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Environmental Health Chapter 3 Lesson 3.1 Pollution and Human Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Health Chapter 3 Lesson 3.1 Pollution and Human Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Health Chapter 3 Lesson 3.1 Pollution and Human Health

2 Theme Outline Lesson 3.1 Lesson 3.1 Pollution and Human Health Pollution and Human Health Water Pollution Water Pollution Water Pollutants and Human Health Water Pollutants and Human Health Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in Pennsylvania Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in Pennsylvania Air Pollution Air Pollution Allergies and Asthma Allergies and Asthma Pennsylvania Air Quality Pennsylvania Air Quality Common Soil Pollutants Common Soil Pollutants Indoor Pollution Indoor Pollution Manufacturing Common Household Cleaning Products Manufacturing Common Household Cleaning Products

3 Academic Standards for Environment & Ecology Standard A Standard A Describe environmental health issues. Describe environmental health issues. Identify the effects on human health of air, water and soil pollution and the possible economic costs to society. Identify the effects on human health of air, water and soil pollution and the possible economic costs to society. Describe how indoor pollution may affect human health (e.g., dust mites, fumes, cat dandruff). Describe how indoor pollution may affect human health (e.g., dust mites, fumes, cat dandruff). Explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants. Explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants. Explain how common household cleaning products are manufactured and how to dispose of their by-products after use. Explain how common household cleaning products are manufactured and how to dispose of their by-products after use.

4 Learning Objectives Students will identify the effects on human health of air, water, and soil pollution and some of the economic costs to society. Students will identify the effects on human health of air, water, and soil pollution and some of the economic costs to society. Students will explain how human practices affect the quality of the water and soil. Students will explain how human practices affect the quality of the water and soil. Students will describe how indoor pollutants might affect human health, how common household cleaning products are manufactured, and how to dispose of those products after use. Students will describe how indoor pollutants might affect human health, how common household cleaning products are manufactured, and how to dispose of those products after use. Students will explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants. Students will explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants. Students will identify some environmental regulations and their impacts on environmental health. Students will identify some environmental regulations and their impacts on environmental health.

5 Love Canal

6 Pollution and Human Health The human population depends on the Earth at several different levels Hydrosphere Hydrosphere Example: water Atmosphere Atmosphere Example: air Lithosphere Lithosphere Example: soil Biosphere Biosphere Example: living world

7 Categories of Pollutants

8 Pollution Pollution can be classified according to the medium which is contaminated or where the contamination occurs Pollution can be classified according to the medium which is contaminated or where the contamination occurs Water pollution Water pollution Air pollution Air pollution Soil pollution Soil pollution Also commonly referred to as land pollution Indoor Pollution Indoor Pollution

9 Water Pollution In developed nations… In developed nations… Potable drinking water is readily accessible Potable drinking water is readily accessible Water used in households is treated to remove dangerous pollutants Water used in households is treated to remove dangerous pollutants Pollutants enter water supplies several ways Pollutants enter water supplies several ways Example: pollution from precipitation Example: pollution from precipitation Example: pollution from irrigation runoff Example: pollution from irrigation runoff

10 Water Pollution Common waterway pollutants Common waterway pollutants Sediments Sediments Nutrients Nutrients These substances wash into waterways from farmlands, animal feeding facilities, construction sites, and other areas where the ground is disturbed These substances wash into waterways from farmlands, animal feeding facilities, construction sites, and other areas where the ground is disturbed

11 Effluent Definition : wastewater from factories and refineries that is released directly into urban water supplies Definition : wastewater from factories and refineries that is released directly into urban water supplies

12 Why is effluent a concern in waterways? Why is effluent a concern in waterways? May contain harmful by-products of manufacturing processesMay contain harmful by-products of manufacturing processes Example: washing of solvents in drainage systems May be in the form of heated wastewater from industryMay be in the form of heated wastewater from industry Example: raising the temperature of aquatic systems

13 Sewage Definition: polluted water that contains human waste, garbage, and other household wastewater Definition: polluted water that contains human waste, garbage, and other household wastewater

