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INLAND WATERWAYS TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO COAL Dr.R.Giri Prasad, Associate Professor & HOD, Dept. of Petroleum Technology, Aditya Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "INLAND WATERWAYS TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO COAL Dr.R.Giri Prasad, Associate Professor & HOD, Dept. of Petroleum Technology, Aditya Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 INLAND WATERWAYS TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO COAL Dr.R.Giri Prasad, Associate Professor & HOD, Dept. of Petroleum Technology, Aditya Engineering College, Kakinda, Andhra Pradesh, India 4 TH COAL MARKET IN INDIA 2014, 22 ND AUGUST 2014, NEW DELHI, IBK MEDIA

2 INTRODUCTION The share of India’s inland water transport (IWT) cargo traffic to the logistics market is significantly lower at 0.5 as compared to China at 8.7 percent, the US at 8.3 percent and Europe at 7 percent. However, the Indian IWT landscape holds immense potential due to its characteristic advantages over other modes of transportation, especially for coal movement. India has about 14,500 km of navigable inland waterways, of which 5,200 km (36 percent) of major rivers and 485 km (3 percent) of canals are conducive to the movement of mechanised vessels. Among these navigable waterways, five National Waterways (NWs) — NWs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, spanning approximately 4,400 km — have been outlined as potential inland waterways at the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the West Coast Canal, the Godavari and Krishna rivers, and the East Coast Canal, respectively. NW 6, which stretches across 121 km, has been proposed on the Barak River.


4 HISTORY OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORTATION Inland Water Transportation was important mode in the past In 19 th century steamers were plying from Kolkata up to Garhmukteshwar and Dibrugarh in the Ganga & Brahmaputra respectively Development of Railways & Roads gave IWT a setback In 1970s, IWT for NER revived with IWT&T Protocol between India & Bangladesh In 1980s and 1990s, CIWTC used to ply vessels from Kolkata to Guwahati and Karimganj routes Transported over 4 lakh tonne cargo in 1989-90, now engaged only in lighter age movement



7 7 INDO – BANGLADESH PROTOCOL ROUTES JHARKHAND B A N G L A D E S H BIHAR WEST BENGAL A S S A M M E G H A L A Y A MANIPUR MIZORAM TRIPURA HALDIA KOLKATA NW-1 DHUBRI PANDU TEJPUR SILGHAT JOGIGHOPA SHISHUMARA DHULIAN KARIMGANJ RAJSHAHI NARAYANGANJ DHAKA Brahmaputra R. Barak LAKHIPUR Bay of Bengal I N D I A 31 31C DISPUR 40 51 SHILLONG 54 AIZWAL AGARTALA 36 37 44 53 Jamuna R. Ganga R. Meghna R.` Kusiyara R. Surma R. Meghna R. Sunderbans Hooghly R. NW-2 BAGHABARI Baral R. CHILMARI BAHADURABAD SIRAJGANJ ZAKIGANJ FENCHUGANJ SHERPUR MARKULI AJMIRIGANJ BHAIRAB BAZAR CHANDPUR BARISAL KAUKHALI MONGLA KHULNA CHALNA NAMKHANA Raimangal R. GODAGARI ARICHA ASHUGANJ Ganga R. Bhagirathi R. ORISSA Padma R. Myanmar (Burma) IMPHAL KOHIMA NAGALAND 53 34 35 2 6 41 31 Legend Kolkata - Guwahati/Pandu...... 1535 km Kolkata - Karimganj...................1318 km Dhulian-Rajshahi...........................78 km Protocol route distances N BHANGA AKHAURA DAIKHAWA Legend Declared National waterway Proposed National waterway Protocol route Road Rail NH 51 ANGTIHARA SYLHET P P P P P P P P P

8 KOTTAPURAM ALUVA UDYOGAMANDAL CANAL KAKKANAD(CSEZ) CHAMPAKKARA CANAL KOCHI MARADU VAIKOM CHERTHALA THANNERMUKKOM LOCK CUM BARRAGE ALAPPUZHA THRIKKUNNAPUZHA KAYAMKULAM THRIKKUNNAPUZHA LOCK GATE CHAVARA KOLLAM 47 220 49 17 208 N Arabian Sea Legend Waterway alignment Road Rail Important places West Coast Canal (Kottapuram – Kollam) Champakkara & Udyogamandal canals National Waterway-3 River distance Kottapuram - Kollam 168 km Udyogamandal canal 23 km Champakkara canal 14 km Total length 205 km KERALAKERALA

9 Development cost- Rs 1515 cr (2010prices) Notified on 25.11.2008

10 Development cost- Rs 4210 cr (2010 prices) Notified on 25.11.2008

11 Bhanga Badarpur Silchar Length –121 km Development cost - Rs 120 cr (at 2011 prices) Status: Declaration in process Proposed National Waterway – 6 : River Barak StretchKm Bhanga - Lakhipur121

12 ROAD AND RAIL NETWORK Roads have always been the primary mode of transport in India. India has one of the largest road networks of approximately 42.36 lakh kms. As per the Road Transport & Highways Department around 60% of the total freight and around 87% of passenger traffic is carried by Indian roads. Traffic is forecasted to grow at around 8-10% p.a. A large portion of railway sidings is single line and is utilized by passenger as well as freight trains. The sharing of railway sidings amongst the passenger and freight trains causes disruption in the smooth functioning of the trains. Long waiting times and uncertainty of arrival are the two primary reasons for the delay in time of freight goods. The overall freight traffic has been continuously rising. Over the last 10 years, traffic has grown at a CAGR of 6.27%. IR‟s available infrastructure does not have enough capacity to cater to this traffic leading to severe network capacity constraints.


