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Christoph Amlacher October 17, 2007 E-Navigation Conference, Oslo Evolution of Positioning Services for Inland Waterways
© via donau I 2 Introduction River Information Services (RIS) are being implemented on European rivers Many RIS Services are based on GPS GPS has deficiencies: accuracy, integrity, availability Results from the MARUSE Trials in Serbia IALA DGPS vs. AIS Msg. 17 DGPS EGNOS and Galileo are promising alternatives
© via donau I 3 via donau is the Austrian Waterway Management Company... owned by the Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology... responsible for 350 km Danube waterway Administer federal waterways Traffic Management Development of Inland navigation
© via donau I 4 Inland navigation on the Danube
© via donau I 5 River Information Services (RIS) Telematics Systems and Information Services in order to increase the safety and efficiency of inland waterway transport
© via donau I 6 EU RIS Directive Directive 2005/44/EC on harmonised River Information Services (RIS) Necessary legal framework for RIS implementation Standardisation of ship equipment Standardisation of data exchange Minimum requirements for RIS Publication in official journal: September 30, 2005 In force since: October 20, 2005
© via donau I 7 System Concept of RIS
© via donau I 8 RIS Services Navigation and guidance support Tactical Traffic Image (TTI) Guided approach to locks Traffic Management Strategic Traffic Information (STI) Tracking and Surveillance Law enforcement Calamity abatement Accident reconstruction
© via donau I 9 Tactical Traffic Image
© via donau I 10 Current Status of RIS RIS Implementation projects running in most Danube countries and in France and The Netherlands Land infrastructure: Implementation of AIS base stations makes good progress Ship side: AIS transponders not widely used Austria started a program to equip vessels (approx. 300 vessels) For 2008 a mandatory carriage of AIS is planned for the Austrian Danube
© via donau I 11 Location overview 23 Base Stations DoRIS in Austria Two DGPS Base stations 90km
© via donau I 12 RIS Services – IRIS Europe
© via donau I 13 Current use of GNSS GPS is not widely used on inland vessels The introduction of RIS stimulates the equipping of vessels with AIS transponders GPS is not suitable for navigation purposes due to lack of accuracy, integrity and availability Local DGPS services (e.g. via AIS Msg. 17 or IALA DGPS) are only available in some countries
© via donau I 14 MARUSE trials: Lock of Djerdap I 310m 34m 30m Two locks exist on each side of the dam Each lock has two lock chambers
© via donau I 15 Lock of Djerdap I
© via donau I 16 Lock of Djerdap I
© via donau I 17 Performance Assessment GPS vs. GPS with LE Lock approach
© via donau I 18 Simulation of Navigation Performance with Galileo
© via donau I 19 GPS: Dropouts = 0.7% 164s in 6 hours GPS/Galileo Dropouts = 0.2% 60s in 6 hours Standalone Horizontal Accuracy - GPS and GPS/Galileo Horizontal Error (m) GPSGPS/ Galileo Mean Std Dev th Percentile
© via donau I 20 MARUSE Conclusions GPS standalone is not sufficient to provide accurate and reliable navigation to inland waterway users, in particular in the vicinity of river infrastructure Signal shading and multipath degrade the position solution rapidly Local Element based on AIS showed an improvement of the performance, multipath and signal blocking are still a problem Navigation performance is strongly correlated to the number of received satellite signals Galileo will significantly increase the positioning performance
© via donau I 21 Performance Requirements In the project MARUSE the IMO A.915 (22) requirements have been analysed and amended to meet the RIS requirements from PIANC.
© via donau I 22 Future Systems EGNOS and Galileo Accuracy requirement can be met Integrity information adds the necessary reliability to the system A hybrid GPS / Galileo solution provides improved signal availability Dual system use (Galileo/GPS) offers protection against loss of service due to interference or system failure
© via donau I 23 Local DGNSS IALA DGNSS Inland IALA DGNSS coverage currently only in Germany Implementation cost are very high Additional ship-side hardware required DGNSS via AIS Msg. 17 Utilizes existing AIS architecture No additional ship-side hardware necessary if AIS transponder is onboard Implemented in Austria and soon in Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia and Serbia
© via donau I 24 Future Systems an System Mix Redundancy of systems and data transmission are key elements of future solutions
© via donau I 25 Upgrade of Ship Equipment For the upgrade of the ship equipment two scenarios are feasible: Scenario 1: Integrated solution Scenario 2: Solution with external positioning sensor
© via donau I 26 Upgrade of Shore Infrastructure Upgrade to DGNSS provision via AIS Msg. 17 Advantages: Installation and operational cost are low as long as existing AIS infrastructure is used Better performance in comparison to IALA DGNSS as distance between user and reference station is shorter No additional ship-side equipment necessary EGNOS retransmission possible Disadvantages: Additional load to the AIS channels
© via donau I 27 Outlook Short term ( ): Implementation of AIS-based DGNSS is recommended Upgrade to EGNOS for users in areas with no DGNSS service available Mid term ( ): Upgrade to Galileo is strongly recommended Benefits: signal availability, integrity, robustness against interference and system failure Long term (past 2016): Modernized GPS (second civil frequency, integrity ?) and the availability of other systems (GLONASS, COMPASS) provide options for the future.
© via donau I 28 Conclusion RIS are a useful tool to increase safety and efficiency on European rivers The upgrade from the current GPS-based solution to EGNOS and Galileo is recommended as the present system is lacking a reliable and accurate positioning component The increase of the quality and reliability of the positioning will enable enhanced services and address additional user groups Land side DGNSS should be implemented to provide terrestrial augmentation information to users Redundancy of systems and data transmission are key elements of future solutions
© via donau I 29 Christoph Amlacher via donau – Österreichische Wasserstraßen-Gesellschaft mbH A-1220 Wien, Donau-City-Straße 1 (Austria) Tel , Fax
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