of fire hose commonly used by today’s fire service, and identify any additional performance characteristics that should be considered for friction loss calculations. Affected NFPA Documents: This project directly addresses a topic specifically covered by NFPA 1961, Standard on Fire Hose (2007 edition). The friction loss characteristics of fire hose are an important consideration in the selection of fire hose but are not currently included in NFPA The next revision of this standard will address the friction loss characteristics to include updated values for the friction loss coefficients for modern fire hose.

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Overall objective of research project was to develop friction loss char of modern fire hose and use new FL data to support the revision of the FL coefficients Current FL coefs based on old hose mfg technology are considered to be outdated and overly conservative Tests conducted at 3 different test sites from Oct 2010 thru Sep 2011, final report was issued in Apr 2012 Six hose manufacturers participated in tests: Key, Angus-UTC, All American/Snap-tite, Mercedes, and North American Test results indicated that the majority of the FL coefs for today’s fire hose fall significantly below current values Conclusion: A fairly large degree of variability was observed in the test data. A more thorough statistical analysis is necessary for identifying statistically significant trends. Additional testing may be required to support the analysis.

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**Friction Loss Coefficients**

Friction Loss Formula: FL = C(Q/100)2(L/100) FL Coefficients (C) Currently Used by the BAVFC: For 3” hose, we normally use C = 1.0 for FL calculations in the field For 4” LDH, we take 1/5 of the FL for 3”; C = 1/5 = 0.2 For 5” LDH, we take 1/15 of the FL for 3”; C = 1/15 = 0.07 We don’t calculate FL for the 1-3/4” handlines, EP = 150 psi Current Standard FL Coefficients: 1-3/4” hose: C = 15.5 3” hose: C = 0.8 4” LDH: C = 0.2 5” LDH: C = 0.08 FL Coefficients for New Hose Based on Mfgs Estimates: 1-3/4” hose: C = 8.0 (Ponn Conquest Hose) 3” hose: C = 0.4 4” LDH: C = (1/11) 5” LDH: C = (1/30) (Key Fire Hose)

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**Example of Reduced Friction Loss in Modern Fire Hose**

Recent rural water supply test conducted in Rincon, GA to support ISO Determined how much water flow can be provided through a very long 5” LDH supply line Several engines laid a 6,000 ft. 5” supply line What is the maximum water flow (GPM) that can realistically be supplied through this supply line?

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**Hydrant Static Pressure Hydrant Residual Pressure**

Booster Tank Fill Rate Test Hydrant Location Hydrant Static Pressure Hydrant Residual Pressure Pump Intake Valve Used Pump In Gear Tank Fill Rate Enterprise Ct. (Box 313) 45 psi 35 psi 2-1/2” Aux NO 215 GPM 20 psi YES 375 GPM 2-1/2” DTF - Selvin Dr. (Box 321) 90 psi 70 psi 300 GPM 575 GPM KEY COMPARISON: Filling the tank with 3” line into the Direct Tank Fill intake at 100 psi intake pressure takes about 1 min 15 sec for a fill rate of 600 GPM Filling the tank using the regular Tank Fill valve with pump discharge pressure at 100 psi takes about 2 min for a fill rate of 375 GPM

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**Deck Gun Flow Test – E313 Intake Pressure (Master Gauge)**

Discharge Pressure (Master Gauge) Deck Gun Gauge Pressure Deck Gun Pressure (Gauge on Gun) Nozzle Pressure (Pitot Gauge) Nozzle Size (Smoothbore) Deck Gun Flow (Table Reading) Deck Gun Flowmeter 40 psi 85 psi 68 psi 75 psi 56 psi 1-1/2” 500 GPM 580 GPM 35 psi 100 psi 72 psi 60 psi 1-3/4” 700 GPM 750 GPM 30 psi 110 psi 80 psi 800 GPM 120 psi 90 psi 78 psi 820 GPM 28 psi 130 psi 88 psi 850 GPM 880 GPM 22 psi 145 psi 115 psi 98 psi 900 GPM 950 GPM 12 psi 170 psi 135 psi 1000 GPM 1110 GPM

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**Deck Gun Flow Test – E314 Intake Pressure (Master Gauge)**

Discharge Pressure (Master Gauge) Deck Gun Gauge Pressure Deck Gun Pressure (Gauge on Gun) Nozzle Pressure (Pitot Gauge) Nozzle Size (Smoothbore) Deck Gun Flow (Table Reading) Deck Gun Flowmeter 80 psi 110 psi 88 psi Inoperative 64 psi 1-3/4” 727 GPM Very High, Inaccurate Readings 128 psi 100 psi 813 GPM 78 psi 125 psi 86 psi 843 GPM 75 psi 150 psi 98 psi 900 GPM 72 psi 182 psi 120 psi 1000 GPM 70 psi 140 psi 2” 994 GPM 68 psi 160 psi 1063 GPM

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**Engine Pressure (Master Discharge Gauge)**

