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Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1Elements of Geography SECTION 2Land, Water, and Climate SECTION 3Natural Resources SECTION 4Legends SECTION 5Archaeology CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 4 Chapter Focus 1 Overview Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter 1 links the six essential elements of geography to the study of the earth. It also shows how legends and archaeology help historians learn about the past.  –Section 1 describes the six essential elements of geography.  –Section 2 discusses the kinds of landforms, waterways, and climates found on the earth.  –Section 3 describes the natural resources on the earth.

6 5 Chapter Focus 1 Overview (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. –Section 4 explains how legends have been used to obtain clues to the past.  –Section 5 examines the importance of archaeology.

7 6 Chapter Focus 2 Objectives describe how the six essential elements of geography help explain what a place is like and why.  After studying this chapter, you will be able to: explain how landforms, waterways, climate, and natural resources have shaped history.  discuss why legends are important to the study of history.  summarize how archaeology helps scientists learn about ancient civilizations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

8 7 Chapter Focus 2 Read to Discover Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 5 of your textbook. How the six essential elements of geography help explain what a place is like and why  How geography has shaped history  How legends have been important to the study of history  How archaeology helps scientists learn about ancient civilizations

9 8 Chapter Focus 3 landforms  tectonic plates  glaciers  river system  archaeology  artifacts  Gerardus Mercator  Mary Leakey  Frank Libby  Terms to Learn People to Know Mount Everest  Nile River  Egypt  Pompeii Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.

10 9 Many scientists believe that people have been living on the earth for more than 2 million years. Where and how they lived was influenced greatly by the kind of land on which they lived. In many ways, the relationship between people and their environment has been the center of world history. Chapter Focus 4 Why It’s Important Click the Speaker On button to replay the audio.

11 End of Chapter Focus

12 11 Section 1-1 Elements of Geography Geography is the study of the earth and the ways people live and work on it.  Geography helps explain why people live the way they do.  Geography also helps explain the past by answering questions about why certain events occurred where they did.  Geographers use six essential elements to explain what a place is like and why it is like that. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 5 of your textbook.

13 12 Section 1-2 The World in Spatial Terms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Geographers first look at where a place is located. Location helps answer the question “Where is it?”  There are two types of location: absolute and relative.  –Absolute location refers to the exact location of a place on the earth’s surface.  –Relative location refers to the position of a place in relation to other places.

14 13 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Geographers also look at places and regions.  Places can be described by their physical characteristics such as climate, mountains, deserts, bodies of water, plants, and animals.  Places can also be described by their human characteristics such as how many people live in a place, what language they speak, and what they do for a living. Places and Regions

15 14 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To make sense of all the complex things in the world, geographers group places into regions.  Regions are areas that share one or more common characteristics.  Regions can be defined by their physical features, such as the kind of land found there. Regions can also be defined by their human features, such as the religion people practice, the language they speak, or the way they earn a living. Places and Regions (cont.)

16 15 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When studying places and regions, geographers look at how physical systems– such as volcanoes, glaciers, and hurricanes–act together to shape the earth’s surface.  They also look at ecosystems, or communities of plants and animals that are dependent upon one another and their particular surroundings for survival. Physical Systems

17 16 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Geographers also examine human systems, or how people have shaped our world.  They look at how boundary lines that divide countries and states are drawn and analyze why people settle in certain places and not in others.  An important theme in geography is the continual movement of goods, people, and ideas. Human Systems

18 17 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Transportation–the movement of goods– allows people to use products made in places thousands of miles away.  Communication–the movement of ideas and information–allows people to see or hear what is happening in their community or in another part of the world. Human Systems (cont.)

