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TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation Education

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1 TOOLKIT FOR Hazardous Materials Transportation Education

2 Module 2: Hazmat Transportation Logistics
This work is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA).  It was conducted through the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Prepared by 3 Sigma Consultants, LLC 909 Edenbridge Way, Nashville, TN 37215 Module 2: Hazmat Transportation Logistics

3 Learning Outcomes At the end of this module students will be able to:
Describe the extent of freight transportation infrastructure and activity in the U.S. Describe the contribution and characteristics of hazardous materials transport as part of the freight transportation system. Identify the key stakeholders in the supply chain process and their roles and responsibilities. Explain the operational issues and economic considerations associated with the transport of hazardous materials.

4 Topics U.S. freight transportation infrastructure, vehicles and equipment Hazmat shipment classifications, modes and commodity flows Hazmat shipment supply chain process maps Management and operational issues

5 U.S. Freight Transportation Infrastructure
Roads Over 4 million miles of public roads 164,000 miles of roads comprising the National Highway System, including over 47,000 miles of Interstates Rail Over 250,000 miles of track, including yards, sidings and multiple main tracks Nearly 95,000 miles of Class I railroad track Waterway Over 13,000 miles of inland waterways, including rivers and Great Lakes Nearly 300 major commercial ports Pipeline Roughly 1.7 million miles of oil and gas pipelines Air Over 13,000 airports Sources: FHWA Freight Facts and Figures 2011, North American Transportation Statistics Database

6 U.S. Freight Transportation Vehicles & Equipment
Nearly 11 million commercial freight trucks 24,000 freight locomotives and over 1.3 million rail cars 40,000 freight vessels – 9,000 self-propelled and 31,000 barges Over 18,000 commercial aircraft Sources: FHWA Freight Facts and Figures 2011, North American Transportation Statistics Database

7 Revenue (millions of current $) Payroll (millions of current $)
Economic Characteristics of Transportation and Warehousing in Freight-Dominated Modes NAICS Establishments Revenue (millions of current $) Payroll (millions of current $) Paid Employees Rail transportation 565 59,600 NA 169,280 Water transportation 1,721 34,447 4,544 75,997 Truck transportation 120,390 217,833 58,266 1,507,923 Pipeline transportation 2,529 25,718 3,219 36,964 Support activities for transportation 42,130 86,596 24,579 608,385 Couriers and messengers 13,004 77,877 20,431 557,195 Warehousing and storage 13,938 21,921 25,526 720,451 Key: NA = not available; NAICS = North American Industry Classification System. Notes: Data are for establishments in which transportation is the primary business. Data exclude transportation provided privately, such as trucking organized "in-house" by a grocery company. Data are not collected for governmental organizations even when their primary activity would be classified in industries covered by the census. For example, data are not collected for publicly operated buses and subway systems. Data is reported for calendar year 2007, except for railroads, which is reported for calendar year 2010. Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Transportation and Warehousing, United States (Washington, DC: 2010); Association of American Railroads, U.S. Freight Railroad Statistics, 2013.

8 Freight Transportation Modes
Highway (Truck) Private and for-hire Bulk and less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments LTL carriers consolidate many freight packages into a single larger shipment to improve shipper and/or customer efficiency Rail Class 1 (major carriers) Class 2 (regional and short lines) Class 3 (terminal – switching) Marine (Water) Brown water (inland) Green water (coastal) Blue water (ocean-going) Pipeline Air (with truck) Intermodal

9 Truck: Bulk Shipment

10 Truck: LTL Shipment

11 Rail: Bulk Tank Cars

12 Marine: Brown Water

13 Marine: Green Water

14 Marine: Blue Water

15 Pipeline

16 Air

17 Terminal, Warehouse & Transfer Operations

18 Various Types of Hazmat Packaging
Drums Boxes Cylinders Special Containers Tanks

19 Tonnage on Highways, Railroads
and Inland Waterways: 2007 Each surface mode is characterized by major freight corridors.

