2 What is ecology?. The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Also called bionomics.. The relationship between organisms and their environment.. The branch of sociology that is concerned with studying the relationships between human groups and their physical and social environments. Also called ecology.. The study of the detrimental effects of modern civilization on the environment, with a view toward prevention or reversal through conservation. Also called ecology.
3 Effects of Human activities on ecology After completing this chapter students will be able to:Discuss the effects of After completing this chapter students will be able to:Discuss the effects of deforestation on soil climate and population.Discuss the cause of water and air pollution and evaluate their effects.To explain the advantage of conservation and recycling.deforestation on soil climate and population.
4 DeforestationWhat are the Causes of Deforestation? The destruction of the forests is occurring due to various reasons, one of the main reasons being the short term economic benefits. Given below are some more common causes of deforestation: Used for Urban and Construction Purposes: The cutting down of trees for lumber that is used for building materials, furniture, and paper products. Forests are also cleared in order to accommodate expanding urban areas. To Grow Crops: Forests are also cut down in order to clear land for growing crops. To Create Grazing Land: Forests are cut down in order create land for grazing cattle. Used for Fuel: Trees are cut down in developing countries to be used as firewood or turned into charcoal, which are used for cooking and heating purposes. Some of the other causes of deforestation are: clearing forests for oil and mining exploitation; to make highways and roads; slash and burn farming techniques; wildfires; and acid rain.
5 What are the Effects of Deforestation? There are a number of adverse effects of deforestation, such as: Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients, which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. Ultimately, cultivation in this land will also become impossible, resulting in the land becoming useless. Large tracts of land will be rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion. Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area.
6 What are the Effects of Deforestation? Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about percent of the entire species of the world exist here. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale. Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area. Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
9 Causes of air pollution here are several main causes of air pollution, the vast majority of them can be attributed to man. This article will give you a definition of air pollution and list some of the top causes and how each one contributes to the contamination in the atmosphere.Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, and biological matter that cause harm to humans, other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment. Stratospheric ozone depletion (contributed to air pollution) has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth’s ecosystems. The Earth is capable of cleaning itself of a certain level of pollution, but man-made pollutant have become too numerous for the Earth’s natural mechanisms to remove. We are seeing the results of this overload in the form of acid rain, smog, and the variety of health problems that can be contributed to our environment.One of the main causes of air pollution is manufacturing. This source of pollution spews particulate matter and chemicals into the atmosphere. The exhaust from a factory includes, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and dioxide, as well as volatile organic compounds and particulates. There is not an area of the Earth’s atmosphere or an ecosystem that has not been altered by the long term effects of the pollution created by manufacturing. Strides have been made to filter the material coming from manufacturing plants, but it may take the Earth millenia to completely recover from the damage already done.
10 Causes of air pollution As the list of causes of air pollution goes this next offender is number one. The burning of fossil fuels is a part of the everyday life of every human on the planet. We burn fossil fuels in our cars, fossil fuel is burned to extract fossil fuel from the Earth, and fossil fuel is used to process fossil fuel into its individual components. Every step of the way releases sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, and particulates into the air. Each step in the process increases the number of asthma cases in the world, raises a person’s chance of having cancer, and increases the chance that your child will be born with congenital defects.The Earth itself contributes to air pollution through volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and other natural process, but it is capable of recovering from those sources. As humans continue to industrialize with a dependence on fossil fuels, we continue to put our planet’s future in jeopardy and shorten the longevity of our species.
11 ways of reducing air pollution Smog alerts are becoming a regular feature of life in the city. But you can be part of the solution: even small changes in your daily routine can help us all breathe easier this summer. 1. Get a summer tune-up "The biggest source of [polluting] emissions in Canada is passenger road transportation. It's 49.9 per cent," says Chris Wolnik, Executive Director of Sarnia's Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention. One way to cut pollutants is to keep your vehicle maintained year-round: Ontario's compulsory Drive Clean program has reduced emissions in the Toronto area by 15%.2. Don't idle Do you keep the car running while dashing into the store for milk? "Even that 30 seconds makes a difference," says Wolnik. "If you accumulate that for everyone, that's huge." For example, if citizens of my own community, Whitby, Ontario, idled our cars 5 minutes less every day, we could make a cumulative annual CO2 reduction of 4,209 tonnes -- and save $1.3 million in gas.3. Review your driving habits Aggressive driving -- hard braking and sudden acceleration -- eats up fuel. Owners of manual transmission vehicles should also not be driving in a too-low gear.4. Think aerodynamic Increased air drag on your car causes the engine to burn more fuel. According to Environment PAKISTAN, simply keeping your tires properly inflated can reduce vehicle emissions by 5 per cent. You can also make a difference by emptying the trunk and removing roof racks when they're not being used.
12 Causes of Water pollution There are many causes of water pollution. Water pollution come from two different types of sources.1) Pollutants being emitted directly into a water body results in a “point source”, such as a pipe from an industrial facility leaking toxics directly into the water.2) Pollutants being indirectly transported to the water such as run off from fertilizers flowing in to a larger body of water by rain results in a type of pollution called “non point source”.Pesticides are one of the most common causes of water pollution. Pesticides from farms and individual home owners run off into streams and rivers. Then on it gets absorbed into the ground water polluting the water that people drink and causing trouble with the fish in the rivers where the pesticides run off.One more cause of water pollution are fertilizers and nutrient pollution. Some of the pollutants that are most prevalent in the manure, sewage and chemical fertilizers are Nitrates and phosphates. These pollutants run into the streams and rivers causing excessive growth in aquatic plants and algae leading to clogged waterways and dead zones.
