Soil Ingredients Sand Sand is the largest particle in the soil. When you rub it, it feels rough. This is because it has sharp edges. Silt Silt is a soil particle whose size is between sand and clay. Silt feels smooth and powdery. When wet it feels smooth but not sticky. Clay Clay is the smallest of particles. Clay is smooth when dry and sticky when wet. Soils high in clay content are called heavy soils. Organic matterHumus Organic matter or Humus is the part of soil that comes from the leaves, branches, animal wastes, and everything organic that falls on the ground. As these are broken down by water, sun, and, small creatures the organic substances in them are incorporated into the soil. Humus increases the nutrient holding ability of the soil and improves soil structure.
Soil Types Sand, silt, and clay are the basic types of soil. Most soils are made up of a combination of the three. The relative amount of each determines the characteristics of the soil. Sand –Good drainage –Poor nutrient retention Silt –Good nutrient retention Clay –Best nutrient retention –Poor drainage
Soil in Indiana Miami Soil Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapudalfs Surface layer: brown silt loam Subsurface layer: brown silt loam Subsoil: dark yellowish brown clay loam Substratum: brown loam
Primary Nutrients Nitrogen –Proteins and amino acids Phosphorus –Nucleic acids, ATP, Chlorophyll Potassium –Catalyst, ion transport
How water moves percolation--(1) The movement of water through the openings in rock or soil. (2) the entrance of a portion of the streamflow into the channel materials to contribute to ground water replenishment capillary action--the means by which liquid moves through the porous spaces in a solid, such as soil, plant roots, and the capillary blood vessels in our bodies due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension. Capillary action is essential in carrying substances and nutrients from one place to another in plants and animals.
More water movement evaporation--the process of liquid water becoming water vapor, including vaporization from water surfaces, land surfaces, and snow fields, but not from leaf surfaces. precipitation--rain, snow, hail, sleet, dew, and frost transpiration--process by which water that is absorbed by plants, usually through the roots, is evaporated into the atmosphere from the plant surface, such as leaf pores.
Water Pollution Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. These materials could include: toxic substances, fertilizers, organic matter, sediments, or animal wastes. Runoff carries harmful chemicals great distances and causes them to be concentrated in water ways and lakes.
Types of Pollution Non-point source – occurs when there is runoff of pollutants into a waterway, for instance when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by surface runoff. Point source –occurs when the polluting substance is emitted directly into the waterway. A pipe spewing toxic chemicals directly into a river is an example. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/
Common Sources Industry –Soil Erosion –Toxic effluents –Mine runoff Farming –Fertilizer run-off –Animal waste run-off Residential –Lawn care fertilizer run-off –Improper sewage treatment
Local Pollution Reduction Efforts Uses Federal grant money to determine methods of reducing non-point source water pollution in a community based effort through the Soil and Water Conservation District of Delaware County. http://www.co.delaware.in.us/watershed/ http://www.co.delaware.in.us/watershed/
Water Treatment Primary –removes suspended solids in settling tanks Secondary –Removes organic matter using bacterial agents