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TOOLKIT FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION EDUCATION.

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1 TOOLKIT FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION EDUCATION

2 Module 2: Hazmat Transportation Logistics 2 This work is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). It was conducted through the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Prepared by 3 Sigma Consultants, LLC 909 Edenbridge Way, Nashville, TN 37215

3 Learning Outcomes At the end of this module students will be able to: 1.Describe the extent of freight transportation infrastructure and activity in the U.S. 2.Describe the contribution and characteristics of hazardous materials transport as part of the freight transportation system. 3.Identify the key stakeholders in the supply chain process and their roles and responsibilities. 4.Explain the operational issues and economic considerations associated with the transport of hazardous materials. 3

4 Topics U.S. freight transportation infrastructure, vehicles and equipment Hazmat shipment classifications, modes and commodity flows Hazmat shipment supply chain process maps Management and operational issues 4

5 U.S. Freight Transportation Infrastructure Roads – Over 4 million miles of public roads – 164,000 miles of roads comprising the National Highway System, including over 47,000 miles of Interstates Rail – Over 250,000 miles of track, including yards, sidings and multiple main tracks – Nearly 95,000 miles of Class I railroad track Waterway – Over 13,000 miles of inland waterways, including rivers and Great Lakes – Nearly 300 major commercial ports Pipeline – Roughly 1.7 million miles of oil and gas pipelines Air – Over 13,000 airports Sources: FHWA Freight Facts and Figures 2011, North American Transportation Statistics Database 5

6 U.S. Freight Transportation Vehicles & Equipment Nearly 11 million commercial freight trucks 24,000 freight locomotives and over 1.3 million rail cars 40,000 freight vessels – 9,000 self-propelled and 31,000 barges Over 18,000 commercial aircraft 6 Sources: FHWA Freight Facts and Figures 2011, North American Transportation Statistics Database

7 NAICS Establishments Revenue (millions of current $) Payroll (millions of current $) Paid Employees Rail transportation56559,600NA169,280 Water transportation1,72134,4474,54475,997 Truck transportation120,390217,83358,2661,507,923 Pipeline transportation2,52925,7183,21936,964 Support activities for transportation42,13086,59624,579608,385 Couriers and messengers13,00477,87720,431557,195 Warehousing and storage13,93821,92125,526720,451 Key: NA = not available; NAICS = North American Industry Classification System. Notes: Data are for establishments in which transportation is the primary business. Data exclude transportation provided privately, such as trucking organized "in- house" by a grocery company. Data are not collected for governmental organizations even when their primary activity would be classified in industries covered by the census. For example, data are not collected for publicly operated buses and subway systems. Data is reported for calendar year 2007, except for railroads, which is reported for calendar year Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 2007 Economic Census, Transportation and Warehousing, United States (Washington, DC: 2010); Association of American Railroads, U.S. Freight Railroad Statistics, Economic Characteristics of Transportation and Warehousing in Freight-Dominated Modes 7

8 Freight Transportation Modes Highway (Truck) – Private and for-hire – Bulk and less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments LTL carriers consolidate many freight packages into a single larger shipment to improve shipper and/or customer efficiency Rail – Class 1 (major carriers) – Class 2 (regional and short lines) – Class 3 (terminal – switching) Marine (Water) – Brown water (inland) – Green water (coastal) – Blue water (ocean-going) Pipeline Air (with truck) Intermodal 8

9 Truck: Bulk Shipment 9

10 Truck: LTL Shipment 10

11 11 Rail: Bulk Tank Cars

12 Marine: Brown Water 12

13 Marine: Green Water 13

14 Marine: Blue Water 14

15 Pipeline 15

16 Air 16

17 Terminal, Warehouse & Transfer Operations 17

18 Drums Special Containers Boxes Cylinders Tanks 18 Various Types of Hazmat Packaging

19 19 Each surface mode is characterized by major freight corridors. Tonnage on Highways, Railroads and Inland Waterways: 2007

