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FAO 1/70 Semantic Technologies at FAO International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) 3 Aprile 2009, Torino Margherita.

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Presentation on theme: "FAO 1/70 Semantic Technologies at FAO International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) 3 Aprile 2009, Torino Margherita."— Presentation transcript:

1 FAO 1/70 Semantic Technologies at FAO International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) 3 Aprile 2009, Torino Margherita Sini

2 FAO 2/70 Few words about myself

3 FAO 3/70 Just a very rapid introduction What? –semantic, semantic web, semantic technologies –ontologies, Knowledge Organization Systems, –metadata Why? –interoperability, exchange, share –user orientation, precision and recall –multilinguality, cultural views, context Who? –everybody, all domains, all countries, Which instruments? –experts, NLP, methodologies and techniques

4 FAO 4/70 Outline Semantic projects involving FAO –AOS –IPFSAPH, FNA, CWR, Fisheries, Food & nutrition, Geopolitical ontology, AGROVOC Concept Server –Thai Rice Onto, Agropedia Indica Conclusions –ontology-based applications –Collaborations –Take home messages

5 FAO 5/70 Semantic projects involving FAO

6 FAO 6/70 Why AOS vessel? craft? boat? bateaux? barco? ship or container Terminology brokering Semantic navigation, Clustering, Ranking,... Intelligent query expansion Inferencing Reasoning Machine learning Interoperability

7 FAO 7/70 Built from AGROVOC Domain concepts Categories AGROVOC Concept Server Agricultural Ontology Service An FAO initiative for more coherence in Agricultural Information Systems Need of a semantic approach AOS elements: –AGROVOC Concept Server –KOS registry –Mapping registries –Metadata standards –Tools –Publications (guidelines,...) Ontology registry Sub-domain ontologies Metadata ontologies



10 FAO 10/70 The Ontology

11 FAO 11/70 Creation of the core ontology 1600 concepts Information Resources Brainstorming Codex Alimentarius SPS Agreement Ontology Ontology Editor (OI-Modeler) subject specialists Agrovoc Food Safety Documents Generic Documents

12 FAO 12/70 Concept Search The same records will be retrieved regardless of the specific synonyms or singular/plural forms that the user uses to refer to a concept. Related concepts

13 FAO 13/70 Multilinguality The system is also able to understand a concept even when different languages are used.

14 FAO 14/70 Check spelling Spelling errors are corrected: e.g. desease into disease

15 FAO 15/70 Paraphrasing mad cow disease symptoms or clinical signs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

16 FAO 16/70 give the same results, which are ranked.

17 FAO 17/70 Semantic navigation of the bibliographical metadata (1)

18 FAO 18/70 Semantic navigation of the bibliographical metadata (2)

19 FAO 19/70 Semantic Navigation of Knowledge parent concept(s) children concept(s)

20 FAO 20/70 FNA

21 FAO 21/70


23 FAO 23/70 Ontology Relationships

24 FAO 24/70 The ontology concepts Publication Issue Work Article Subject Term Category Author Region Language Year

25 FAO 25/70 The ontology instances

26 FAO 26/70 Features Multilingual concept resolution Get suggestions for the navigation (e.g. synonyms) Guided query formulation Easy navigation of the objects by following the semantic links

27 FAO 27/70 RDFa

28 FAO 28/70 CWR

29 FAO 29/70 Hierarchy

30 FAO 30/70 Undertaken by FAO with partners Developed in harmony with CWR descriptor list First version (English only) available by December 2006 About 800 core terms + acronyms + spelling variants; Clearly definition of concepts (AGROVOC + other sources); and Relationships: hierarchical + causative The project

31 FAO 31/70 More semantics Term: wild plants subclass of plants superclass of crop wild relatives adapted by domestication benefits from resource conservation

32 FAO 32/70 Properties (1/2)

33 FAO 33/70 Properties (2/2)

34 FAO 34/70 Overall Solution (1/2) Value-added information services Shared layer of interoperability Distributed Datasets dataset 1 dataset 2 Common exchange layer (Vocabularies,Ontologies, RDF/XML) dataset n Aggregated Database View Subject specific Portals … Informa tion System (n) News feed service …

35 FAO 35/70 Overall Solution (2/2) Data

36 FAO 36/70 Fisheries

37 FAO 37/70 The initial goal Making information interchangeable between ASFA, FIGIS, OneFish and AGROVOC The approach Creating an ontology, integrating or mapping the 3 different systems + AGROVOC Linking of the Ontology through wrappers to the different Information Systems Evolution: NeOn Fisheries Ontologies

38 FAO 38/70 Foundational Ontology FOS core FOS integratedFOS merged FIGIS Reference TablesASFA FIGIS DTD ONE FISH AGROVOC

39 FAO 39/70 Fisheries Ontologies (2/2) OneFish FIGIS AGROVOC Aquaculture Resource Water Area land strains Species life cycle Farming system management system Production center Spawning technique Breeding technique Hatchery technique Expl. form Regulation Farmin g techniq ue Environment Institution Health monitoring technique diseases suppliers ASFA

40 FAO 40/70 Features 1.Form versus meaning: a)Traditional Search b)Concept Search 2.Implemented functionalities: a)synonym search b)multilingual capability c)terminology brokering d)disambiguation e)related concepts f)query expansion 3.Basic natural language queries 4.Semantic navigation of bibliographical metadata 5.Semantic Navigation of Knowledge a)Alphabetic list... b)Core Fishery Concepts...