20 National Network for Conventional
Combination Trucks: 2010 One-fourth of distance traveled by all traffic is on interstates, yet nearly one-half of combination truck vehicle miles are on these roads. 20

21 Top 25 Water Ports by Tonnage: 2009
The top 25 water ports handle roughly two-thirds of the weight of all foreign and domestic goods moved by water. 21

22 National Pipeline System

23 Rail intermodal transport is spread throughout the U.S.
Tonnage of Trailer-on-Flatcar and Container-on-Flatcar Rail Intermodal Moves: 2009 Rail intermodal transport is spread throughout the U.S. 23

24 Top 25 Foreign Trade Freight
Gateways by Value: 2009 Top 25 foreign trade gateways by shipment value include 10 water ports, 6 land-border crossings and 9 airports.

25 Economic Considerations – Dry Cargo Capacity Efficiencies Among Surface Transportation
Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 2. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation Short Tons is the standard dry bulk cargo capacity for a single barge.

26 Economic Considerations – Liquid Cargo Capacity Efficiencies Among Surface Transportation
Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 2. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. 27,500 BBL is the standard liquid bulk cargo capacity for a single barge.

27 Economic Considerations – Fuel Efficiency Comparisons Among Surface Transportation
Ton-Miles per Gallon of Fuel: 2009 Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 5. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation.

28 Environmental Considerations – Greenhouse Gas Emission Comparison Among Surface Transportation
Metric Tons of GHG per Million Ton-Miles (2005 & 2009) Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 5. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. GHG is Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

29 SmartWay: Reducing Transportation Emissions
An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiative that reduces transportation related emissions by creating incentives to improve efficiency. Freight carriers and shippers commit to benchmark operations, track fuel consumption and improve performance annually. Program includes testing, verification and designation to help identify equipment, technologies and strategies that save fuel and lower emissions. Provides grants to make investing in fuel-saving equipment easier for freight carriers. Source: 29

30 PHMSA Hazmat Classification System
Class 1: Explosives 1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard 1.2 Explosives with a projection hazard 1.3 Explosives with predominately a fire hazard 1.4 Explosives with no significant blast hazard 1.5 Very insensitive explosives; blasting agents 1.6 Extremely insensitive detonating substances Class 2: Gas 2.1 Flammable gas 2.2 Non-flammable compressed gas 2.3 Poisonous gas Class 3: Flammable & Combustible Liquid Class 4: Flammable Solid 4.1 Flammable solid 4.2 Spontaneously combustible material 4.3 Dangerous when wet material Class 5: Oxidizing Agent & Organic Peroxide 5.1 Oxidizer 5.2 Organic peroxide Class 6: Toxic & Infectious Substance 6.1 Poisonous material 6.2 Infectious substance (Etiologic agent) Class 7: Radioactive Material Class 8: Corrosive Material Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Material Note: Gasoline and fuel oil are considered Class 3 materials; liquefied natural gas and compressed natural gas are considered Class 2 materials.

31 Hazardous Material Shipment Characteristics - 2007
Over 2.2 billion tons of hazardous materials are transported every year in the U.S., valued at over $1.4 trillion. This corresponds to 323 trillion ton-miles of hazmat cargo moved annually. The average trip distance of these shipments is 96 miles. Hazmat transportation represents roughly 18% of total tons transported by freight industry and accounts for nearly 10% of the ton-miles. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

32 Tonnage by Mode and Shipment Type - 2007
Hazardous Non-Hazardous Tons (thousands) Percent For-hire Truck 495,077 12 3,580,060 88 Private Truck 707,748 15 3,995,828 85 Rail 129,743 7 1,731,564 93 Water 149,794 37 253,845 63 Air (Includes Truck and Air) s 3,256 90 Pipeline 628,905 97 21,954 3 Multiple Modes 111,022 19 462,708 81 Other and Unknown 8,489 263,078 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

33 Percent Hazmat Tons Shipped by Mode - 2007
The majority of hazardous cargo by weight is moved by truck, with a significant volume of hazmat also moved by pipeline. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

34 Tonnage Moved by Mode and Hazard Class - 2007
(includes combustible liquids) Rail carries the most uniformly distributed mix of different classes of hazardous materials. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

