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Chapter 3, Exploration and Early Settlements Study Guide
I. "Explorers Come to California"
A. The Conquistadors
1. conquistadors- They are any of the Spanish conquerors in the Americas.
2. cost- It is the value of something given up in order to gain something.
3. benefit- It is something that is helpful or gained.
4. Why did conquistadors travel to New Spain? They traveled to New Spain to search for riches and to change the beliefs of native peoples.
1. peninsula- It is land that has water almost all around it.
2. How would a waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans be helpful to Europeans?
It would shorten the trip to Asia, making trade with Asia easier.
C. Spanish Trading Ships
1. galleons- It was a large Spanish trading ship.
2. ocean current- It is a stream of water that moves through the ocean.
3. wind pattern- It is the general direction of the wind.
4. Sebastian Rodrigues Cermeno- He was a Spanish trader who sailed to California from the Philippines in 1595.
5. Why did people who sailed from the Philippines want a harbor in California? The journey took so long, and sailors needed a place to get supplies and repair their ships.
*Please do Homework & Practice p.25 *Map & Globe Skills "Follow Routes on a Historical Map" p.116-117 *Please complete Homework & Practice Skills p.26
II. "Newcomers to Alta California"
A. Settling in California
1. colony- It is a settlement that is ruled by a faraway government.
2. mission- It is a religious settlement.
3. missionary- It is a person who teaches a religion to others.
4. Why did Spain decide to start a colony in Alta California? They decided to start a colony in Alta California to protect its claims from other countries.
1. expedition- It is a journey into an area to learn more about it.
2. Gaspar de Portola- He was a Spanish army captain & government official who led a land expedition to Alta California in 1769 to establish settlements.
3. Junipero Serra- He was a Spanish priest that founded many of the California missions from 1769 to 1784.
4. Fernando Rivera y Moncada- He was a Spanish army captain who led a land expedition to Alta California in 1769 to establish settlements.
5. Juan Crespi- He was a Spanish missionary and explorer who traveled to California in the late 1760s and early 1770s with Junipero Serra.
6. San Diego de Alcala- It was the first California Mission.
7. What caused the overland journey to Alta California to be difficult? The mountains and the fierce heat caused it to be difficult.
C. A New Overland Route
1. Juan Bautista de Anza- He was a Spanish soldier who led settlers to Alta California in 1774 on a new overland route.
2. Why was Anza sent on his expedition? He was sent on his expedition to find a new land route to Alta California.
*Please complete Skills Practice p.27 *Critical Thinking Skills p.124-125 "Compare Primary and Secondary Sources” *Please complete Homework & Practice p.28
III. "Other Kinds of Settlements"
A. The Mission System
1. Why were missions built near Indian villages? They were built near Indian villages so that the people at the missions could grow food.
B. Presidios for Protection
1. presidio- It is a Spanish fort.
2. What kinds of duties did the soldiers have at a presidio? Some of the duties of the soldiers at the presidio were to hunt, work in fields, care for livestock, build and repair structures, deliver mail, and supervise Indian workers.
C. Pueblos for Farming
1. pueblo- It was a farming community in Spanish California.
2. plaza- It is an open square where people can gather.
3. alcade- It was the mayor of a town in Spanish California.
4. How did the Spanish hope to use pueblos to strengthen their claim to California? They hoped that many Spanish settlers would move to the pueblos.
*Please complete Homework & Practice p.29 *Chart and Graph Skills "Read a Time Line” p.132-133 *Please complete Homework & Practice p.30-31
IV. "Mission Life"
A. Changes Begin
1. economy- It is the way people in a place or region use resources to meet their needs.
2. neophyte- It is a person who is new to the Catholic faith.
3. How did the Spanish change the economy of California from one based on Hunting and gathering? They brought Indians into the missions and taught them how to farm.
B. Work and Prayer
1. What did mission life for the California Indians mostly consist of? It mostly consisted of labor and prayer.
C. Some Indians Resist
1. revolt- It means to fight against.
2. Nicolas Jose- He was a California Indian who led a rebellion at Mission San Gabriel in 1785.
3. Toypurina- She was a Gabrielino Indian woman who led Indians in a revolt at the San Gabriel Mission.
4. Why did some Indians resist mission life? Many Indians did not like all the changes in their ways of life the missions.
D. Indian Ways of Life End
1. custom- It is a usual way of doing things.
2. How were California Indian ways of life affected by Spanish settlements? Spanish missionaries tried to force California Indians to give up their traditional ways.
*Please do Homework & Practice p.32 *Read p.140-141 "The Mission System" *Please do Homework & Practice p.33-35, Ch. 3 Study Guide
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