20 20 One-fourth of distance traveled by all traffic is on interstates, yet nearly one-half of combination truck vehicle miles are on these roads. National Network for Conventional Combination Trucks: 2010

21 21 The top 25 water ports handle roughly two-thirds of the weight of all foreign and domestic goods moved by water. Top 25 Water Ports by Tonnage: 2009

22 National Pipeline System 22

23 23 Rail intermodal transport is spread throughout the U.S. Tonnage of Trailer-on-Flatcar and Container-on- Flatcar Rail Intermodal Moves: 2009

24 24 Top 25 foreign trade gateways by shipment value include 10 water ports, 6 land-border crossings and 9 airports. Top 25 Foreign Trade Freight Gateways by Value: 2009

25 Economic Considerations – Dry Cargo Capacity Efficiencies Among Surface Transportation Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 2. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation Short Tons is the standard dry bulk cargo capacity for a single barge. 25

26 Economic Considerations – Liquid Cargo Capacity Efficiencies Among Surface Transportation 26 Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 2. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. 27,500 BBL is the standard liquid bulk cargo capacity for a single barge.

27 Economic Considerations – Fuel Efficiency Comparisons Among Surface Transportation 27 Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 5. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. Ton-Miles per Gallon of Fuel: 2009

28 Environmental Considerations – Greenhouse Gas Emission Comparison Among Surface Transportation 28 Source: C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, 2012, p. 5. Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. GHG is Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Metric Tons of GHG per Million Ton-Miles (2005 & 2009)

29 SmartWay: Reducing Transportation Emissions An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiative that reduces transportation related emissions by creating incentives to improve efficiency. Freight carriers and shippers commit to benchmark operations, track fuel consumption and improve performance annually. Program includes testing, verification and designation to help identify equipment, technologies and strategies that save fuel and lower emissions. Provides grants to make investing in fuel-saving equipment easier for freight carriers. 29 Source: 29

30 PHMSA Hazmat Classification System Class 3: Flammable & Combustible Liquid Class 4: Flammable Solid 4.1 Flammable solid 4.2 Spontaneously combustible material 4.3 Dangerous when wet material Class 5: Oxidizing Agent & Organic Peroxide 5.1 Oxidizer 5.2 Organic peroxide Class 6: Toxic & Infectious Substance 6.1 Poisonous material 6.2 Infectious substance (Etiologic agent) Class 7: Radioactive Material Class 8: Corrosive Material Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Material Class 1: Explosives 1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard 1.2 Explosives with a projection hazard 1.3 Explosives with predominately a fire hazard 1.4 Explosives with no significant blast hazard 1.5 Very insensitive explosives; blasting agents 1.6 Extremely insensitive detonating substances Class 2: Gas 2.1 Flammable gas 2.2 Non-flammable compressed gas 2.3 Poisonous gas 30 Note: Gasoline and fuel oil are considered Class 3 materials; liquefied natural gas and compressed natural gas are considered Class 2 materials.

31 Hazardous Material Shipment Characteristics Over 2.2 billion tons of hazardous materials are transported every year in the U.S., valued at over $1.4 trillion. This corresponds to 323 trillion ton-miles of hazmat cargo moved annually. The average trip distance of these shipments is 96 miles. Hazmat transportation represents roughly 18% of total tons transported by freight industry and accounts for nearly 10% of the ton-miles. 31 Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

32 Tonnage by Mode and Shipment Type Mode Hazardous Non-Hazardous Tons (thousands) PercentTons (thousands) Percent For-hire Truck495,077123,580,06088 Private Truck707,748153,995,82885 Rail129,74371,731,56493 Water149, ,84563 Air (Includes Truck and Air)ss3,25690 Pipeline628, ,9543 Multiple Modes111, ,70881 Other and Unknown8, , s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