Deck Gun Flow – Smoothbore Nozzles Engine Pressure (Master Discharge Gauge) Deck Gun Flow (Smoothbore Nozzles) 85 psi 500 GPM 90 psi 600 GPM 100 psi 700 GPM 125 psi 800 GPM 145 psi 900 GPM 160 psi 1000 GPM

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** Q smooth = F x D2 C = Q2smooth Pinline - Ppitot Q auto =**

DETERMINING FLOW WITH PRE-PIPED MONITORS The simplest procedure to determine flow with automatic nozzles is with a flow meter. If a flow meter is unavailable, then the flow may be estimated using pressure loss data between the nozzle and an in-line pressure gauge at the pump or considerably upstream from the nozzle. Data is taken with a smooth bore nozzle and handheld pitot gauge. Note: Equations assume no substantial change in elevation between in-line pressure gauge and nozzle. Step1: Determine flow of smooth bore nozzle. Flow water with a smooth bore nozzle and record the nozzle’s size, pitot pressure and in-line pressure gauge reading. The smooth bore nozzle’s flow is calculated from the Freeman formula: Where: F = for English units (GPM, INCHES, PSI) Q smooth = F x D2 Q smooth = flow in GPM D = exit diameter in INCHES Step 2: Find pressure loss constant. Using the results from step 1, use the following equation to calculate the pressure loss constant between the in-line pressure gauge and the nozzle: C = piping pressure loss constant in GPM2/PSI Pinline = in-line pressure gauge reading in PSI Ppitot = pitot pressure in PSI Step 3: Calculate flow with automatic nozzle. Using the pressure loss constant from step 2 and the following equation, the flow with an automatic nozzle can be calculated for your particular installation. Qauto = automatic nozzle flow in GPM Pauto = nominal nozzle operating pressure in PSI Q smooth = F x D2 C = Q2smooth Pinline - Ppitot Q auto =

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**(Master Discharge Gauge)**

Deck Gun Flow – TFT Auto Nozzle Engine Pressure (Master Discharge Gauge) Deck Gun Flow TFT Auto Nozzle 135 psi 400 GPM 140 psi 575 GPM 145 psi 700 GPM 150 psi 800 GPM 155 psi 900 GPM 160 psi 1000 GPM

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**Deck Gun Flow – Nozzle Comparison**

TFT Automatic Nozzle Smoothbore Nozzles Engine Pressure (Master Discharge Gauge) Deck Gun Flow (TFT Auto Nozzle) 135 psi 400 GPM 140 psi 575 GPM 145 psi 700 GPM 150 psi 800 GPM 155 psi 900 GPM 160 psi 1000 GPM Engine Pressure (Master Discharge Gauge) Deck Gun Flow (Smoothbore Nozzles) 85 psi 500 GPM 90 psi 600 GPM 100 psi 700 GPM 125 psi 800 GPM 145 psi 900 GPM 160 psi 1000 GPM

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**Tower Monitor Flow Rates**

Single Monitor Flowing Both Monitors Flowing Intake Pressure (Tower Intake Valve) Monitor Flow (Single Monitor) 120 psi 600 GPM 135 psi 800 GPM 175 psi 1000 GPM 195 psi 1250 GPM 220 psi 1500 GPM 250 psi* 1600 GPM Intake Pressure (Tower Intake Valve) Monitor Flow (Two Monitors Flowing) 105 psi 1000 GPM 140 psi 1200 GPM 185 psi 1600 GPM 200 psi 1800 GPM 250 psi* 2000 GPM *Pressure relief valves on Tower intake valve and waterway opening

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**Tower Monitor Flow Rates**

Intake Pressure No. Monitors Flowing 600 GPM 120 psi 1 800 GPM 135 psi 1000 GPM 175 psi 105 psi 2 1250 GPM 195 psi 140 psi 1600 GPM 250 psi* 185 psi 1800 GPM 200 psi 2000 GPM *Pressure relief valves on Tower intake valve and waterway opening

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**Chicago FD – Hydrant Heavy Water Hook-Up**

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**Chicago FD – Hydrant Heavy Water Hook-Up**

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**New Special Tool on Rescue 351**

Modified hydraulic fitting designed to relieve the hydraulic pressure on an Amkus HRT line that had become pressure locked in the field. This condition is caused by the charging of a hydraulic line without an HRT being hooked to the line. Without the use of the new special tool, the pressure in the locked line could only be relieved (bled off) back at the station and not in the field.

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**New Special Tool on Rescue 351**

New Special Tool Coupling Tool Stowed in LR Compartment

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**Pressure Relieved on E314 Line**

Pressure Relieved on R351 Line

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R351 Foam System Controls

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????

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**Other Stuff in General What’s unique about the Siren Brake on TW331?**

What’s different about the Transmission Mode control on TW331 and R351 compared to all of the other apparatus? If you turn OFF the Auxiliary Braking Device (Jake Brake or Trans Retarder) in rainy weather, what should you also do regarding your driving? What should a good EVD always do immediately following each run?

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