19 18 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The study of geography includes looking at human/environment interaction, or how and why people change their surroundings.  People respond to their environment in different ways.  Sometimes they adapt, or adjust, to it.  At other times, people modify, or change, their environment. Environment and Society

20 19 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. People, businesses, and governments use geography and maps of all kinds on a daily basis.  Geographic computer systems allow people to make better decisions about how to make the best use of places and regions.  Understanding geography, and knowing how to use the tools and technology available to study it, prepares you for life in our modern society. The Uses of Geography

21 20 Section 1-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What six essential elements do geographers use to study the earth? Geographers use the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and the uses of geography to study the earth. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

22 21 Section 1-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Why do geographers organize the world into regions? They organize the world into regions to make it easier for them to study the world. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

23 22 Section 1-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Making Comparisons How does the element of the world in spatial terms differ from the element of places and regions? The world in spatial terms gives more specific details about a place, whereas places and regions describes a place’s relation to other places. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

24 23 Section 1-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 9 of your textbook and use it to summarize the information on each of the six essential elements of geography. Summaries should reflect the information about the six essential elements of geography. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

25 End of Section 1

26 25 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2 begins on page 9 of your textbook. Land, Water, and Climate Photographs of the earth taken from space show a contrast of water and land beneath huge swirls of white clouds.  These photographs reflect three of the things geographers study: land, water, and climate.

27 26 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Landforms Land covers about 30 percent of the surface of the earth.  Land is made up of four main kinds of landforms, or natural features of the earth’s land surface.  These landforms are mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains.  Geographers describe each landform by its elevation, or height above sea level, and its relief, or changes in height.

28 27 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Mountains are the highest of the world’s landforms and generally have high relief.  Hills are lower than mountains and generally have moderate relief.  Plateaus are raised areas of flat or almost flat land that can vary in elevation. Most of them have low relief.  Plains are large areas of low lying, flat or gently rolling, land with low relief. Landforms (cont.)

29 28 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The land surface of the earth is constantly changing, usually from heat and pressure.  The inside of the earth is made up of three separate layers.  Surface Changes From Inside the Earth –At the center of the earth is the core.  –Around the core is the mantle, which is made up mostly of hot, solid rock.  –Floating on the melted upper part of the mantle is a thin layer of rock, sand, and soil called the crust.

30 29 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Heat from the core causes the rock in the mantle to rise, putting pressure on the crust and causing it to move.  In recent years, scientists have come to believe that the crust does not move in one piece but in separate sections called tectonic plates.  The movement of the plates explains what geographers call continental drift.  Plate movement also creates volcanoes. Surface Changes From Inside the Earth (cont.)

31 30 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When tectonic plates slide past one another they can cause earthquakes, or sudden shifts in the earth’s crust.  The tectonic plates are still moving. Surface Changes From Inside the Earth (cont.)

32 31 Surface Changes From Outside the Earth Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Three main forces from outside the earth that cause changes on its surface are wind, water, and ice.  All three reshape the land by a process called erosion, in which rock and soil are moved from one place on the earth’s surface to another.  Four times in the last 500,000 years, during what are called the Ice Ages, great ice sheets called glaciers spread out from the North and South poles.

33 32 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. All through history, landforms have played an important part in helping people decide where to live.  People settled mostly in plains and hilly areas where the soil was rich enough for crops to grow.  Landforms also have made a big difference in the political relationships of people. Landforms in History

34 33 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. About 70 percent of the earth's surface is covered with water.  The largest waterways in the world are the four oceans—the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Indian, and the Arctic.  Smaller bodies of salt water, usually partly surrounded by land, are known as seas.  Bodies of water that are completely surrounded by land are known as lakes. Waterways

35 34 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Waterways that empty into another body of water are known as rivers.  A river and all the streams that flow into it make up a river system. Waterways (cont.)

36 35 Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Waterways have played an important part in helping people decide where to live.  These bodies of water provided them with a means of travel and trade, drinking water, and irrigation for crops as farming developed.  Thus, river valleys were often sites for villages and cities. Waterways in History

37 36 Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The pattern of weather of a place over many years is climate.  The sun provides the earth with heat and light thus shaping climate.  As the earth moves through space, it rotates, or spins like a top.  Geographers say that it spins on its axis, an imaginary line that runs through the earth’s center from the North Pole to the South Pole. Climate and the Sun

38 37 Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Besides rotating, the earth moves around the sun in an almost circular path called an orbit.  This motion, known as a revolution, takes one year of 365 1/4 days to complete.  It is the earth’s revolution around the sun that causes the seasons. Climate and the Sun (cont.)