35 Ton-Miles by Mode and Shipment Type - 2007
Hazardous Non-Hazardous Tons (millions) Percent For-hire Truck 63,288 6 992,359 94 Private Truck 40,709 14 245,748 86 Rail 92,169 7 1,251,871 93 Water 37,064 24 120,251 76 Air (Includes Truck and Air) s 4,334 96 Pipeline Multiple Modes 42,886 10 373,756 90 Other and Unknown 1,466 4 32,298 S = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Ton-mile measure not relevant for continuous flow mode of pipeline. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

36 Percent Hazmat Ton-Miles by Mode - 2007
Due to the movement of larger loads, longer distances, rail, water and intermodal transport become significant freight modes when ton-miles are considered. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

37 Average Hazmat Trip Length by Mode (Miles) - 2007
Local distribution is the dominant trip pattern for moving hazmat by truck. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

38 Top Hazmat Classes/Divisions Transported by Mode
s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012, p. 48. Note that this source identifies Ocean as a Transport Mode. The 2007 Commodity Flow Survey identifies Water as a Transport Mode instead of Ocean, reflecting shipments on the inland water system as well as ocean movements as well.

39 Overview of Modes and HM Shipments
Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012. The 2007 Commodity Flow Survey identifies Water as a Transport Mode instead of Ocean (Marine), reflecting shipments on the inland water system as well as ocean movements as well.

40 Hazmat Shipments by State of Origin - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) State Texas 340,144 24 499,592 22 Louisiana 126,043 9 221,005 10 California 151,684 199,755 Illinois 73,473 5 114,925 Pennsylvania 53,480 4 95,592 4. New Jersey 47,908 3 78,894 Florida 45,582 68,259 Georgia 35,767 2 67,633 Ohio 48,758 66,218 New York 37,438 56,577 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

41 Hazmat Shipments (Tons) by State of Origin - 2007
Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

42 Hazmat Shipments by State of Destination - 2007
Value Tons State (million $) Percent (thousands) Texas 318,321 22 487,434 California 159,535 11 211,302 10 Louisiana 101,838 7 182,088 8 Florida 57,547 4 88,865 Illinois 56,291 80,466 New Jersey 45,654 3 80,041 Georgia 39,381 69,241 New York 46,247 67,308 Pennsylvania 40,415 67,220 Ohio 47,924 66,226 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

43 Hazmat Shipment Characteristics by Selected Commodities - 2007
Commodity Total Value (million $) HM Value (million $) % HM % of Total HM Value Total Tons (thousands) Tons HM (thousands) % of Total HM Tons Gasoline and Aviation Turbine Fuel 663,194 100.0 48 959,161 43 Fuel Oils 373,515 27 641,894 29 Coal and Petroleum Products 268,163 133,043 50 10 578,188 247,172 42.7 11 Basic Chemicals 271,469 149,697 55 412,581 295,890 71.7 13 Fertilizers 43,613 12,468 1 149,600 37,788 25.3 2 Chemical Products and Preparations 331,750 54,850 16 4 123,537 24,997 20.2 1,386,767 100 2,206,902 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

44 Class 1 HM (Explosive) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 7,475 63.6 807 26.5 Private Truck 3,245 27.6 2,205 72.4 Rail s Water Air (Includes Truck and Air) 130 1.1 Multiple Modes 853 7.3 26 0.8 Other and Unknown 31 0.3 1 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

45 Class 2 HM (Gas) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 15,925 12.1 24,691 9.9 Private Truck 46,970 35.6 111,245 44.4 Rail 20,641 15.7 32,538 13 Water 1,335 1 2,425 Air (Includes Truck and Air) 273 0.2 s Pipeline 42,033 31.9 75,226 30 Multiple Modes 3,763 2.9 3,321 1.3 Other and Unknown 868 0.7 1,056 0.4 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

46 Class 3 HM (Flammable and Combustible Liquid) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 285,022 44.3 7,075 34.7 Private Truck 386,712 15.3 3,670 18.0 Rail s 3,995 19.6 Water Pipeline 9 0.2 Air 25 0.6 1 Multiple Modes Other and Unknown s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

