# Keweenaw North Waterway Buoy Bob Shuchman: Colin Brooks: Nate Jessee:

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Keweenaw North Waterway Buoy Bob Shuchman: shuchman@mtu.edushuchman@mtu.edu Colin Brooks: colin.brooks@mtu.educolin.brooks@mtu.edu Nate Jessee: nljessee@mtu.edunljessee@mtu.edu www.michigantechlakesuperior.org www.mtri.org 1

 The Keweenaw Waterway North buoy gathered data from 7/9/2010 through 10/11/2010. Data is located at www.michigantechlakesuperior.org www.michigantechlakesuperior.org  A limited selection of records were removed for pre- deployment recording and sensor errors.  Data presented here represents dates from 7/9/2010 through 10/10/2010.  Two of the parameters collected were wind direction and wind speed.  This data was organized to determine the frequency, duration, and strength of winds moving off shore (from land to water) and on shore (from water to land). 2

3  For all records spanning from July 9 th through October 10 th 2010, wind speed measurements were recorded every ten minutes.  During this time span, wind speeds were less than 2 m/s for 11.41% of all records and wind speed was equal to zero for 0.07% of all records.

 On shore and off shore winds are characterized based on the buoy location and the direction of the land.  Wind direction is absolute in that it indicates the direction that wind is moving towards.  On shore events are defined by consecutive recordings of winds with a direction between 45 and 225 degrees where 360/0 is north and 180 degrees as south. 45 225 On Shore Direction 4

 Off shore events are consecutive recordings with a direction greater than 225 and less than 45 degrees where 360/0 is north and 180 degrees is south. 45 225 Off Shore Direction 5

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59.5% 7 The frequency of wind direction recordings described as either off shore or on shore, a total of 13453 records were taken from July 9 th to October 10 th. Count of Recordings

8 Hours Max 10.83 m/s Description of off shore wind events, described by duration of events in hours. *Events are defined as time periods greater than 10 minutes where wind is consistently moving in the on or off shore direction.

9 Wind Speed, m/s Summary of all off shore wind speeds for all off shore events.

10 Hours Max 5.92 m/s Min 4.32 m/s Ave. 4.98 m/s Description of on shore wind events, described by duration of events in hours. *Events are defined as time periods greater than 10 minutes where wind is consistently moving in the on or off shore direction.

11 Wind Speed, m/s Summary of all on shore wind speeds for all on shore events

Event Duration Statistics 12 Hours

13 Wind Speed, m/s Represents all wind speed records for all events categorized as on or off shore

 Started on September 11 th at 7:30 p.m. and lasted through September 15 th at 1:00 a.m. Lasting a total of 77 hours, 30 minutes.  The event had the following characteristics:  Average wind speed: 8.07 m/s  Minimum wind speed: 5.31 m/s  Maximum wind speed 10.83 m/s  The following slide represents the temporal distribution of wind speed. 14

15 Wind Speed, m/s

*Wind Directions indicate the actual direction that wind is moving * 16 Wind Direction

17 Wind Speed, m/s Represents all records from July 9 th through October 10 th.

18 Wind Speed, m/s Represents all records from July 9 th through October 10 th and highlights the major off shore event

 High Frequency (HF) Radar is sensitive to dominant wave period length.  Wave periods of small length, less than 2 seconds for example, may be unnoticed by HF Radar.  An analysis was performed to determine how frequently the dominant wave period dropped below a specific value. Each event was also characterized by the length of time the wave period value was below the threshold. 19

 For all records spanning from July 9 th to October 10 th, dominant wave period measurements were recorded every ten minutes.  The dominant wave period had a value of zero second for 0.01% of all records.  Also, dominant wave period value was less than 2 seconds for 15.98% of all records and greater than 5 seconds for 16.03% of all records between July 9 th and October 10 th. 20

21 This graph represents 15.98 % of all records from July 9 th through October 10 th. Count of Events

22 This graph represents 3.95 % of all records from July 9 th through October 10 th. Count of Events

23 This graph represents 0.01 % of all records from July 9 th through October 10 th. Count of Events

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