Presentation on theme: "INLAND WATERWAYS TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO COAL"— Presentation transcript:
1 INLAND WATERWAYS TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO COAL 4TH COAL MARKET IN INDIA 2014,22ND AUGUST 2014, NEW DELHI, IBK MEDIADr.R.Giri Prasad,Associate Professor & HOD,Dept. of Petroleum Technology,Aditya Engineering College, Kakinda, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 INTRODUCTIONThe share of India’s inland water transport (IWT) cargo traffic to the logistics market is significantly lower at 0.5 as compared to China at 8.7 percent, the US at 8.3 percent and Europe at 7 percent. However, the Indian IWT landscape holds immense potential due to its characteristic advantages over other modes of transportation, especially for coal movement.India has about 14,500 km of navigable inland waterways, of which 5,200 km (36 percent) of major rivers and 485 km (3 percent) of canals are conducive to the movement of mechanised vessels. Among these navigable waterways, five National Waterways (NWs) — NWs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, spanning approximately 4,400 km — have been outlined as potential inland waterways at the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, the West Coast Canal, the Godavari and Krishna rivers, and the East Coast Canal, respectively. NW 6, which stretches across 121 km, has been proposed on the Barak River.
4 HISTORY OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORTATION Inland Water Transportation was important mode in the pastIn 19th century steamers were plying from Kolkata up to Garhmukteshwar and Dibrugarh in the Ganga & Brahmaputra respectivelyDevelopment of Railways & Roads gave IWT a setbackIn 1970s, IWT for NER revived with IWT&T Protocol between India & BangladeshIn 1980s and 1990s, CIWTC used to ply vessels from Kolkata to Guwahati and Karimganj routesTransported over 4 lakh tonne cargo in , now engaged only in lighter age movement
7 Protocol route distances TEJPURNAGALANDPSILGHAT31CI N D I ABrahmaputra R.NW-2A S S A M36JOGIGHOPADISPUR37INDO – BANGLADESHPROTOCOL ROUTES31PANDUDHUBRIP37KOHIMASHISHUMARA40DAIKHAWASHILLONG3151M E G H A L A Y ABIHARCHILMARI53BarakMANIPURGanga R.Surma R.ZAKIGANJ34BAHADURABADLAKHIPURSYLHETBHANGA53IMPHALKARIMGANJPJHARKHANDJamuna R.MARKULIKusiyara R.FENCHUGANJB A N G L A D E S HSHERPURAJMIRIGANJDHULIANGODAGARISIRAJGANJRAJSHAHIP54Ganga R.Baral R.BHAIRAB BAZARASHUGANJ44NTRIPURABAGHABARIARICHAMeghna R.`AKHAURAAGARTALAAIZWALDHAKANW-1Bhagirathi R.MIZORAMNARAYANGANJPadma R.PLegendLegend2CHANDPURDeclared National waterwayProposed National waterwayProtocol routeRoadRailNHKHULNA35PBARISALMeghna R.WEST BENGALCHALNAKAUKHALIKOLKATAP51Protocol route distancesPMONGLA641Kolkata - Guwahati/Pandu kmKolkata - Karimganj kmDhulian-Rajshahi kmHALDIAPANGTIHARAHooghly R.7NAMKHANARaimangal R.Bay of BengalMyanmar (Burma)ORISSASunderbanscons. comm
9 Development cost- Rs 1515 cr (2010prices) Notified oncons. comm
10 Development cost- Rs 4210 cr (2010 prices) Notified oncons. comm
11 Proposed National Waterway – 6 : River Barak Length –121 kmDevelopment cost -Rs 120 cr (at prices)Status: Declaration in processBadarpurBhangaSilcharStretchKmBhanga - Lakhipur121cons. comm
12 ROAD AND RAIL NETWORKRoads have always been the primary mode of transport in India. India has one of the largest road networks of approximately lakh kms. As per the Road Transport & Highways Department around 60% of the total freight and around 87% of passenger traffic is carried by Indian roads. Traffic is forecasted to grow at around 8-10% p.a.A large portion of railway sidings is single line and is utilized by passenger as well as freight trains. The sharing of railway sidings amongst the passenger and freight trains causes disruption in the smooth functioning of the trains. Long waiting times and uncertainty of arrival are the two primary reasons for the delay in time of freight goods.The overall freight traffic has been continuously rising. Over the last 10 years, traffic has grown at a CAGR of 6.27%. IR‟s available infrastructure does not have enough capacity to cater to this traffic leading to severe network capacity constraints.
