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North America Chapter 5 Physical Geography. Section 1 Landforms and Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "North America Chapter 5 Physical Geography. Section 1 Landforms and Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 North America Chapter 5 Physical Geography

2 Section 1 Landforms and Resources

3 Landscape Influenced Development  The U.S. and Canada occupy 4/5 of the continent of North America;  Anglo America: U.S. and Canada are both former British colonies; therefore, most people speak English.  U.S. and Canada have strong political and economic ties with one another.

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5 Vast Land and Abundant Resources  Canada is the 2 nd largest country in land mass and the U.S. is third.  1/8 of the land surface on earth.  Rich in natural resources: fertile soils, large supply of water, forests, and large deposits of a variety of minerals.  The amount of resources have attracted immigrants from around the world and helped both to become global economic powers.

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7 Varied Landforms  U.S. and Canada have all the major types of landforms  They share mountain chains in both the east and the west, and they also share interior plains.

8 Eastern Lowlands and Interior Lowlands  The Eastern Lowlands are flat, coastal plains that run along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.  The Interior Lowlands includes a terrain of lowlands, rolling hills, lakes and rivers, and some of the world’s most fertile soils.  Interior Plains – extend from Appalachian to Missouri River  Great Plains – extend from Missouri River to Rocky Mountains  Canadian Shield – vast, flat area around Hudson Bay

9 Canadian ShieldGreat Plains

10 Appalachian Highlands  West of the coastal plain  Green and Catskill Mountains  Blue Ridge and the Great Smoky Mountains  Appalachian Mountains – one of the two major mountain chains in the eastern United States and Canada, extending 1,600 miles from Newfoundland south to Alabama  Run North to South  More than 400 million years old

11 The Western Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins  Rocky Mountains – run 3,000 miles from Alaska to New Mexico  80 million years old  Continental Divide – the line of the highest points along the Rockies  Separates rivers that flow eastward from those that flow westward  Earthquakes are frequent in this area  Highest Peak in North America – Mt. McKinley in Alaska

12 The Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains  The Appalachian are 400 million years old  They have been eroded by the wind and rain  The top of the mountains are more rounded because of the erosion  The Rocky Mountains are only 80 million years old  They have not been eroded by the wind and rain as much  The top of the mountains are more pointed because of the lack of time and erosion

13 The Islands  Canada’s Islands are the northern islands: Ellesmere, Victoria and Baffin  The U.S.’s Islands are the Aleutians, which are in Alaska, and the Hawaiian Islands

14 Oceans and Waterways  Three oceans: Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific  Both Canada and the U.S. have large rivers and lakes  Provide transportation, hydroelectric power, fisheries, irrigation, and freshwater  Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Eerie, and Superior  Mississippi-Missouri-Ohio River System: North America’s longest and busiest inland waterway  Mackenzie River: longest river in Canada that crosses over the Northwest Terrritories

15 Land, Forests, Minerals, Fossil Fuels  Fertile Soil – helps to make North America the lead food exporter  Large forests provide lumber and other products  Canadian Shield – iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, and gold  Appalachian Mountains and Great Plains – Coal  Gulf of Mexico – oil, natural gas

16 Section 2 Climate and Vegetation

17 Climate Similarities  The U.S. has more climate zones than Canada  Arctic coast is tundra with some permafrost – permanently frozen ground  Rockies and Pacific ranges are highland: colder with little to no vegetation  North central, northeast U.S., and southern Canada are humid continental  The Pacific Coast of North America is a marine west coast climate

18 Differences in Climate  The U.S. has milder climates because most of the states are located south of the 40 degrees N latitude  The Southern states and central and southern California  The U.S. has parts of the country that are a dry climate  The Great Plains and the Southwest  The U.S. also has tropical climates  The islands of Hawaii and South Florida  The everglades – swampland (tall grasses and scattered trees) covering 4,000 square miles, locate in Florida

19 Effects of Weather  Tornado Alley – located in the Great Plains – Warm air clashes with cold air from Canada which creates strong thunderstorms, tornadoes, and blizzards  Hurricanes in the Gulf and Atlantic in the summer and fall  Heavy rains cause flooding along the Mississippi  Heat and a lack of rain can cause droughts, dust storms, and wildfires

20 Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction

21 Building Cities  Where a city is built and how it grows depends a great deal on physical setting  Factors that can affect the suitability of a site are landscape, climate, weather, and the availability of natural resources  Water is a major factor in how a city is built and developed

22 Montreal, Quebec  Canada’s second largest city  Major Port  Located on a large island where the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers meet  The French built a permanent settlement in 1642  Severe winters – large areas developed underground including a network of shops and restaurants

23 Los Angeles, California  Thousands were attracted to the mild climate and the ocean in the early 1900s  Became the second largest city in the U.S. in 1980  Rapid growth brought pollution, inadequate water supplies, and development on earthquake-ridden land

24 Trails and Inland Waterways  When the Europeans colonized, they started on the coast and worked their way in  Oregon and Sante Fe Trails  Built canals along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers  Erie Canal – first navigable waterway between the Atlantic and the Great Lakes  St. Lawrence Seaway – deepwater ship route built by U.S. and Canada  Gated off sections called locks raise and lower the water and the ships  Large ocean vessels can get to industrial and agricultural areas  Promotes international trade

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26 Transcontinental Railroads and the National Highway Systems  Transcontinental – from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast  First continental railroad in the U.S. – 1860; first one in Canada – 1885  Railroads move goods and people; promote economic development and national unity  Automobiles influenced the National Highway system  The U.S. has 4 million miles of roads while Canada has 560,000


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