Phrase Phrase: group of words that is used as a single part of speech and does not contain a verb and its subject Phrases cannot stand alone; they must be part of a sentence Example: have been waiting [no subject] during the storm [no subject or verb] * (note- a group of words that has a subject and a verb and is used as part of a sentence is called a clause)
Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or a pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. 1. preposition 2. object of the preposition 3. modifiers of the object
Parts of Prepositional Phrases about above across after against along among around at before behind below beneath beside besides between but by concerning down during except for from in inside into like near of off on out outside over past since through throughout to toward under underneath until unto up upon with within without according to along with apart from aside from as of because of by means of in addition to in front of in place of in spite of instead of next to on account of out of Commonly Used PrepositionsCommonly Used Compound Prepositions Object of a Preposition: a noun or pronoun that follows a preposition Example: before lunch, at the game, throughout the week Modifier of the object: an adjective describing the object of the preposition Example: before her lunch (her being a possessive adjective!), at the baseball game, throughout the third week
Prepositional Phrases [preposition, object, modifier, article] Did officials of the Smithsonian Institution recently unveil plans for a new museum? According to them, the National African- American Museum may open on the Mall. Do you know the Greek myth about Daedalus and Icarus? (compound object)
Adjective Phrases Adjective Phrase: a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun An adjective phrase tells what kind or which one. An adjective phrase always follows the word it modifies. Examples: [adjective phrase, modified noun or pronoun] One of my friends is making a film about our senior year. The film won’t include all of the students in our class. (Of the students modifies all. In our class modifies students, which is the object of the preposition of.)
Adjective Phrases Examples, continued… Instead, it will relate the adventures of five students at school and in their neighborhood. (This three adjective phrases, of five students, at school, and in their neighborhood all modify the noun adventures.) The twenty-eight major rapids on the Tua River make it a course for rafters with experience and courage.
Adverb Phrases Adverb Phrase: a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. An adverb phrase tells how, when, where, why, or to what extent. Examples: [adverb phrase, verb/adjective/adverb being modified] After the early 800s, the Fujiwara family ruled as regents in Japan for more than three hundred years. (After the early 800s tells when, as regents tells how, and for more than three hundred years tells how long.]
Adverb Phrases Examples, continued… Then the Minamoto, another family active in court intrigues, gained power. The Fujiwara had ruled too complacently for their own good.
Phrases Overview Prepositional Phrase Preposition, object, modifier Adjective Phrase What kind, which one Adverb Phrase How, when, why, to what extent
Verbals A verbal is a form of a verb used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. There are three kinds of verbals: The participle The gerund The infinitive
Verbals: Participle A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. There are three kinds of participles: Present participles: ending in –ing Past participles: ending (usually) in –d or –ed Present perfect participles: these are used to express an action or a state of being that occurs at the same time as another action or state of being
Participle Examples Present Participle: The freezing rain made the road slick. [Freezing, a form of the verb freeze, modifies the noun rain.] Bowing, the performers acknowledged the applause. [Bowing, a form of the verb bow, modifies the noun performers.] Past Participle: First prize was an engraved trophy. Rested and relaxed, the freshmen at SCA returned to school. Present Perfect Participle: Having missed the midterm exam, I took a makeup test. Having been accepted by several colleges, Rosa chose one.
Participial Phrases A participial phrase consists of a participle, and all of the words related to the participle. Participles may be modified by adverbs and may also have compliments. Examples: Grinning broadly, Whoopi Goldberg accepted the Oscar. [The participial phrase modifies the noun Whoopi Goldberg. The adverb broadly modifies the present participle Grinning.] Puzzled by their attire, I asked the students why they were dressed as race car drivers. [The participial phrase modifies the pronoun I. The adverb phrase by their behavior modifies the past participle puzzled.] Note: To avoid confusion, place participial phrases as close as possible to the words they modify.
Verbals: Gerund A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. Examples: Studying requires great dedication. Alessandra Ferri’s trade is dancing. Please continue working. The team gave winning their best effort. In answering, please give specific examples. Note: Don’t confuse a gerund with a present participle used as an adjective or as part of a verb phrase! Remember, gerunds are verb forms used as NOUN. Example: I remember driving from Tennessee to Texas last fall. [Driving is a gerund in this sentence, being used as a noun.] Driving on long trips, we usually take turns behind the wheel. [Driving is a present participle, modifying the pronoun we.]
Gerund Phrases A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and all of the words related to the gerund. A gerund phrase may have modifiers and complements. Examples: Managing the restaurant efficiently required lots of hard work. [The gerund phrase is the subject of the verb required. The noun restaurant is the direct object of the gerund managing. The adverb efficiently modifies the gerund managing.]
Gerund Phrases Examples continued: My cousin enjoys working as a lifeguard. [The gerund phrase is the direct object of the verb enjoys. The adverb phrase as a lifeguard modifies the gerund working.] We were given BUGs for leaving school early. [The gerund phrase is the object of the preposition for. The adverb early modifies the gerund leaving.] Her greatest achievement was winning three gold medals. [The gerund phrase is a predicate nominative explaining the subject achievement. The noun medals is the direct object of the gerund winning.]
Verbals: Infinitive An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. An infinitive usually begins with to. Examples: To leave, to go, to forget, to graduate Be careful not to confuse an infinitive with a prepositional phrase beginning with to (to them, to the party, to everyone). Prepositional phrases end with a noun or pronoun; Infinitives end with a verb.
Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and all of the words related to the infinitive. Infinitives may have modifiers and complements. Examples: To become a doctor is her goal. [The infinitive phrase is the subject of the verb is. The noun doctor is the predicate nominative of the infinitive to become.] They promised to return soon. [The infinitive phrase is the direct object of the verb promised. The adverb soon modifies the infinitive to return.]
Verbals & Verbal Phrases Overview Verbals Verb forms used as… Participle adjective Gerund noun Infinitive Noun, adjective, or adverb
Appositives An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or explain it. An appositive usually follows the word it identifies or explains. Examples: My cousin Maria is an accomplished violinist. Riboflavin, a vitamin, is found in leafy vegetables. Appositives can also be placed at the beginning of a sentence for the purpose of adding emphasis. Examples: A natural leader, Grace led the class assembly.
Appositive Phrase An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers. Examples: My prom dress, a blue gown with silver beading, is my favorite piece of clothing. Once just a Mexican holiday, Cinco de Mayo is now celebrated by many Americans too.