39 38 Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The amount of heat from the sun a place receives depends on its latitude, or distance north or south of the Equator.  Climate Zones Geographers often organize the earth into three climate zones based on latitude.  The tropical zone, also called the tropics, is the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

40 39 Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The temperate zone is found in the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere, and the area between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere.  The polar zone is the area north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. Climate Zones (cont.)

41 40 Section 2-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Climate is also shaped by large bodies of water, which keep the temperature of a place from getting too hot or too cold.  Climate is also shaped by the movement of air and ocean water.  Some winds are known as prevailing winds because they blow from a certain direction almost all of the time.  Ocean water that flows in a steady stream is called an ocean current. Climate, Water, and Wind

42 41 Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The higher the altitude, the cooler the climate.  Mountains also affect precipitation–the falling of moisture such as rain or snow.  As the air rises over mountains, it cools and drops its moisture. Climate and Altitude

43 42 Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Climate helps determine nearly every aspect of a civilization including where people live and what kinds of crops are grown.  Since climate is something humans cannot control, it has affected civilizations since prehistoric times.  Climate has even helped decide the outcomes of wars. Climate in History

44 43 Section 2-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What are some of the ways landforms and waterways have been important to history? Landforms and waterways played an important part in where people lived and their political relationships. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

45 44 Section 2-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Into what climate zones do geographers often organize the earth? The earth is organized into tropical, temperate, and polar climate zones. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

46 45 Section 2-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Making Generalizations How does climate affect the way you live? Answers will vary but should include examples of the way climate affects the way you live. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

47 46 Section 2-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one shown on page 19 of your textbook, and use it to show the four kinds of landforms and to list examples of each landform in your community or state. Your diagrams should include examples of mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

48 End of Section 2

49 48 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3 begins on page 19 of your textbook. Natural Resources Natural resources are materials found in nature.  Some places have many natural resources, while others have few.

50 49 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Kinds of Natural Resources There are different kinds of natural resources.  Other natural resources, while not essential for life, are important because they enable people to live better. –Some resources helpful to people include air, water, soil, sunlight, minerals, fossil fuels, forests, and animal life.  –Some of these–air, water, soil, and sunlight–are essential for any kind of life to exist. 

51 50 Section 3-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. One such resource is minerals, or nonliving substances found beneath the earth’s surface.  Natural resources become valuable only when people learn how to use them.  Some resources, called renewable resources, can be replaced as they are used.  Other resources, called nonrenewable resources, cannot be replaced as they are used. Kinds of Natural Resources (cont.)

52 51 Section 3-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Natural resources affected the location and growth of settlements all through history.  The sharing of these resources has also been important.  Asians and Europeans came into contact with one another partly because Europeans wanted the silks and spices of Asia that had been cultivated.  Modern industry started in countries that had large amounts of coal and iron ore for making steel. Natural Resources in History

53 52 Section 3- Assessment 1 What resources are needed for life? Air, water, soil, and sunlight are needed for life. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

54 53 Section 3- Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment Why do you think people have become more interested in making better use of the world’s natural resources? Answers might include that people are afraid resources will be used up, and they want to stop pollution of these resources. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

55 54 Section 3- Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section Assessment (cont.) Create a diagram like the one on page 21 of your textbook, and use it to show examples of of how natural resources have shaped history. Answers will vary.

56 End of Section 3

57 56 Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4 begins on page 22 of your textbook. Legends People have always been interested in learning about the past.  Every group of people on the earth has legends, or folktales, that help to explain the past.  These legends began as stories that were spoken or sung.  People passed them down from generation to generation.

58 57 Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A Chinese Legend The Chinese legend about the beginnings of China says that the universe was a huge egg.  When the egg split open, the upper half became the sky, and lower half became the earth.  Out of the split egg came P’an Gu, the first man, who grew taller each day for 18,000 years.  When he died, his body became the earth and sun.