41 FAO 41/70 Ontology properties

42 FAO 42/70 Example "tell me what vessels from a nearby country are currently in the marine area 50N060W within Atlantic Ocean, provided that also some Thunnus alalunga stock can be fished by those vessels, through allowed techniques"

43 FAO 43/70 Using multilingual lexicalizations ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCH

44 FAO 44/70 Using hierarchically related concepts hierarchically related concept Polyvalent Trawlers

45 FAO 45/70 Using non-hierarchically related concepts non-hierarchically related concept gears

46 FAO 46/70 Help the user formulate queries Original query: bateau de pêche To refine your query, click on the concepts you are interested in. They will appear to the left. Search:

47 FAO 47/70 Reconcile different vocabularies navire de p ê che, fishing vessel, embarcaciones de pesca AGROVOC or ASFA or other fishing vessels, fishing boat, AGROVOC: fishing vessels, barco, etc... ASFA: fishing vessels

48 FAO 48/70 Semantic Navigation of Knowledge: Thesaurus based Highlighting the originator thesaurus. User can select a specific thesaurus to look for.

49 FAO 49/70 Geopolitical ontology

50 FAO 50/70 Geopolitical ontology Incorporate geopolitical data Will serve as a bridge to allow communication between the various systems.

51 FAO 51/70 Properties isValidFrom hasOfficialName hasCode isSuccessorOf hasBorderWith dependsOn

52 FAO 52/70 Nutrition Ontology

53 FAO 53/70

54 FAO 54/70 Procedure =CONCATENATE(" ",S2, T2," ") Revision 4.0 en International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) was established in 1984 on the basis of the recommendations of an international group convened under the auspices of the United Nations University (UNU). Its goal was to..... 0413 Vitamin D

55 FAO 55/70 AGROVOC

56 FAO 56/70 Terminology Workbench AGROVOC OWL AOS Core: the Concept Server Export AGROVOC RDFS formats (e.g. SKOS) and TagText ISO2709 Other thesauri and terminologies integration ABACA NT1 Food NT2 Apple ANIMAL BT Organ NT.... mapping Other thesauri & terminologies ABACA NT1 Food NT2 Apple ANIMAL BT Organ NT....

57 FAO 57/70 Concept Server project Refine semantics and enrich data pool and lexicon Develop a workbench for terminology and ontology development and maintenance. Support information management specialists in the development, maintenance, and quality assurance of the AOS/CS Global knowledge vs local knowledge

58 FAO 58/70 AGROVOC Concept Server AGROVOC cleaning and refinement Current AGROVOC MySQL Improved AGROVOC MySQL AGROVOC OWL Revision and Refinement

59 FAO 59/70 Modelling –Conversion to UTF-8 –Migration to MySQL (from SQL server) –Migration to PostgreSQL (from MySQL) –Incorporated AGRIS/CARIS classification scheme (multilingual) and the mapping with AGROVOC keywords –Modified structure to store multiple classification schemes –Revised RDBMS scheme for ontology representation –Designed OWL models –Export to OWL format (v0.8a) –Export to SKOS format (v0.8a)

60 FAO 60/70 Methods Concepts from descriptors Synonym Acronyms ABA آبا è±è½é…¸ [8565] Abscisic acid

61 FAO 61/70 SKOS SKOS export from AGROVOC Concept Server Workbench (WB) SKOS web services –SKOS-services for DSpace plug-in SKOS for mapping projects

62 FAO 62/70 AGROVOC CS Workbench triple store SKOS export maintain Web Services access response

63 FAO 63/70 Ontology models (AGROVOC Concept Server, LIR,...) Concept Relationships between concepts Lexicalization/ Term String Relationships between strings Relationships between terms designated by manifested as Other information: language/culture subvocabulary/scope audience type, etc. Note annotation relationship Relationship Relationships between Relationships All terms are created as instances of the class o_terms. All at the same level. Only one language per term. term level string level concept level

64 FAO 64/70 Agropedia Indica

65 FAO 65/70 References pantnagar pantnagar pantnagar-w-guidelines pantnagar-w-guidelines pantnagar-w-exercices pantnagar-w-exercices

66 FAO 66/70 Conclusions

67 FAO 67/70 Ontology-based applications Better exploitation of the potentiality at the application level: powerful IR No more words but URIs in IS Networked Ontologies Ontology Web services (OWS)

68 FAO 68/70 Collaborations With AOS partners Within EU Projects –NeOn –SEMIC.EU With other initiatives –GFIS –Ecoterm Mapping projects GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility secretariat JRC + BGS + Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze

69 FAO 69/70 Take-home message There are many uses for terminology & ontology systems in food and agriculture, both for information access and information processing FAO has several projects using such systems FAO is deploying the Agricultural Ontology Server (AOS) as a global resource SKOS and other knowledge representation standards play a key role

70 FAO 70/70 Questions? Thanks Margherita Sini: Johannes Keizer: Dagobert Soergel: Asanee Kawtrakul: But Also: Gudrun Johannsen, Boris Lauser, Claudio Baldassarre, Gauri Salokhe, Marta Iglesias, Caterina Caracciolo, Sachit Rajbhandari, Jeetendra Singh, Mary Redahan, Shrestha, Prashanta, Ton, Imm, Thanapth, Trakul, and many others...

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