47 Class 4 HM (Flammable Solid) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 1,800 24.4 399,877 22.8 Private Truck 624 33 544,394 31.1 Rail 24,095 2.1 31,485 1.8 Water 62,635 5.4 129,760 7.4 Pipeline 348,297 29.8 545,821 Multiple Modes 58,161 5 95,317 Other and Unknown 4,784 0.4 5,822 0.3 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

48 Class 5 HM (Oxidizing Agent & Organic Peroxide) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 2,617 39.1 4,519 30.2 Private Truck 1,798 26.9 3,324 22.2 Rail 1,737 25.9 5,929 39.6 Air (Includes Truck and Air) 68 1 s Multiple Modes 382 5.7 962 6.4 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

49 Class 6 HM (Toxic & Infectious Substances) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 8,682 41 2,414 21.4 Private Truck 1,446 6.8 537 4.8 Rail 6,782 32 5,354 47.5 Water s 1,847 16.4 Air (Includes Truck and Air) 36 0.2 1 Pipeline 298 2.6 Multiple Modes 1,068 5 817 7.2 Other and Unknown 26 0.1 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

50 Class 7 HM (Radioactive Material) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 2,949 14.3 16 3 Private Truck 16,133 78.2 485 94.1 Air (Includes Truck and Air) 233 1.1 2 0.5 Multiple Modes 1,218 5.9 9 1.8 Other and Unknown 100 0.6 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

51 Class 8 HM (Corrosive Material) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 20,930 40.7 31,810 27.8 Private Truck 15,686 30.5 25,256 22.1 Rail 7,973 15.5 34,839 30.4 Water 1,483 2.9 8,342 7.3 Air (Includes Truck and Air) 194 0.4 s Pipeline 1,398 2.7 4,976 4.3 Multiple Modes 3,190 6.2 7,817 6.8 Other and Unknown 622 1.2 1,396 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

52 Class 9 HM (Miscellaneous Hazardous Material) Shipments by Mode - 2007
Value Tons (million $) Percent (thousands) For-hire Truck 13,392 44.4 23,868 37.8 Private Truck 5,667 18.8 16,632 26.3 Rail 7,292 24.2 15,598 24.7 Water s 3,552 5.6 Air (Includes Truck and Air) 25 0.1 1 Multiple Modes 1,719 5.7 Other and Unknown 35 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

53 Generalized Supply Chain Flow Chart
Manufacturer Output/Raw Materials Storage Loading Transportation Truck Rail Water/Ocean Air Pipeline Intermodal Unloading Storage Customer 53

54 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Process Map Element Descriptions: Activity Identifiers, Roles and Definitions Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

55 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Process Map Element Descriptions: Activity Identifiers, Roles and Definitions Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

56 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Truckload Process Map
Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

57 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Less-Than-Truckload Process Map
Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

58 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Rail Process Map
Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

59 HM Shipment Supply Chain – Ocean/Intermodal Process Map
Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

60 HM Shipment Supply Chain – Air Process Map
Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

61 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles
Petrochemicals are shipped via rail from a chemical plant in Houston, Texas, to a manufacturer in Philadelphia. The finished product, also considered a hazardous material, is then transported by truck to the Port of New York for ocean shipping to Europe.

62 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles
Chemical Plant Prepare shipping documents Load commodity using approved procedures by certified employees Maintain an emergency response plan Inspect cars prior to loading Provide emergency response information and contact phone number Inspect cars after loading Provide appropriate placards Railroad Accept and verify shipping documents and prepare additional documents as required Place car within the train in an approved configuration Inspect car before moving

63 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles
Railroad (continued) Maintain shipping documents Maintain emergency response information Transport to interchange with another railroad Inspect car at interchange Transfer shipping documents to second carrier Second railroad places car in appropriate position within train Deliver to manufacturer Manufacturer (Incoming) Accept car and inspect Accept shipping papers Unload car Store commodities in approved manner