59 58 Section 4-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Africans have a legend about why the sun shines more brightly than the moon.  Because the Moon was bigger and brighter, the Sun became jealous and attacked the Moon.  The Sun threw the Moon into the mud.  To stop the fighting, God stepped in.  He told the Sun that from then on it would be brighter than the Moon.  He told the Moon that from then on it would shine only at night for thieves and witches. An African Legend

60 59 Section 4-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rumanians have a legend about the creation of mountains and valleys.  It says that when God finished making the heavens, He measured them with a ball of thread.  A mole came along and offered to help.  While God was weaving and shaping the earth, the mole let out the thread little by little.  At times the mole let out more thread than it should have. A Rumanian Legend

61 60 Section 4-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When God was finished, He was amazed to find that the earth was too big to fit under the heavens.  The mole, seeing what it had done, was afraid and ran off and buried itself.  God sent the bee to find the mole and ask it what should be done.  The mole said that it would squeeze the earth so that the mountains would stick up and the valleys would sink down. A Rumanian Legend (cont.)

62 61 Section 4-6 The bee told God what the mole had said. God squeezed the flat earth so that the mountains rose up, the valleys sank down, and the earth fit under the heavens. A Rumanian Legend (cont.)

63 62 Section 4-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. While these Chinese, African, and Rumanian legends are about the creation of the world, this is not true of all legends.  Many are about the deeds of godlike men and women or about strange and wonderful lands.  After people developed writing more than 5,000 years ago, they wrote down their legends.  Many came to be thought of as fact. Other Legends

64 63 Section 4-8 In recent years, archaeologists, or scientists who study the remains of past human life, and anthropologists, or scientists who study the origin and development of humans, became curious about how much of certain legends was fiction and how much was fact. Other Legends (cont.)

65 64 Section 4- Assessment 1 Analyzing Information What legends do you know? What do they try to explain? Answers will vary. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

66 65 Section 4- Assessment 2 Draw a diagram like the one on page 24 of your textbook, and use it to show the order of events in one of the legends in this section. Section Assessment

67 End of Section 4

68 67 Section 5-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 5 begins on page 25 of your textbook. Archaeology Archaeology, or the study of the remains of past human life and cultures, began about 500 years ago.  At that time, some Europeans dug up old marble statues and ornaments made by ancient Greeks and Romans and sold them for a great deal of money.  Scientists began to study these artifacts, or things made by people, finding that they could learn from the artifacts how people lived long ago.

69 68 Terry Herbert 2009

70 69

71 70 Section 5-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Archaeology (cont.) People who lived in ancient times did not leave many written records.  Artifacts do not have to be works of art; they can be anything made by people, such as weapons, tools, or pottery.  The earliest artifacts are pieces of hard rock that were chipped into cutting or digging tools or into weapons.

72 71 Section 5-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. About 1700, some Italian farmers discovered they were living on top of an ancient Roman city named Herculaneum that had been buried for more than 1,000 years.  After more than 50 years of digging, they uncovered not only Herculaneum but also another Roman city called Pompeii.  In 1799 the Rosetta Stone, a slab of stone on which was carved ancient Egyptian picture-writing and its Greek translation, was found in Egypt. Archaeological Finds

73 72 Section 5-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rosetta Stone was a two-language dictionary that gave them the key to the meaning of Egyptian picture-writing.  Archaeological Finds (cont.) A great many archaeological finds have been made since the discovery of the Rosetta Stone.  Between 1850 and 1950, archaeologists uncovered five lost civilizations.  Archaeologists continue to make discoveries in many parts of the world.

74 73 Section 5-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After archaeologists excavate, or dig into the earth, to uncover remains of the past, they have to date, or find the age of, the remains.  Dating Archaeological Remains In 1832, Christian J. Thomsen, a Danish archaeologist, divided early human history into three ages, or periods.  Thomsen named these ages the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.  Later, scientists also divided the Stone Age into three shorter periods of time–old, middle, and new.

75 74 Section 5-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Later, archaeologists divided early human history into two general periods.  To tell the date of an archaeological find, scientists first used the growth rings in trees. Dating Archaeological Remains (cont.) –During the first period, people were food gatherers.  –During the second period, people were food producers. 

76 75 Section 5-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1946, an American scientist named Willard Frank Libby discovered that all living things contain a radioactive element called carbon 14.  By measuring how much carbon 14 a skeleton or the remains of a wooden boat contain today, scientists can figure out about how old the object is as far as about 30,000 years. Dating Archaeological Remains (cont.)