14 In developed countries, sewage is treated with a system of screens, filters, and chemicals to remove particulate matter, organic matter, and other contaminants. In developed countries, sewage is treated with a system of screens, filters, and chemicals to remove particulate matter, organic matter, and other contaminants. Sewage processing in the United States Sewage processing in the United States 80% of sewage goes through treatment processes 80% of sewage goes through treatment processes 10% of sewage goes through septic systems 10% of sewage goes through septic systems 10% of sewage is untreated 10% of sewage is untreated

15 Wastewater Treatment Facilities

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17 A by-product of the sewage treatment process is sediment, called sludge A by-product of the sewage treatment process is sediment, called sludge Historically, sludge was dumped into water bodies or taken to landfills. Historically, sludge was dumped into water bodies or taken to landfills. Now, sludge is dried and then used for compost material or as fertilizers in agricultural settings Now, sludge is dried and then used for compost material or as fertilizers in agricultural settings

18 Water Pollutants and Human Health Most water pollutants can be dangerous to human health Most water pollutants can be dangerous to human health Example: lead in water supplies from pipes and pipe solder may cause brain damage, especially in children Untreated or inadequately treated sewage discharges can also be harmful to human health Untreated or inadequately treated sewage discharges can also be harmful to human health Example: microbes Definition: very tiny pathogens, or organisms such as protests, bacteria, or viruses, that cause disease

19 Some Common Water Pollutants Common water-related illnesses Common water-related illnesses Cholera Cholera Intestinal infectionIntestinal infection Caused by water contaminated with the bacterium Vibro choleraeCaused by water contaminated with the bacterium Vibro cholerae Spread by drinking and eating contaminated water and food productsSpread by drinking and eating contaminated water and food products Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydrationSymptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration World Health Organization (WHO) considers cholera a pandemic, mostly contained to developing nationsWorld Health Organization (WHO) considers cholera a pandemic, mostly contained to developing nations

20 Pandemic Definition : outbreak of a disease that affects an exceptionally high portion of a population and occurs over a very large geographic area Definition : outbreak of a disease that affects an exceptionally high portion of a population and occurs over a very large geographic area

21 Some Common Water Pollutants Common water-related illnesses Common water-related illnesses Dysentery Dysentery Caused by several types of bacteriaCaused by several types of bacteria Spread by person-to-person contact and by consuming contaminated water and food productsSpread by person-to-person contact and by consuming contaminated water and food products Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever and less seldom seizures and kidney failureSymptoms include bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever and less seldom seizures and kidney failure Antibiotics offer effective treatment until antibiotic resistance developsAntibiotics offer effective treatment until antibiotic resistance develops World Health Organization (WHO) considers dysentery an epidemic in many developing nationsWorld Health Organization (WHO) considers dysentery an epidemic in many developing nations Epidemic - temporary prevalence of a disease Epidemic - temporary prevalence of a disease

22 Some Common Water Pollutants Common water-related illnesses Common water-related illnesses Malaria Malaria Caused by parasitic diseaseCaused by parasitic disease Spread by contact with infected female mosquitoesSpread by contact with infected female mosquitoes Symptoms include flu-like symptoms, headache, fever, and vomiting.Symptoms include flu-like symptoms, headache, fever, and vomiting. World Health Organization (WHO) considers malaria a potentially life-threatening disease in many developing nations. Kills > 1 million people annually.World Health Organization (WHO) considers malaria a potentially life-threatening disease in many developing nations. Kills > 1 million people annually.

23 Common water-related illnesses Common water-related illnesses Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis Caused by cryptosporidiosis cysts that enter the human body and “hatch”Caused by cryptosporidiosis cysts that enter the human body and “hatch” Often present in surface water suppliesOften present in surface water supplies Spread by contact with untreated or inadequately treated wastewaterSpread by contact with untreated or inadequately treated wastewater Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and dehydrationSymptoms include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and dehydration Some Common Water Pollutants

24 Common water-related illnesses Common water-related illnesses Giardiasis Giardiasis Caused by cysts that enter the human body and “hatch”Caused by cysts that enter the human body and “hatch” Often present in surface water supplies contaminated by fecesOften present in surface water supplies contaminated by feces Spread by contact with untreated or inadequately treated wastewaterSpread by contact with untreated or inadequately treated wastewater Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and dehydrationSymptoms include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and dehydration Unlike cryptosporidiosis, medication can eliminate giardia parasites in human hostsUnlike cryptosporidiosis, medication can eliminate giardia parasites in human hosts