33 Percent Hazmat Tons Shipped by Mode The majority of hazardous cargo by weight is moved by truck, with a significant volume of hazmat also moved by pipeline. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

34 Tonnage Moved by Mode and Hazard Class Rail carries the most uniformly distributed mix of different classes of hazardous materials. (includes combustible liquids) Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

35 Ton-Miles by Mode and Shipment Type Mode Hazardous Non- Hazardous Tons (millions)PercentTons (millions)Percent For-hire Truck63, ,35994 Private Truck40, ,74886 Rail92,16971,251,87193 Water37, ,25176 Air (Includes Truck and Air)ss4,33496 Pipelinessss Multiple Modes42, ,75690 Other and Unknown1,466432, S = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Ton-mile measure not relevant for continuous flow mode of pipeline. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

36 Percent Hazmat Ton-Miles by Mode Due to the movement of larger loads, longer distances, rail, water and intermodal transport become significant freight modes when ton-miles are considered. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

37 Average Hazmat Trip Length by Mode (Miles) Local distribution is the dominant trip pattern for moving hazmat by truck. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

38 Top Hazmat Classes/Divisions Transported by Mode 38 Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012, p. 48. Note that this source identifies Ocean as a Transport Mode. The 2007 Commodity Flow Survey identifies Water as a Transport Mode instead of Ocean, reflecting shipments on the inland water system as well as ocean movements as well. s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality.

39 Overview of Modes and HM Shipments 39 Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, The 2007 Commodity Flow Survey identifies Water as a Transport Mode instead of Ocean (Marine), reflecting shipments on the inland water system as well as ocean movements as well.

40 Hazmat Shipments by State of Origin Value Tons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent State Texas340, ,59222 Louisiana126, ,00510 California151, ,7559 Illinois73, ,9255 Pennsylvania53,480495,5924. New Jersey47,908378,8944 Florida45,582368,2593 Georgia35,767267,6333 Ohio48,758366,2183 New York37,438356, Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

41 41 Hazmat Shipments (Tons) by State of Origin Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

42 Hazmat Shipments by State of Destination Value Tons State(million $)Percent (thousands)Percent Texas318, ,43422 California159, ,30210 Louisiana101, ,0888 Florida57,547488,8654 Illinois56,291480,4664 New Jersey45,654380,0414 Georgia39,381369,2413 New York46,247367,3083 Pennsylvania40,415367,2203 Ohio47,924366, Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

43 Hazmat Shipment Characteristics by Selected Commodities Commodity Total Value (million $) HM Value (million $)% HM % of Total HM Value Total Tons (thousands) Tons HM (thousands)% HM % of Total HM Tons Gasoline and Aviation Turbine Fuel663, , Fuel Oils373, , Coal and Petroleum Products268,163133, ,188247, Basic Chemicals271,469149, ,581295, Fertilizers43,61312, ,60037, Chemical Products and Preparations331,75054, ,53724, ,386, ,206, Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

44 Class 1 HM (Explosive) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck7, Private Truck3, , Railssss Waterssss Air (Includes Truck and Air)1301.1ss Multiple Modes Other and Unknown310.31s 44 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

45 Class 2 HM (Gas) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck15, , Private Truck46, , Rail20, ,53813 Water1,33512,4251 Air (Includes Truck and Air)2730.2ss Pipeline42, ,22630 Multiple Modes3, , Other and Unknown , s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

46 Class 3 HM (Flammable and Combustible Liquid) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck285, , Private Truck386, , Railss3, Waterssss Pipeline90.2ss Air250.61s Multiple Modesssss Other and Unknown90.2ss 46 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

47 Class 4 HM (Flammable Solid) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck1, , Private Truck , Rail24, , Water62, , Pipeline348, , Multiple Modes58,161595, Other and Unknown4, , Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

48 Class 5 HM (Oxidizing Agent & Organic Peroxide) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck2, , Private Truck1, , Rail1, , Air (Includes Truck and Air)6811s Multiple Modes Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