77 76 Section 5- Assessment 1 Why did scientists begin to study artifacts? They began studying artifacts to learn how people lived a long time ago. Section Assessment Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

78 77 Section 5- Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Why was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone important? It gave scholars the key to the meaning of Egyptian picture-writing. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

79 78 Section 5- Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Predicting Consequences What would you like about being an archaeologist? What would you dislike? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

80 79 Section 5- Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 30 of your textbook and use it to show the three major periods in early human history. The three periods are the: –Stone Age –Bronze Age –Iron Age Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

81 End of Section 5

82 81 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary & Study Guide Geographers use six essential elements to study the earth: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and the uses of geography.  Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains make up 30 percent of the surface of the earth.  The surface of the earth is constantly undergoing change.  About 70 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

83 82 Chapter Summary 2 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Climate is shaped by many factors, including winds, ocean currents, and altitude.  Geographers divide the earth into climate zones based on latitude.  Examples of natural resources include air, water, sunlight, minerals, fossil fuels, forests, and animal life.

84 83 Chapter Summary 3 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Renewable resources can be replaced. Nonrenewable resources are gone forever when used up.  Legends have helped people explain the past.  Archaeologists study artifacts to learn how people lived long ago.  Since 1946, scientists have used the carbon 14 method of dating to identify the age of artifacts.

85 End of Chapter Summary

86 85 Chapter Assessment 1 Understanding the Main Idea What are the four major kinds of landforms? mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

87 86 Chapter Assessment 2 What do geographers believe caused Pangaea to split into seven continents? continental drift Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

88 87 Chapter Assessment 3 How has erosion both helped and hurt people? Sometimes wind erosion contributes to making land rich for farming, as in China. Or erosion can destroy people’s way of life, such as the Dust Bowl. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

89 88 Chapter Assessment 4 Why did early people settle along the banks of waterways? They settled along the banks of waterways because they provided drinking water, fish and other food, good hunting grounds, rich soil for farming, water for irrigation, and easier trade and travel. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

90 89 Chapter Assessment 5 Why are air, water, soil, and sunlight important natural resources? They are important because they are needed for any kind of life to exist. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

91 90 Chapter Assessment 6 Understanding the Main Idea How have people’s views about natural resources changed in recent years? They are passing laws to slow down pollution and trying to develop new sources of energy. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

92 91 Chapter Assessment 7 How is the carbon 14 test used as a dating tool? This test dates artifacts older than those that can be dated by using trees. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

93 92 Chapter Assessment 9 In what climate zone would you prefer to live? Why? Answers will vary. Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

94 93 Chapter Assessment 10 “It is important to plan the use of the world’s natural resources.” What is your opinion of this statement? Explain. Answers will vary. Natural resources are necessary to maintain life. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

95 94 Chapter Assessment 11 Why is it important to identify the date of artifacts as exactly as possible? Answers will vary. Exact dating helps reconstruct history. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

96 95 Chapter Assessment 12 How do ideas about the past change as more knowledge becomes available? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

97 96 Chapter Assessment 13 Physical Systems Look at the map on page 13 of your textbook that shows how far ice sheets moved during the Ice Ages. What descriptive statements could you make about the movement of ice north of the Equator compared to south of the Equator? There was greater movement of ice north of the Equator than south of the Equator. Geography in History Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

98 97 Chapter Assessment 14 You are living in an area where you receive no sunlight for part of the year and slanted rays the rest of the year. You see a bear. What color is it? white–polar bear Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

99 End of Chapter Assessment

100 99 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

101 100 Global Chronology Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information A.D. Archaeologists uncover Pompeii c A.D. Archaeology begins 1832 A.D. Prehistory organized into periods 1799 A.D. Rosetta Stone discovered 1946 A.D. Carbon 14 method of dating developed

102 101 People in History 5.1 At age 11, Mary Nicol Leakey visited a cave filled with prehistoric paintings. The cave inspired her to become a paleoanthropologist–a person who studies prehistoric humans and prehumans. She later left England for East Africa. Here she discovered prehuman footprints more than 3.6 million years old! For more on this discovery, see pages of your textbook. Mary Nicol Leakey Paleoanthropologist