25 Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in Pennsylvania Between 1971 and 1985, Pennsylvania reported more cases of waterborne disease than any other state Between 1971 and 1985, Pennsylvania reported more cases of waterborne disease than any other state Pennsylvania created the Safe Drinking Water Program under the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to oversee the state’s public water supplies Pennsylvania created the Safe Drinking Water Program under the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to oversee the state’s public water supplies Mission: evaluate and monitor the state’s water treatment plantsMission: evaluate and monitor the state’s water treatment plants Since 1990, a sharp reduction in waterborne diseases statewide has been recorded Since 1990, a sharp reduction in waterborne diseases statewide has been recorded

26 Pollution Pollution can be classified according to the medium which is contaminated or where the contamination occurs Pollution can be classified according to the medium which is contaminated or where the contamination occurs Water pollution Water pollution Air pollution Air pollution Soil pollution Soil pollution Also commonly referred to as land pollution Indoor Pollution Indoor Pollution

27 Air Pollution Causes of air pollution Causes of air pollution NaturalNatural Example: forest fires Human ActivitiesHuman Activities Example: combustion of fossil fuels as energy Major sources of air pollution remain industrial processes and motor vehicles Major sources of air pollution remain industrial processes and motor vehicles

28 1948: Donora, PA onoraSmog.html

29 Common air pollutants Common air pollutants Ozone (O 3 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Found in Earth’s upper and lower atmosphere Found in Earth’s upper and lower atmosphere Lower atmosphere Pollutant that can cause (chronic) respiratory tract infections, eye irritation, coughing, shortness of breath, nausea, wheezing, and headaches Upper atmosphere Protects Earth from harmful solar radiation

30 Common air pollutants Common air pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless gasColorless, odorless gas Formed from the incomplete combustion of fuelsFormed from the incomplete combustion of fuels Commonly found in automobile and industrial emissionsCommonly found in automobile and industrial emissions Exposure to carbon monoxide includes symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms at low levelsExposure to carbon monoxide includes symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms at low levels Exposure to carbon monoxide includes symptoms such as impaired vision and hearing, problems with fine motor skills, and lack of concentration at moderate to high levelsExposure to carbon monoxide includes symptoms such as impaired vision and hearing, problems with fine motor skills, and lack of concentration at moderate to high levels

31 Common air pollutants Common air pollutants Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Formed from the burning of coal containing pyrite, that combines with oxygen in the atmosphereFormed from the burning of coal containing pyrite, that combines with oxygen in the atmosphere Exposure to moisture in the atmosphere produces sulfuric acid (acid rain)Exposure to moisture in the atmosphere produces sulfuric acid (acid rain) Exposure to sulfur dioxide includes symptoms such as respiratory illnesses, decreased lung functions, and aggravation of existing heart diseaseExposure to sulfur dioxide includes symptoms such as respiratory illnesses, decreased lung functions, and aggravation of existing heart disease

32 Common air pollutants Common air pollutants Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Formed from the burning of fuelsFormed from the burning of fuels Common component of smog (smoke and fog)Common component of smog (smoke and fog) Commonly found in industrial areas and areas with a high concentration of motor vehiclesCommonly found in industrial areas and areas with a high concentration of motor vehicles Exposure to nitrogen dioxide includes symptoms such as eye irritation, stuffy nose, coughing, sore throat, lung inflammation, and various illnesses of the human respiratory systemExposure to nitrogen dioxide includes symptoms such as eye irritation, stuffy nose, coughing, sore throat, lung inflammation, and various illnesses of the human respiratory system

33 Common air pollutants Common air pollutants Particulate Matter Particulate Matter Solid particles present in airSolid particles present in air Common particulate matter includes soil, construction dust, bites of tire rubber, asbestos from brake linings, and vehicle exhaustCommon particulate matter includes soil, construction dust, bites of tire rubber, asbestos from brake linings, and vehicle exhaust Exposure to particulate matter includes symptoms such as irritation and illness of human respiratory system and certain kinds of cancerExposure to particulate matter includes symptoms such as irritation and illness of human respiratory system and certain kinds of cancer