14 Coal: demand - supply gap Power generation capacity: a critical requirementCoal: the main source of energyCurrent coal demand: 696 MMTMay become 1000 MMT by 2017Estimated coal to be imported : 137 MMT
15 Power Sector Overview Year Installed Capacity [GW] 2007 124 By 2012 190By 2017290By 2022425By 2027575By 2032800Does not include 15,905 MW of Captive CapacityIncludes 8,700 MW of HVDC CapacityPeak Shortage-WR: 19% (7087 MW) ( )Gujarat: 2881 MW (24.3%) (’08-’09)Maharashtra: 4283 MW (23.7%) (’08-’09)U.P.: 2339 MW (22.1%) (’08-’09)Generation Installed Capacity (as on ) : 187 GW15
17 Energy efficiency: 1 horse power (HP) can move what weight cargo (kg)? ParametersIWTRailRoadEnergy efficiency: 1 horse power (HP) can move what weight cargo (kg)?4,000500150Fuel efficiency: 1 liter of fuel can move how much freight (ton – km)?1058524Equivalent single unit carrying capacity1 barge15 rail wagons60 trucksAir pollutionLowMediumHighLand AcquisitionCapital requiredNote: the information is for indicative comparison only, Source: Inland Waterways Authority of India.
18 IWT USAGE OTHER COUNTRIES Coal is the largest commodity by volume moving on waterwaysUSA’s thermal power plants use waterways for > 20 % of coalGermany: 45%China: 17%India: practically nil
19 Coal transportation bottlenecks Railway CongestionShortage of rakesShortage of bottom opening wagonsRailway network has its own limitations in terms of zonal capacities, inter-zone re-deployment of rakes, etc.Port congestionLow draft at some ports like HaldiaHence, overdependence on railways needs to be reduced: road is out of question : IWT a realistic supplementary option, especially for imported coal
20 THANK YOU Muzaffarpur Buxar Farakka NTPC Plants State Govt Plants Thermal power plants along NW-1AllahabadHaldia1368BarauniBarh1571819BaraKarchana91110PirpaintiBuxarBhagalpurLakhisaraiMuzaffarpur1412KahalgaonTHANK YOU816AnaparaFarakka175ObraInstalled power: around 15,000 MWTotal coal requirement: around 75 MMTPAImported coal: around 15 MMTPA20Sagardighi4NTPC PlantsBandelState Govt Plants3Budge Budge2Proposed Power PlantsKolaghat18Expansion
21 NTPC’s TPS at Farakka & Kahalgaon face acute shortage of coal They require 3-4 MMT of imported coalBut due to several reasons, transportation of this coal has been a difficult and costly proposition for NTPCDraft constraint at Haldia: Available draft-7.0 mHigh waiting time at Paradip portLimited rake availability for transportation from portHigh Logistics cost leads to high delivered cost of coalHandling/ transition lossesDelayed delivery leading to additional losses
22 After sustained persuasion by IWAI, NTPC gave commitment for transportation of 3 MMTPA imported coal by IWT for these plants for 7 yearsIWAI & NTPC developed a project with entire funding by private sectorProject comprises of: Transhipment equipment at sea; about 40 barges; a terminal at Farakka; and coal conveyors from terminal to coal stack yard at FarakkaApproximate cost: Rs 650 croreBy open tendering Jindal ITF identified as L1 bidderTripartite agreement signed among IWAI, NTPC & Jindal ITF onSupply of coal to start in December, 2012This could be a path breaking project for IWT in India
23 Support provided by IWAI/NTPC Guaranteed cargo by NTPC- 3 MMTPA for 7 yearsAssurance from IWAI to provide LAD OF 2.5 Mts. between Haldia- Farakka for at least 330 days in a yearSuitable for 1500 T – 2000 T bargesVertical clearance of 10 Mts.Assured night navigation facilityConnectivity through DGPS stationsFacilitation of transfer of land at Farakka for terminal
24 JITF PROPOSED SOLUTION Transshipper at high seaBarges on NW-1Destination: Jetty with grab unloaders at destination
25 Vessel types River Barge Estuarine Ship Tug and Dumb Barge Pushboat and Dumb Barges
26 ConclusionWater is a critical mode of transportation for any economy. Although it is a cost-effective and environment-friendly mode of transport, its share in the modal mix in India is significantly less than that in developed countries. Domestic shipping provides significant fuel and cost savings over road and rail transport and, thus, offers several opportunities to meet the demand for bulk transportation to nearby areas and along the coast, which is highly relevant for India. However, its low penetration in the country is a result of the long period it takes to transport goods, the unavailability of return cargo, lack of awareness of its benefits and various regulatory policies.Only 7 per cent of Indian cargo moves through the water as against more than 40 per cent in China and European Union, despite having rivers and a long coastline.With TPS already in the vicinity of NW-1 and 10 more coming up; it will be unfortunate if we still do not use IWT for coal transportation thereonRailways can simply not meet this demand- if waterways are not used, power generation will suffer- there is no other wayHaldia- Farakka coal transportation project can therefore be a trailblazerCurrently, Indian companies do not use the coastal route because of lack of roads and railways connecting ports to factories or consumption centres. The new government, in its maiden budget, allotted Rs4,200 crore to develop Ganga for inland waterway, giving a major push to coal transportation in the region.