Presentation on theme: "North America Chapter 5 Physical Geography. Section 1 Landforms and Resources."— Presentation transcript:
North America Chapter 5 Physical Geography
Section 1 Landforms and Resources
Landscape Influenced Development The U.S. and Canada occupy 4/5 of the continent of North America; Anglo America: U.S. and Canada are both former British colonies; therefore, most people speak English. U.S. and Canada have strong political and economic ties with one another.
Vast Land and Abundant Resources Canada is the 2 nd largest country in land mass and the U.S. is third. 1/8 of the land surface on earth. Rich in natural resources: fertile soils, large supply of water, forests, and large deposits of a variety of minerals. The amount of resources have attracted immigrants from around the world and helped both to become global economic powers.
Varied Landforms U.S. and Canada have all the major types of landforms They share mountain chains in both the east and the west, and they also share interior plains.
Eastern Lowlands and Interior Lowlands The Eastern Lowlands are flat, coastal plains that run along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The Interior Lowlands includes a terrain of lowlands, rolling hills, lakes and rivers, and some of the world’s most fertile soils. Interior Plains – extend from Appalachian to Missouri River Great Plains – extend from Missouri River to Rocky Mountains Canadian Shield – vast, flat area around Hudson Bay
Canadian ShieldGreat Plains
Appalachian Highlands West of the coastal plain Green and Catskill Mountains Blue Ridge and the Great Smoky Mountains Appalachian Mountains – one of the two major mountain chains in the eastern United States and Canada, extending 1,600 miles from Newfoundland south to Alabama Run North to South More than 400 million years old
The Western Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins Rocky Mountains – run 3,000 miles from Alaska to New Mexico 80 million years old Continental Divide – the line of the highest points along the Rockies Separates rivers that flow eastward from those that flow westward Earthquakes are frequent in this area Highest Peak in North America – Mt. McKinley in Alaska
The Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains The Appalachian are 400 million years old They have been eroded by the wind and rain The top of the mountains are more rounded because of the erosion The Rocky Mountains are only 80 million years old They have not been eroded by the wind and rain as much The top of the mountains are more pointed because of the lack of time and erosion
The Islands Canada’s Islands are the northern islands: Ellesmere, Victoria and Baffin The U.S.’s Islands are the Aleutians, which are in Alaska, and the Hawaiian Islands
Oceans and Waterways Three oceans: Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Both Canada and the U.S. have large rivers and lakes Provide transportation, hydroelectric power, fisheries, irrigation, and freshwater Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Eerie, and Superior Mississippi-Missouri-Ohio River System: North America’s longest and busiest inland waterway Mackenzie River: longest river in Canada that crosses over the Northwest Terrritories
Land, Forests, Minerals, Fossil Fuels Fertile Soil – helps to make North America the lead food exporter Large forests provide lumber and other products Canadian Shield – iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, and gold Appalachian Mountains and Great Plains – Coal Gulf of Mexico – oil, natural gas
Section 2 Climate and Vegetation
Climate Similarities The U.S. has more climate zones than Canada Arctic coast is tundra with some permafrost – permanently frozen ground Rockies and Pacific ranges are highland: colder with little to no vegetation North central, northeast U.S., and southern Canada are humid continental The Pacific Coast of North America is a marine west coast climate
Differences in Climate The U.S. has milder climates because most of the states are located south of the 40 degrees N latitude The Southern states and central and southern California The U.S. has parts of the country that are a dry climate The Great Plains and the Southwest The U.S. also has tropical climates The islands of Hawaii and South Florida The everglades – swampland (tall grasses and scattered trees) covering 4,000 square miles, locate in Florida
Effects of Weather Tornado Alley – located in the Great Plains – Warm air clashes with cold air from Canada which creates strong thunderstorms, tornadoes, and blizzards Hurricanes in the Gulf and Atlantic in the summer and fall Heavy rains cause flooding along the Mississippi Heat and a lack of rain can cause droughts, dust storms, and wildfires
Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction
Building Cities Where a city is built and how it grows depends a great deal on physical setting Factors that can affect the suitability of a site are landscape, climate, weather, and the availability of natural resources Water is a major factor in how a city is built and developed
Montreal, Quebec Canada’s second largest city Major Port Located on a large island where the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers meet The French built a permanent settlement in 1642 Severe winters – large areas developed underground including a network of shops and restaurants
Los Angeles, California Thousands were attracted to the mild climate and the ocean in the early 1900s Became the second largest city in the U.S. in 1980 Rapid growth brought pollution, inadequate water supplies, and development on earthquake-ridden land
Trails and Inland Waterways When the Europeans colonized, they started on the coast and worked their way in Oregon and Sante Fe Trails Built canals along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers Erie Canal – first navigable waterway between the Atlantic and the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway – deepwater ship route built by U.S. and Canada Gated off sections called locks raise and lower the water and the ships Large ocean vessels can get to industrial and agricultural areas Promotes international trade
Transcontinental Railroads and the National Highway Systems Transcontinental – from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast First continental railroad in the U.S. – 1860; first one in Canada – 1885 Railroads move goods and people; promote economic development and national unity Automobiles influenced the National Highway system The U.S. has 4 million miles of roads while Canada has 560,000