34 Common air pollutants Common air pollutants Toxic Substances Toxic Substances Nearly 200 known toxic substances are known to be air pollutants Nearly 200 known toxic substances are known to be air pollutants Example: lead is a highly toxic metal when ingested or inhaled Example: mercury containing plant emissions are now closely monitored and regulated to reduce overall emissions What are toxic air pollutants? Toxic air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants, are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects. EPA is working with state, local, and tribal governments to reduce air toxics releases of 188 pollutants to the environment. Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene, which is found in gasoline; perchlorethlyene, which is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride, which is used as a solvent and paint stripper by a number of industries. Examples of other listed air toxics include dioxin, asbestos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead compounds.188 pollutants

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37 Allergy Definition : reaction to the body to a foreign substance that, in similar amounts and circumstances, is harmless to most other people Definition : reaction to the body to a foreign substance that, in similar amounts and circumstances, is harmless to most other people Produced by allergens which cause the allergic reaction Produced by allergens which cause the allergic reaction Common allergens include bacteria, pollen, cigarette smoke, animal dander, and dust Commonly controlled with medication and the avoidance of the irritating substance or activity Commonly controlled with medication and the avoidance of the irritating substance or activity

38 Asthma Definition : disorder of the lungs in which airways tend to constrict, resulting in episodes of breathlessness, wheezing, coughing, and tightness of the chest Definition : disorder of the lungs in which airways tend to constrict, resulting in episodes of breathlessness, wheezing, coughing, and tightness of the chest Triggered by dust mites, animal dander, pollen, exercise and various air pollutants Triggered by dust mites, animal dander, pollen, exercise and various air pollutants Develops in young children as a result of inherited susceptibility to allergens Develops in young children as a result of inherited susceptibility to allergens Adults develop asthma in response to allergens, viruses, certain medications, exposure to certain materials in the workplace, and exercise Adults develop asthma in response to allergens, viruses, certain medications, exposure to certain materials in the workplace, and exercise Commonly controlled with medication and the avoidance of the irritating substance or activity Commonly controlled with medication and the avoidance of the irritating substance or activity

39 Pennsylvania Air Quality Vehicle traffic on Pennsylvania roadways has increased Vehicle traffic on Pennsylvania roadways has increased Increased vehicle traffic means higher levels of potentially harmful air pollutants Increased vehicle traffic means higher levels of potentially harmful air pollutants Regulated by the Department of Environmental Protection’s Bureau of Air Quality Regulated by the Department of Environmental Protection’s Bureau of Air Quality

40 DEP: Bureau of Air Quality Works with industry, businesses, schools, and communities to reduce air pollutant emissions Works with industry, businesses, schools, and communities to reduce air pollutant emissions Issues permits, regulates emissions, and approves air quality plans Issues permits, regulates emissions, and approves air quality plans Enforces air quality by monitoring overall air quality Enforces air quality by monitoring overall air quality

41 Pennsylvania Air Quality Programs Clean Mower Rebate Program Clean Mower Rebate Program Clean Mower Rebate Program Clean Mower Rebate Program Goal: replace gasoline-powered lawn equipment with electric equipment Goal: replace gasoline-powered lawn equipment with electric equipment Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Program Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Program Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Program Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Program Goal: provide financial assistance and information on alternative fuels and vehicles Goal: provide financial assistance and information on alternative fuels and vehicles Small Business Assistance Program Small Business Assistance Program Small Business Assistance Program Small Business Assistance Program Goal: provide small businesses with information on pollution prevention practices Goal: provide small businesses with information on pollution prevention practices Drive Clean Pennsylvania Drive Clean Pennsylvania Drive Clean Pennsylvania Drive Clean Pennsylvania Goal: ensure registered motor vehicles are properly inspected and maintained Goal: ensure registered motor vehicles are properly inspected and maintained ve_fuels_incentive_grant-move_to_grants/10492

42 Pollution Pollution can be classified according to the medium which is contaminated or where the contamination occurs Pollution can be classified according to the medium which is contaminated or where the contamination occurs Water pollution Water pollution Air pollution Air pollution Soil pollution Soil pollution Also commonly referred to as land pollution Indoor Pollution Indoor Pollution

43 Common Soil Pollutants Pollution that contaminants all, or at least portions of land and underlying soils Pollution that contaminants all, or at least portions of land and underlying soils Common soil pollution sources Common soil pollution sources Agriculture Example: sediments, pesticides, herbicides, animal wastes, and fertilizers resulting from poor irrigation systems and the improper disposal of wastes Industrial Processes Example: release of toxic substances from industry, poor mining practices, oil and gas well leaks, and underground storage tanks (Ex. Love Canal, NY et. al.)