14 Coal: demand - supply gap Power generation capacity: a critical requirement Coal: the main source of energy Current coal demand: 696 MMT May become 1000 MMT by 2017 Estimated coal to be imported : 137 MMT

15 Generation Installed Capacity ( as on 31.12.2011 ) : 187 GW YearInstalled Capacity [GW] 2007124 By 2012190 By 2017290 By 2022425 By 2027575 By 2032800 Power Sector Overview


17 Note: the information is for indicative comparison only, Source: Inland Waterways Authority of India. ParametersIWTRailRoad Energy efficiency: 1 horse power (HP) can move what weight cargo (kg)? 4,000500150 Fuel efficiency: 1 liter of fuel can move how much freight (ton – km)? 1058524 Equivalent single unit carrying capacity 1 barge15 rail wagons60 trucks Air pollutionLowMediumHigh Land AcquisitionLowHigh Capital requiredLowHigh

18 IWT USAGE OTHER COUNTRIES Coal is the largest commodity by volume moving on waterways – USA’s thermal power plants use waterways for > 20 % of coal – Germany: 45% – China: 17% – India: practically nil

19 Hence, overdependence on railways needs to be reduced: road is out of question : IWT a realistic supplementary option, especially for imported coal Coal transportation bottlenecks Railway Congestion Shortage of rakes Shortage of bottom opening wagons  Railway network has its own limitations in terms of zonal capacities, inter-zone re-deployment of rakes, etc. Port congestion Low draft at some ports like Haldia

20 THANK YOU Thermal power plants along NW-1 Allahabad Haldia 13 6 6 8 8 Barauni Barh 15 7 7 18 19 Bara Karchana 6 6 9 9 11 10 Pirpainti Buxar Bhagalpur Lakhisarai 16 17 Anapara Obra NTPC Plants State Govt Plants 1 1 3 3 4 4 2 2 Bandel Budge Kolaghat 14 Muzaffarpur 12 8 8 Kahalgaon 5 5 Farakka Sagardighi 8 8 Expansion Proposed Power Plants 20 Installed power: around 15,000 MW Total coal requirement: around 75 MMTPA  Imported coal: around 15 MMTPA

21 NTPC’s TPS at Farakka & Kahalgaon face acute shortage of coal They require 3-4 MMT of imported coal But due to several reasons, transportation of this coal has been a difficult and costly proposition for NTPC  Draft constraint at Haldia: Available draft-7.0 m  High waiting time at Paradip port  Limited rake availability for transportation from port  High Logistics cost leads to high delivered cost of coal  Handling/ transition losses  Delayed delivery leading to additional losses

22  After sustained persuasion by IWAI, NTPC gave commitment for transportation of 3 MMTPA imported coal by IWT for these plants for 7 years  IWAI & NTPC developed a project with entire funding by private sector  Project comprises of: Transhipment equipment at sea; about 40 barges; a terminal at Farakka; and coal conveyors from terminal to coal stack yard at Farakka  Approximate cost: Rs 650 crore  By open tendering Jindal ITF identified as L1 bidder  Tripartite agreement signed among IWAI, NTPC & Jindal ITF on 11.8.11  Supply of coal to start in December, 2012  This could be a path breaking project for IWT in India

23 Support provided by IWAI/NTPC Guaranteed cargo by NTPC- 3 MMTPA for 7 years Assurance from IWAI to provide LAD OF 2.5 Mts. between Haldia- Farakka for at least 330 days in a year –Suitable for 1500 T – 2000 T barges Vertical clearance of 10 Mts. Assured night navigation facility Connectivity through DGPS stations Facilitation of transfer of land at Farakka for terminal

24 JITF PROPOSED SOLUTION Transshipper at high sea Destination Barges on NW-1 : Jetty with grab unloaders at destination

25 Vessel types Tug and Dumb Barge Estuarine Ship Pushboat and Dumb Barges River Barge

26 Conclusion Water is a critical mode of transportation for any economy. Although it is a cost-effective and environment-friendly mode of transport, its share in the modal mix in India is significantly less than that in developed countries. Domestic shipping provides significant fuel and cost savings over road and rail transport and, thus, offers several opportunities to meet the demand for bulk transportation to nearby areas and along the coast, which is highly relevant for India. However, its low penetration in the country is a result of the long period it takes to transport goods, the unavailability of return cargo, lack of awareness of its benefits and various regulatory policies. Only 7 per cent of Indian cargo moves through the water as against more than 40 per cent in China and European Union, despite having rivers and a long coastline. With 10-11 TPS already in the vicinity of NW-1 and 10 more coming up; it will be unfortunate if we still do not use IWT for coal transportation thereon Railways can simply not meet this demand- if waterways are not used, power generation will suffer- there is no other way Haldia- Farakka coal transportation project can therefore be a trailblazer Currently, Indian companies do not use the coastal route because of lack of roads and railways connecting ports to factories or consumption centres. The new government, in its maiden budget, allotted Rs4,200 crore to develop Ganga for inland waterway, giving a major push to coal transportation in the region.


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