49 Class 6 HM (Toxic & Infectious Substances) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck8,682412, Private Truck1, Rail6,782325, Waterss1, Air (Includes Truck and Air)360.21s Pipeliness Multiple Modes1, Other and Unknown260.1ss 49 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

50 Class 7 HM (Radioactive Material) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck2, Private Truck16, Air (Includes Truck and Air) Multiple Modes1, Other and Unknown Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

51 Class 8 HM (Corrosive Material) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck20, , Private Truck15, , Rail7, , Water1, , Air (Includes Truck and Air)1940.4ss Pipeline1, , Multiple Modes3, , Other and Unknown , s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

52 Class 9 HM (Miscellaneous Hazardous Material) Shipments by Mode ModeValueTons (million $)Percent (thousands)Percent For-hire Truck13, , Private Truck5, , Rail7, , Waterss3, Air (Includes Truck and Air)250.11s Multiple Modes1,7195.7ss Other and Unknown350.1ss 52 s = Estimate does not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. Source: 2007 Commodity Flow Survey. This survey is performed by the U.S. Census Bureau every five years survey results are not yet available.

53 53 Manufacturer Output/Raw Materials Loading Transportation Truck Rail Water/Ocean Air Pipeline Intermodal Storage Unloading StorageCustomer 53 Generalized Supply Chain Flow Chart

54 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Process Map Element Descriptions: Activity Identifiers, Roles and Definitions 54 Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

55 55 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Process Map Element Descriptions: Activity Identifiers, Roles and Definitions Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

56 56 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Truckload Process Map Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

57 57 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Less-Than-Truckload Process Map Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

58 58 HM Shipment Supply Chain - Rail Process Map Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

59 59 HM Shipment Supply Chain – Ocean/Intermodal Process Map Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2012.

60 60 Source: William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, HM Shipment Supply Chain – Air Process Map

61 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles Petrochemicals are shipped via rail from a chemical plant in Houston, Texas, to a manufacturer in Philadelphia. The finished product, also considered a hazardous material, is then transported by truck to the Port of New York for ocean shipping to Europe. 61

62 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles Chemical Plant Prepare shipping documents Load commodity using approved procedures by certified employees Maintain an emergency response plan Inspect cars prior to loading Provide emergency response information and contact phone number Inspect cars after loading Provide appropriate placards Railroad Accept and verify shipping documents and prepare additional documents as required Place car within the train in an approved configuration Inspect car before moving 62

63 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles Railroad (continued) Maintain shipping documents Maintain emergency response information Transport to interchange with another railroad Inspect car at interchange Transfer shipping documents to second carrier Second railroad places car in appropriate position within train Deliver to manufacturer Manufacturer (Incoming) Accept car and inspect Accept shipping papers Unload car Store commodities in approved manner 63

64 Hypothetical Shipment: Supply Chain Roles Manufacturer (Outgoing) Prepare appropriate shipping documents Load truck Trucking Firm Accept and maintain shipping documents Inspect load Provide appropriate placards Transport load Port Facility Accept load and shipping documents Store in appropriate location Prepare additional required shipping documentation for overseas shipping Move to ship 64

65 Hazmat Logistics: Management and Operational Issues Corporate management practices Mode and route selection Hazmat permits Hazmat inspections/violations/penalties Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) Tracking and performance monitoring Safe havens 65

66 Corporate Management Hazmat transportation procedures are integrated into a corporation’s safety culture. Each organization establishes its own structure for managing hazmat transportation issues. Typically, a position is established with responsibility for hazmat transportation and safety. The location within the corporate government is dependent on the nature and amount of the hazardous materials that are handled. Each firm establishes a chain of command which specifies responsibility and accountability. Within the organization, communications and coordination responsibilities are reinforced through training exercises and established protocols. 66