64 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles
Manufacturer (Outgoing) Prepare appropriate shipping documents Load truck Trucking Firm Accept and maintain shipping documents Inspect load Provide appropriate placards Transport load Port Facility Accept load and shipping documents Store in appropriate location Prepare additional required shipping documentation for overseas shipping Move to ship

65 Hazmat Logistics: Management and Operational Issues
Corporate management practices Mode and route selection Hazmat permits Hazmat inspections/violations/penalties Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) Tracking and performance monitoring Safe havens Operational issues (permits and fees, advance notification, inspections, security, communications, performance monitoring, tracking – commodity, vehicle and driver identification, equipment maintenance and reliability, package integrity, safe parking, contingencies, emergency response, clean-up & recovery, operator credentialing - TWIC, CDL, HME)

66 Corporate Management Hazmat transportation procedures are integrated into a corporation’s safety culture. Each organization establishes its own structure for managing hazmat transportation issues. Typically, a position is established with responsibility for hazmat transportation and safety. The location within the corporate government is dependent on the nature and amount of the hazardous materials that are handled. Each firm establishes a chain of command which specifies responsibility and accountability. Within the organization, communications and coordination responsibilities are reinforced through training exercises and established protocols.

67 Factors Affecting Hazmat Mode Choice
Travel time and service reliability Total logistics costs Safety and security Shipment size and weight Hazardous materials properties and composition Container characteristics Availability of infrastructure access/egress Equipment availability Local restrictions (e.g., bridges, tunnels, highway weights) Intermodal considerations

68 Route Selection Factors
Efficiency Trip length Travel time Availability of diversion route Access to enroute storage and repair facilities Safety & Security Condition of infrastructure Height, width, weight and traffic conflict considerations Accident likelihood Population exposure Number of transfers Proximity to critical infrastructure and iconic targets Emergency response capability Safe stopping places Environmental Wildlife and vegetation exposure Soil composition Proximity to surface and ground water Route selection between a specific trip origin and destination is quite limited for marine transport and not a consideration in air transport.

69 Hazmat Permitting Special permit is a document authorizing an entity to perform a function that is not currently authorized under the authority of the HM regulations. Special permits are issued for motor vehicles; rail cars; ocean-going vessels and ferries; cargo and passenger planes; and intermodal containers. Applicant for special permit must demonstrate that special permit achieves level of safety that is required by HM regulations or is consistent with public interest. There are also provisions related to state permitting. Source: Permits Action Plan.pdf

70 PHMSA Hazmat Permits Source: US DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, , October 2011, p. 16. * The figures reflect applications for status as “party-to-exemption” (PTE). Party means a person, other than the initial grantee, authorized to act under terms of the special permit. **The figures reflect applications for modifications to a special permit.

71 HM Inspections, Violations and Penalties
HM inspections cover all modes: airlines, pipelines, motor carriers, water carriers, and railroads. Inspections are conducted by multiple federal agencies. Violations among motor carriers are generally considered serious and contributing factors to HM incidents due to : Release of HM from packages Unauthorized packaging Smoking while loading or unloading Package not secure in vehicle Vehicle not placarded as required Source :

72 HM Inspections, Violations, and Penalties
Source: US DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, , October 2011, p. 21.

73 Transportation Worker Identification Credential - TWIC
A Transportation Security Administration and U.S. Coast Guard initiative. Provides a tamper-resistant biometric credential to maritime workers requiring unescorted access to secure areas of port facilities, outer continental shelf facilities, and vessels regulated under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, and all U.S. Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners. Over two million individuals are currently enrolled. To obtain a TWIC, an individual must provide biographic and biometric information such as fingerprints, sit for a digital photograph and successfully pass a security threat assessment conducted by TSA. TWIC implemented in maritime area initially, but may be implemented across other modes in future. Source:

74 Commercial Driver's License - CDL
Required to operate any type of vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 26,001 lb (11,793 kg) or more for commercial use, or transports quantities of hazardous materials that require warning placards under USDOT regulations. CDL is intended to improve highway safety by ensuring that truck drivers are qualified to drive commercial motor vehicles and to remove drivers that are unsafe and unqualified from the highways. States have the right to issue CDLs, subject to meeting federally-established minimum requirements. Source:

75 Commercial Driver's License – Hazardous Materials Endorsement
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)’s Hazardous Materials Endorsement Threat Assessment Program conducts a security threat assessment for any driver seeking to obtain, renew or transfer a hazardous materials endorsement on a state-issued CDL. Program was implemented to meet the requirements of the US Patriot Act, which prohibits states from issuing a license to transport hazardous materials in commerce unless a determination has been made that the driver does not pose a security risk. The US Patriot Act further requires that the risk assessment include checks of criminal history records, legal status, and relevant international databases. Source:

76 Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW)
The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) sets qualification standards for master, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted by the International Maritime Organization and entered into force in 1984, with significant amendments enacted in 1995. Requires that seafarers be provided with "familiarization training" and "basic safety training“, which includes basic fire fighting, elementary first aid, personal survival techniques, and personal safety and social responsibility. This is intended to make seafarers aware of the hazards of working on a vessel and able to respond appropriately in an emergency.

77 Tracking and Performance Monitoring
Is utilized to improve transportation efficiency, safety, and security. At a minimum, tracking is done by maintaining a manifest accompanying the shipment. Most companies use electronic systems to track shipments and also monitor vehicle and driver performance. GIS and GPS technologies form the basis for enabling this practice. Federal agencies such as TSA are currently considering the use of hazmat tracking systems for oversight purposes.

78 Safe Havens A safe haven is an approved place for parking vehicles loaded with high hazard materials (e.g., explosives, radioactive materials). Designation of safe havens is usually made by local authorities. Must be off the traveled way and not near where people gather, an open fire, or a bridge, tunnel, or building. Must notify owner if parking on private property.

79 Key Takeaways The transportation of hazardous materials is a major shipping activity involving many freight modes and service providers. The majority of shipments are made by truck, with pipeline, rail and waterway trips representing longer-haul and larger bulk movements. Hazardous cargo takes on many forms, with unique material properties that require different types of packaging. Transport of hazardous materials requires special treatment within the supply chain, involving a variety of stakeholders. Shippers and carriers in particular have several important roles and responsibilities. A variety of operational issues must be considered from a logistics perspective. 79

80 Student Exercise Compare the HM shipment supply chain process maps for TL and LTL truck, rail, and ocean intermodal: For which modal alternative are there more opportunities for delays and bottlenecks? Identify the bottlenecks and explain your answer. For which modal alternative are there more risks for an HM incident (spill or release)? Suggest ways to reduce the delays/bottlenecks in the process maps without simultaneously increasing the risk of an HM incident.

81 Resources for Support and Additional Learning
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Commodity Flow Survey – 2007: Hazardous Materials Federal Highway Administration, Freight Facts and Figures 2011 Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Table

82 Resources for Support and Additional Learning
John Coyle, et al., Management of Transportation, Cengage Learning, 2011. C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. C. James Kruse, et. al., Marine Highway Transport of Toxic Inhalation Hazard Materials, National Cooperative Freight Research Program, NCFRP Report 18, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 2012. H. Barry Spraggins, Truck v. Rail Transportation of HM, International Journal of Business Research, Vol. VII, No. 2, 2007.

83 Resources for Support and Additional Learning
William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012. US Bureau of the Census, Census of Transportation 2007 US DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, , October 2011. Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals, 1998, Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers. NFPA 55 Standard for the Storage, Use and Handling of Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, 1998 Edition, National Fire Protection Association.

84 Resources for Support and Additional Learning
Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals, 1998, Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers. NFPA 55 Standard for the Storage, Use and Handling of Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, 1998 Edition, National Fire Protection Association. Carmel, Matthew M., A Guide to OSHA Regulations on Storing and Handling Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Plant Engineering, March 18, 1982. Recommended Practices for Storing and Handling Hazardous Substances, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. American Chemical Council, Chemical/CCPA Warehouse Assessment Protocol, American Chemistry Council, June 1, 1996. 84


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