103 102 Fun Facts Contents 2 Island Tips Record Rain Climate Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

104 103 Fun Facts 2.1 Some of the world’s islands are really mountain summits–the tips of volcanoes that have risen from the sea. The highest summit in Hawaii, Mauna Kea, rises 13,796 feet, or 4,205 meters above sea level. However, when measured from its base, Mauna Kea stands 32,000 feet, or 9,750 meters taller than Mount Everest. Island Tips

105 104 Fun Facts 2.2 Cherrapunji, India, holds the world’s record for annual rainfall. From August 1860 to August 1861, monsoons dumped 1,042 inches, or 2,647 centimeters, on the town. That’s a downpour! Record Rain

106 105 Fun Facts 2.3 Early Greeks classified climates based on what they knew about Greece and areas to the south and north. They called their own climate temperate because it posed few problems of shelter and clothing. They believed the area south of the Mediterranean Sea became hotter, so they called these lands torrid. Cold winds from the north led them to call that area frigid. Climate

107 106 Critical Thinking Skills 1.1 Understanding Cause and Effect You know that if you watch television instead of completing your homework, you will receive poor grades.  This is an example of a cause-and-effect relationship.  This cause–watching television instead of doing homework–leads to an effect–poor grades. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

108 107 Critical Thinking Skills 1.2 When you look for why or how an event or chain of events took place, you are developing the skill of understanding causes and effects.  A cause is any person, event, or condition that makes something happen. What happens as a result is known as an effect. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. Understanding Cause and Effect

109 108 Critical Thinking Skills 1.3 These guidelines will help you identify cause and effect.  Look for “clue words” that alert you to cause and effect, such as because, led to, brought about, produced, and therefore.  Look for logical relationships between events, such as “She did this and then that happened.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. Understanding Cause and Effect

110 109 Critical Thinking Skills 1.3 In a chain of historical events, one effect often becomes the cause of other effects. The chart on page 29 of your textbook shows such a chain of events. Continued on next slide. Understanding Cause and Effect

111 110 Critical Thinking Skills 1.4 Study the cause-and-effect chart on page 29 of your textbook. Then answer the questions that follow. Continued on next slide. Understanding Cause and Effect

112 111 Critical Thinking Skills 1.5 What were some of the causes of the start of archaeology? Europeans dug up artifacts for sale. The scientists who studied these artifacts discovered important information about the past. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide. Understanding Cause and Effect

113 112 Critical Thinking Skills 1.6 What were some of the effects of archaeology upon history? Lost civilizations were uncovered. Early human history was divided into periods, and new methods of dating were developed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide. Understanding Cause and Effect

114 113 Critical Thinking Skills 1.7 What effect do you think the discovery of lost civilizations has had upon our view of the past? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Understanding Cause and Effect

115 114 Map Skills 1.1 Understanding a Mercator Projection Because Earth is a sphere, no flat map can show its whole surface.  Mapmakers use different projections, or ways of representing Earth on a flat surface.  One projection used often is a Mercator projection. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

116 115 A light shining from the center of the globe projects Earth’s features onto the paper.  This allows the map to be traced.  The parts of the map that are most like the earth are where the paper touches the globe, such as at the Equator. Map Skills 1.2 Named after Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish mapmaker of the 1500s, it is made by wrapping paper around a globe.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide. Understanding a Mercator Projection

117 116 Map Skills 1.3 The parts that are most distorted, or twisted out of shape, are where the paper does not touch the globe such as near the poles. Continued on next slide. Understanding a Mercator Projection

118 117 Map Skills 1.4 Continued on next slide. Study the Mercator projection on page 17 of your textbook showing the world’s climate zones. Then answer the questions that follow. Understanding a Mercator Projection

119 118 Map Skills 1.5 Which of the earth’s climate zones is shown most accurately? Tropical Zone Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide. Understanding a Mercator Projection

120 119 Map Skills 1.6 Which climate zone is most distorted? Polar Zone Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide. Understanding a Mercator Projection

121 120 Map Skills 1.7 Is the shape of North America more accurate on this map or on a globe? Why? The globe representation is more accurate because no flat map can accurately represent a sphere. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Understanding a Mercator Projection

122 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

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