67 Factors Affecting Hazmat Mode Choice Travel time and service reliability Total logistics costs Safety and security Shipment size and weight Hazardous materials properties and composition Container characteristics Availability of infrastructure access/egress Equipment availability Local restrictions (e.g., bridges, tunnels, highway weights) Intermodal considerations 67

68 Route Selection Factors Efficiency – Trip length – Travel time – Availability of diversion route – Access to enroute storage and repair facilities Safety & Security – Condition of infrastructure – Height, width, weight and traffic conflict considerations – Accident likelihood – Population exposure – Number of transfers – Proximity to critical infrastructure and iconic targets – Emergency response capability – Safe stopping places Environmental – Wildlife and vegetation exposure – Soil composition – Proximity to surface and ground water 68

69 Hazmat Permitting 69 Special permit is a document authorizing an entity to perform a function that is not currently authorized under the authority of the HM regulations. Special permits are issued for motor vehicles; rail cars; ocean- going vessels and ferries; cargo and passenger planes; and intermodal containers. Applicant for special permit must demonstrate that special permit achieves level of safety that is required by HM regulations or is consistent with public interest. Source: Permits Action Plan.pdfhttp://phmsa.dot.gov/staticfiles/PHMSA/DownloadableFiles/Special Permits Action Plan.pdf

70 PHMSA Hazmat Permits Source: US DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, , October 2011, p. 16. * The figures reflect applications for status as “party-to- exemption” (PTE). Party means a person, other than the initial grantee, authorized to act under terms of the special permit. **The figures reflect applications for modifications to a special permit. 70

71 HM Inspections, Violations and Penalties 71 HM inspections cover all modes: airlines, pipelines, motor carriers, water carriers, and railroads. Inspections are conducted by multiple federal agencies. Violations among motor carriers are generally considered serious and contributing factors to HM incidents due to : – Release of HM from packages – Unauthorized packaging – Smoking while loading or unloading – Package not secure in vehicle – Vehicle not placarded as required Source :

72 HM Inspections, Violations, and Penalties Source: US DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, , October 2011, p

73 Transportation Worker Identification Credential - TWIC A Transportation Security Administration and U.S. Coast Guard initiative. Provides a tamper-resistant biometric credential to maritime workers requiring unescorted access to secure areas of port facilities, outer continental shelf facilities, and vessels regulated under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, and all U.S. Coast Guard credentialed merchant mariners. Over two million individuals are currently enrolled. To obtain a TWIC, an individual must provide biographic and biometric information such as fingerprints, sit for a digital photograph and successfully pass a security threat assessment conducted by TSA. TWIC implemented in maritime area initially, but may be implemented across other modes in future. 73 Source:

74 Commercial Driver's License - CDL Required to operate any type of vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 26,001 lb (11,793 kg) or more for commercial use, or transports quantities of hazardous materials that require warning placards under USDOT regulations. CDL is intended to improve highway safety by ensuring that truck drivers are qualified to drive commercial motor vehicles and to remove drivers that are unsafe and unqualified from the highways. States have the right to issue CDLs, subject to meeting federally-established minimum requirements. 74 Source:

75 Commercial Driver's License – Hazardous Materials Endorsement The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)’s Hazardous Materials Endorsement Threat Assessment Program conducts a security threat assessment for any driver seeking to obtain, renew or transfer a hazardous materials endorsement on a state-issued CDL. Program was implemented to meet the requirements of the US Patriot Act, which prohibits states from issuing a license to transport hazardous materials in commerce unless a determination has been made that the driver does not pose a security risk. The US Patriot Act further requires that the risk assessment include checks of criminal history records, legal status, and relevant international databases. 75 Source:

76 Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) sets qualification standards for master, officers and watch personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted by the International Maritime Organization and entered into force in 1984, with significant amendments enacted in Requires that seafarers be provided with "familiarization training" and "basic safety training“, which includes basic fire fighting, elementary first aid, personal survival techniques, and personal safety and social responsibility. This is intended to make seafarers aware of the hazards of working on a vessel and able to respond appropriately in an emergency. 76