44 Love Canal, New York

45 Soil Pollutants : Nuclear Wastes Radioactive waste is generated by industry and research facilities Radioactive waste is generated by industry and research facilities Example: hospitals Two types of waste Two types of waste High- level waste (HLW) High- level waste (HLW) Low- level waste (LLW) Low- level waste (LLW)

46 Nuclear Wastes: High-level wastes (HLW) Highly radioactive Highly radioactive Remains radioactive for long periods of time Remains radioactive for long periods of time Found in nuclear reactor waste products and industrial gauges Found in nuclear reactor waste products and industrial gauges Disposal and storage is the responsibility of the government in the United States Disposal and storage is the responsibility of the federal government in the United States A typical High Level Waste (HLW) or Spent Fuel (SF) disposal concept includes steel canisters (1) containing waste (2) placed in horizontal drifts (3), surrounded by a clay barrier made up of blocks (4) manufactured from high- density compacted bentonite and situated deep within crystalline rock.High Level Waste (HLW) or Spent Fuel (SF) disposal concept

47 Yucca Mountain Ideal to build an underground repository where wastes can be stored several hundred meters deep in solid rock This site is far from urban areas and is geologically stable If approved, could cost between billion dollars Possibly operational by would-open-door-for-yucca-mountain-nuclear-disaster/

48 Not in My Back Yucca It seems like the good citizens of Nevada would sooner elect an orangutan as governor than let the federal government fill Yucca Mountain with radioactive waste. Can't blame them, I guess, but that spent nuclear fuel has to go somewhere. What, then, are the alternatives to stashing it beneath Yucca Mountain? Yucca Mountain

49 Nuclear Wastes: Low-level wastes (LLW) Low to moderately radioactive Low to moderately radioactive Emit radioactive particles under decay is complete Emit radioactive particles under decay is complete Found contaminated clothing, filters, and paper, some glass item used for medicine, manufacturing, and research, resins, radiation gauges, and smoke detectors Found contaminated clothing, filters, and paper, some glass item used for medicine, manufacturing, and research, resins, radiation gauges, and smoke detectors A low-level waste facility has been proposed for Pennsylvania to isolate and store waste material A low-level waste facility has been proposed for Pennsylvania to isolate and store waste material

50 Indoor Pollution

51 Common in households and pose potential health risks to humans Common in households and pose potential health risks to humans Common household materials that are potentially hazards include carpeting, paints, products, oils, and Common household materials that are potentially hazards include carpeting adhesives, paints, cleaning products, oils, and pesticides Potential harm from misuse and mishandled materials Potential harm from misuse and mishandled materials

52 Indoor Pollution: Reducing the Risk Several ways to reduce the risk of indoor pollutants Several ways to reduce the risk of indoor pollutants carefully and follow the material on labels exactlyRead instructions carefully and follow the material on labels exactly Use amounts of materials to accomplish the taskUse minimal amounts of materials to accomplish the task Discard excess or unused wastes according to the manufacturers labelDiscard excess or unused wastes according to the manufacturers label Remove household hazardous waste by contacting a local collection program for proper disposalRemove household hazardous waste by contacting a local collection program for proper disposal

53 Manufacturing Common Household Cleaning Products Common household cleaning items that pose potentially dangerous health risks to humans include chlorine, and laundry detergents Common household cleaning items that pose potentially dangerous health risks to humans include chlorine bleaches, ammonia, and laundry detergents Example: Household chlorine bleach Example: Household chlorine bleach Manufacturing process uses electric current to break down salt water into sodium hydroxide, hydrogen, and chlorine Manufacturing process uses electric current to break down salt water into sodium hydroxide, hydrogen, and chlorine The resulting sodium hydroxide is mixed with water The resulting sodium hydroxide is mixed with water Chlorine is added to this mixture to form sodium hypochlorite, the active ingredient Chlorine is added to this mixture to form sodium hypochlorite, the active ingredient Chlorine gas, a by-product of this manufacturing process, is a yellowish-green toxic gas Chlorine gas, a by-product of this manufacturing process, is a yellowish-green toxic gas

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