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OCEN 201 Introduction to Ocean & Coastal Engineering Coastal Processes & Structures Jun Zhang

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Presentation on theme: "OCEN 201 Introduction to Ocean & Coastal Engineering Coastal Processes & Structures Jun Zhang"— Presentation transcript:

1 OCEN 201 Introduction to Ocean & Coastal Engineering Coastal Processes & Structures Jun Zhang

2 Coastal Processes Typical beach profile and coastal zone - Beaches dissipate wave energy and are constantly adjusting to the wave environment (shoaling, wave breaking, sand bar & surf zone, Fig. 4-1, pp80) Littoral Transport (sediment transport) - Long shore transport (parallel to the shoreline, long shore current) - Offshore-onshore transport (perpendicular to the shoreline)

3 Beach Profile Fig. 4-1, pp102

4 Consequences of Coastal Processes Beach erosion (Natural or Man-Made Causes) Table 4-1 pp104 (old E. pp81) Beach Protection & Nourishment - coastal structures

5 Coastal Erosion

6 Hwy 87 Texas Coast Infrastructure Property Environment Infrastructure Property Environment

7 Beach Nourishment

8 Economic value of Beaches

9 Coastal Processes Wind and Waves Sediment Transport

10 Coastal Structures Break waters: (rubble mound, sheet pile, stone asphalt, Dolos, concrete cassions, floating structures (coastal & offshore)) Jetties & Groins (normal to the shorelines) Sea walls Bulkheads, Revetments, G-tubes Sand Bypassing (continue the littoral process; passive and active) Ports, Harbors and Marinas

11 Shore Protection Projects- Breakwaters

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14 Breakwater

15 Waterway Navigation Jetties

16 RUBBLE MOUND BREAK- WATER

17 VERTICAL BREAKWATER FIGURES :

18 Design Considerations

19 Shore Protection Projects- Groins

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22 Shore Protection Projects- Revetments

23 Different Kinds of Dolos Concrete & Reinforced Concrete

24 Dolos

25 Various Sea Walls

26 Shore Protection Projects- Seawalls Construction of Galveston seawall ~ 1902

27 Ports and Harbors

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29 New South Wales and Queensland, Australia Sand Bypass Facility

30 Jetties at the entrance of Tweed River Outlet of the sand pump

31 Laboratory Research Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program

32 Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory

33 Wave Refraction*, Diffraction & Reflection Wave Refraction: The direction of waves may change when they enter from deep to shallow water or from shallow to deep water. Deep-1 Shallow-2 Shallow-1 Deep-2

34 Wave direction is normal to the wave crest line Examples of Wave refraction in the costal zone, see pp 117 Fig 4-21 (old Edition: pp 90 Fig. 4-12). Wave direction is normal to shore line. In other words, wave crest-line is parallel to the shore line.

35 Wave Refraction

36 Phenomena of wave shoaling (wave enters from deep water to shallow water) Wave refraction Wave length becomes shorter Wave group velocity is reduced Wave becomes steeper, which leads to wave breaking. Wave breaking leads to the generation of long-shore current. Definition of the surf zone: from the first breaker (due to water depth) to the shore line.

37 General Refraction Analysis

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40 pp (old edition pp91-92)

41 Wave Diffraction: When wave energy is transferred laterally to wave direction, this phenomenon is known as wave diffraction. Wave diffraction occurs when waves passing by a surface piercing body. It may occur in deep or shallow water. An example in shallow water is wave diffraction behind a breaker water. See Fig at pp119 (old edition Fig at pp93). (internet examples)

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43 Wave Reflection and Transmission: when the water depth suddenly changes, part of the incident wave energy is reflected in the direction opposite to the incident wave direction, part energy continues to propagate (transmit) in the incident wave direction.

44 Using Fig 4-23 at pp 120 (old edition Fig at pp 94), you may determine the reflection coefficient based upon the surf parameter.

45 Wave Runup Wave runup is important to the design of the height of coastal structure, such as seawalls and breakwaters.

46 Sediment Transport

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49 Reading Assignment: Sediment Transport & Scour Littoral Transport (sediment transport in coastal or littoral zone) Coastal Structure (jetties, groins, breakwater, sand-bypass & G-tubes) Dredging

50 Reading Assignment: Sediment Transport & Scour Littoral Transport (sediment transport in coastal or littoral zone) Coastal Structure (jetties, groins, breakwater, sand-bypass & G-tubes) Dredging


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