77 Tracking and Performance Monitoring Is utilized to improve transportation efficiency, safety, and security. At a minimum, tracking is done by maintaining a manifest accompanying the shipment. Most companies use electronic systems to track shipments and also monitor vehicle and driver performance. GIS and GPS technologies form the basis for enabling this practice. Federal agencies such as TSA are currently considering the use of hazmat tracking systems for oversight purposes. 77

78 Safe Havens A safe haven is an approved place for parking vehicles loaded with high hazard materials (e.g., explosives, radioactive materials). Designation of safe havens is usually made by local authorities. Must be off the traveled way and not near where people gather, an open fire, or a bridge, tunnel, or building. Must notify owner if parking on private property. 78

79 Key Takeaways The transportation of hazardous materials is a major shipping activity involving many freight modes and service providers. The majority of shipments are made by truck, with pipeline, rail and waterway trips representing longer-haul and larger bulk movements. Hazardous cargo takes on many forms, with unique material properties that require different types of packaging. Transport of hazardous materials requires special treatment within the supply chain, involving a variety of stakeholders. Shippers and carriers in particular have several important roles and responsibilities. A variety of operational issues must be considered from a logistics perspective. 79

80 Student Exercise 80 Compare the HM shipment supply chain process maps for TL and LTL truck, rail, and ocean intermodal: For which modal alternative are there more opportunities for delays and bottlenecks? Identify the bottlenecks and explain your answer. For which modal alternative are there more risks for an HM incident (spill or release)? Suggest ways to reduce the delays/bottlenecks in the process maps without simultaneously increasing the risk of an HM incident.

81 Resources for Support and Additional Learning 81 Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Commodity Flow Survey – 2007: Hazardous Materials ous_materials/pdf/entire.pdf ous_materials/pdf/entire.pdf Federal Highway Administration, Freight Facts and Figures docs/11factsfigures/index.htm docs/11factsfigures/index.htm Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Table 5cf a0c/?vgnextoid=d84ddf479bd7d110VgnVCM ed0 7898RCRD&vgnextchannel=4f347fd9b896b110VgnVCM ed07898 RCRD&vgnextfmt=print 5cf a0c/?vgnextoid=d84ddf479bd7d110VgnVCM ed0 7898RCRD&vgnextchannel=4f347fd9b896b110VgnVCM ed07898 RCRD&vgnextfmt=print

82 Resources for Support and Additional Learning 82 John Coyle, et al., Management of Transportation, Cengage Learning, C. James Kruse, et. al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public: , Prepared by the Center for Ports and Waterways, Texas Transportation Institute, Houston, Texas, Prepared for the National Waterways Foundation. C. James Kruse, et. al., Marine Highway Transport of Toxic Inhalation Hazard Materials, National Cooperative Freight Research Program, NCFRP Report 18, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., H. Barry Spraggins, Truck v. Rail Transportation of HM, International Journal of Business Research, Vol. VII, No. 2, 2007.

83 Resources for Support and Additional Learning 83 William Tate, et al., Evaluation of the Use of Electronic Shipping Papers for Hazardous Materials Shipments, HMCRP Report 8, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, US Bureau of the Census, Census of Transportation 2007 US DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, , October Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals, 1998, Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers. NFPA 55 Standard for the Storage, Use and Handling of Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, 1998 Edition, National Fire Protection Association.

84 Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals, 1998, Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers. NFPA 55 Standard for the Storage, Use and Handling of Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, 1998 Edition, National Fire Protection Association. Carmel, Matthew M., A Guide to OSHA Regulations on Storing and Handling Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Plant Engineering, March 18, Recommended Practices for Storing and Handling Hazardous Substances, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. American Chemical Council, Chemical/CCPA Warehouse Assessment Protocol, American Chemistry Council, June 1, Resources for Support and Additional Learning


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