Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Physical Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5 Physical Geography North AmericaChapter 5Physical Geography
2 Landforms and Resources Section 1Landforms and Resources
3 Landscape Influenced Development The U.S. and Canada occupy 4/5 of the continent of North America;Anglo America: U.S. and Canada are both former British colonies; therefore, most people speak English.U.S. and Canada have strong political and economic ties with one another.
5 Vast Land and Abundant Resources Canada is the 2nd largest country in land mass and the U.S. is third.1/8 of the land surface on earth.Rich in natural resources: fertile soils, large supply of water, forests, and large deposits of a variety of minerals.The amount of resources have attracted immigrants from around the world and helped both to become global economic powers.
7 Varied Landforms U.S. and Canada have all the major types of landforms They share mountain chains in both the east and the west, and they also share interior plains.
8 Eastern Lowlands and Interior Lowlands The Eastern Lowlands are flat, coastal plains that run along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.The Interior Lowlands includes a terrain of lowlands, rolling hills, lakes and rivers, and some of the world’s most fertile soils.Interior Plains – extend from Appalachian to Missouri RiverGreat Plains – extend from Missouri River to Rocky MountainsCanadian Shield – vast, flat area around Hudson Bay
10 Appalachian Highlands West of the coastal plainGreen and Catskill MountainsBlue Ridge and the Great Smoky MountainsAppalachian Mountains – one of the two major mountain chains in the eastern United States and Canada, extending 1,600 miles from Newfoundland south to AlabamaRun North to SouthMore than 400 million years old
11 The Western Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins Rocky Mountains – run 3,000 miles from Alaska to New Mexico80 million years oldContinental Divide – the line of the highest points along the RockiesSeparates rivers that flow eastward from those that flow westwardEarthquakes are frequent in this areaHighest Peak in North America – Mt. McKinley in Alaska
12 The Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains The Appalachian are 400 million years oldThey have been eroded by the wind and rainThe top of the mountains are more rounded because of the erosionThe Rocky Mountains are only 80 million years oldThey have not been eroded by the wind and rain as muchThe top of the mountains are more pointed because of the lack of time and erosion
13 The IslandsCanada’s Islands are the northern islands: Ellesmere, Victoria and BaffinThe U.S.’s Islands are the Aleutians, which are in Alaska, and the Hawaiian Islands
14 Oceans and Waterways Three oceans: Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Both Canada and the U.S. have large rivers and lakesProvide transportation, hydroelectric power, fisheries, irrigation, and freshwaterGreat Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Eerie, and SuperiorMississippi-Missouri-Ohio River System: North America’s longest and busiest inland waterwayMackenzie River: longest river in Canada that crosses over the Northwest Terrritories
15 Land, Forests, Minerals, Fossil Fuels Fertile Soil – helps to make North America the lead food exporterLarge forests provide lumber and other productsCanadian Shield – iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, and goldAppalachian Mountains and Great Plains – CoalGulf of Mexico – oil, natural gas
16 Climate and Vegetation Section 2Climate and Vegetation
17 Climate Similarities The U.S. has more climate zones than Canada Arctic coast is tundra with some permafrost – permanently frozen groundRockies and Pacific ranges are highland: colder with little to no vegetationNorth central, northeast U.S., and southern Canada are humid continentalThe Pacific Coast of North America is a marine west coast climate
18 Differences in Climate The U.S. has milder climates because most of the states are located south of the 40 degrees N latitudeThe Southern states and central and southern CaliforniaThe U.S. has parts of the country that are a dry climateThe Great Plains and the SouthwestThe U.S. also has tropical climatesThe islands of Hawaii and South FloridaThe everglades – swampland (tall grasses and scattered trees) covering 4,000 square miles, locate in Florida
19 Effects of WeatherTornado Alley – located in the Great Plains – Warm air clashes with cold air from Canada which creates strong thunderstorms, tornadoes, and blizzardsHurricanes in the Gulf and Atlantic in the summer and fallHeavy rains cause flooding along the MississippiHeat and a lack of rain can cause droughts, dust storms, and wildfires
21 Building CitiesWhere a city is built and how it grows depends a great deal on physical settingFactors that can affect the suitability of a site are landscape, climate, weather, and the availability of natural resourcesWater is a major factor in how a city is built and developed
22 Montreal, Quebec Canada’s second largest city Major Port Located on a large island where the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers meetThe French built a permanent settlement in 1642Severe winters – large areas developed underground including a network of shops and restaurants
23 Los Angeles, California Thousands were attracted to the mild climate and the ocean in the early 1900sBecame the second largest city in the U.S. in 1980Rapid growth brought pollution, inadequate water supplies, and development on earthquake-ridden land
24 Trails and Inland Waterways When the Europeans colonized, they started on the coast and worked their way inOregon and Sante Fe TrailsBuilt canals along the Mississippi and Ohio riversErie Canal – first navigable waterway between the Atlantic and the Great LakesSt. Lawrence Seaway – deepwater ship route built by U.S. and CanadaGated off sections called locks raise and lower the water and the shipsLarge ocean vessels can get to industrial and agricultural areasPromotes international trade
26 Transcontinental Railroads and the National Highway Systems Transcontinental – from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coastFirst continental railroad in the U.S. – 1860; first one in Canada – 1885Railroads move goods and people; promote economic development and national unityAutomobiles influenced the National Highway systemThe U.S. has 4 million miles of roads while Canada has 560,000