13 Ways to reduce water pollution Sweep grass and dirt off your driveway and back onto the lawn.Never dump anything down the storm drains in the street or in roadside ditches. That includes fertilizer because it causes algae to grow. Algae can form large blooms that are unattractive and use oxygen that the fish need to survive. Anything that goes into a storm drain flows directly to a waterway, not a treatment plantPick up your pet’s waste and throw it in the trash.Correctly dispose of household waste so they don’t pollute our oceans, rivers, lakes, and streams. Household hazardous waste like batteries and nail polish should not go into the trash. They should go to a household hazardous waste facility. Also, one gallon of motor oil can contaminate two million gallons of water.Wash your family’s car away from the storm drain to keep dirty, soapy water from getting into the street. If possible, wash your car on the lawn. Another good idea is to take your car to the car wash where the dirty water is sent to the sanitary treatment system.Leave grass clippings on the lawn, it actually helps the lawn. Also, mow on a higher settingMake sure that you only water your grass, not the street, sidewalk, or driveway.Recycle.Save water whenever you can. For example take short showers, and do not leave water running when you are brushing your teeth.Don’t pollute. Place trash in the trash can
14 Conservationthe act of conserving; prevention of injury, decay, waste, or loss; preservation: conservation of wildlife; conservation of human rights.2.official supervision of rivers, forests, and other natural resources in order to preserve and protect them through prudent management.3.a district, river, forest, etc., under such supervision.4.the careful utilization of a natural resource in order to prevent depletion.
15 Why do we need Conservation Most people are too busy with their own little lives to realize what is going on in the environment and eco system and it's important we look up information on the Internet to be aware of what we should fight for as far as clean air and keeping our forests and animal life safe and healthy. Nature is a delicate balance and everything has a use to keep that balance. Because of poor air quality in many cities in the world there are more cases of asthma, allergies and much worse diseases. If we don't keep enough trees our air will never be clean because trees filter out the pollutants in the air. They provide shade from the sun and food for animals. If we don't protect one specie of animals or mammals then the whole chain of events is unleashed. Trees help in maintaining the co2 level of atmosphere as they observe co2 and give out oxygen. Wildlife is an important thing in this world. It helps in maintaining the ecoligical balance,economical value and aesthetic or recreational value. Wild animals are dependent on forests as their home. In the 20th century the conservation of forest was realized by 2 developments. We need to conserve forest for protecting the animals too. We need to increase the area of forest, we need to stop cutting of trees. Establish a wide corridor in reserved forest and energy use. Thus by conserving forests we can able to protect wild animals.
16 Land pollutants Hydrocarbons Solvents Pesticides Soil Pollutants (Contaminants) (2)HydrocarbonsSolventsPesticidesLead and other heavy metals
17 recyclingRecycling is the conversion of waste products into new materials, such as waste paper which can be converted into new paper goods. Recycling is a lengthy circular process which has to include transportation of collected materials to a processing facility where they are cleaned and sorted. The new materials that have been converted must comply with the same safety legislation and health and hygiene regulations as products made from virgin materials. We can only say a product has been recycled when it has been purchased and used again.
18 Why Is Recycling Important? Some benefits include: saving energy, saving land space, saving money, creating new jobs, reducing air and water pollution and preserving habitat for wildlife. That’s why recycling is important and you should take a closer look at your life and how your recycle materials used in your daily life.
19 Saves EnergyIt takes less energy to process recycled materials than it does to use virgin materials. For example, it takes less energy to recycle paper from waste material than it does to create paper from new woodland, because there is no longer a need to cut down a new tree, process the wood from the tree and make it into paper.
20 Air Pollution and Water Pollution Decomposing waste often release noxious gases and chemicals as it decomposes at landfill sites. These gas and chemicals create air pollution Air pollution is exactly what it sounds like, polluted air. When the chemicals leach into the groundwater this creates water pollution and our water is contaminated.In 2000, recycling of solid waste prevented the release of 32.9 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE, the unit of measure for greenhouse gases) into the air.
21 Additional Benefits Recycling also preserves wildlife. When fewer trees are cut down to make virgin material or to make space landfills, habitat for wildlife remains. More habitat for animals means less animal extinction.Despite what some may say, recycling is important and it can makes a difference. We may not be able to solve our landfill and pollution problems anytime soon, but at least we can help keep them from getting worse.Try it. It is really simple to do. Start with paper or plastic or both and take them to a recycling bin near your home. You don’t have to drive extra to do it. Combine your recycling errands with others errands you have to do so you don’t waste your time or your gas. For example, if you have to go grocery shopping fill up your car with your box of recyclable paper and dump it at the recycling bin near the store. Many grocery stores now have these bins available. If not ask them to start or participate in your neighborhoods curbside recycling program. If there isn’t one available get one started in your neighborhood.