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Neuroscience Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. University of Washington, Seattle, WA

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Presentation on theme: "Neuroscience Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. University of Washington, Seattle, WA"— Presentation transcript:

1 Neuroscience Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. University of Washington, Seattle, WA Email:

2 Neuroscience? Why important? History of neuroscience Neuroanatomy o Neurons o Spinal cord o Brain Senses Movement Learning/memory Sleep

3 Why Neuroscience? Why is it important to understand the brain?

4 Why Study Neuroscience? Neurological disorders are common Education “Standards/Benchmarks” Career Opportunities Social Issues/Life-Style Choices Education Practices Knowing more about ourselves SocietyFamily/Individual Standards/Benchmarks/Guidelines NEUROSCIENCE ?

5 Economic/Emotional Costs Sleep Disorders---------------------$ 100 billion 70,000,000 Alzheimer’s Disease-----------$ 148 billion 5,000,000 Hearing Loss---------------------$ 2.5 billion32,000,000 Traumatic Head Injury--------$ 60 billion 5,300,000 Depressive Disorders---------$ 70 billion20,900,000 Stroke-------------------------------$ 51 billion 5,200,000 Schizophrenia--------------------$ 32.5 billion 2,000,000 Parkinson’s Disease-----------$ 5.6 billion 1,000,000 Spinal Cord Injury---------------$ 10 billion 250,000 Multiple Sclerosis----------------$ 10.6 billion 400,000 Huntington’s Disease-----------$ 2 billion 30,000 Disease Cost/year Cases Statistics from Brain Facts, Society for Neuroscience, 2008

6 Ovbiagele et al., Forecasting the future of stroke in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, Stroke, 44:2361-2375, 2013. By 2030: 3.88%: US population (>18 years of age) will have had a stroke. $183.13 billion: Total direct annual stroke- related medical costs. $56.54 billion: Indirect annual costs (attributable to lost productivity) Impending “Surge” (Stroke)

7 Impending Global “Surge” Ferri, C.P., et al., Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study, The Lancet, 366:2112-2117, 2005. YEAR People with dementia (millions) 2001 2020 2040 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Estimates of dementia 24,300,000 42,300,000 81,100,000

8 Social Consequences Legal: lie detectors, polygraph, courtroom Ethical: mental competency, cognitive enhancement Medical: brain death, life, drug abuse and mental health treatment “NEUROETHICS”

9 The Nervous System What does the nervous system do? What is the nervous system made of? What are the parts of the nervous system? ?

10 The Senses: see, hear, smell, taste, touch Emotions: happiness, sadness, anger Movement: muscle control Automatic responses: heart rate, breathing Cognition think, plan, problem solve Language speech, reading, writing Functions of the Nervous System? ?

11 Brain, Brain…What is a Brain? How are these objects like a brain?

12 Composition of the Nervous System? Two main types of brain cells: Nerve Cells (Neurons) - communicate with other neurons; store information Glial Cells (Glia) - support, insulation, clean-up (made of lipid [fat]) Water (78%), lipids/fats (10%) and protein (8%).

13 Composition of the Nervous System? Cerebrospinal Fluid Protection Buoyancy Excretion of waste products Endocrine medium for the brain

14 Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Nerves

15 Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Left Right

16 Divisions of the Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System

17 Organization of the Nervous System

18 Autonomic Nervous System

19 External Features Top View Side View Back Bottom Front Top Size (weight)? Gender differences?

20 Brain Size Adult human brain weight = 1.4 kg (~3 lb) (Data from Dekaban, A.S. and Sadowsky, D., Ann. Neurology, 4:345-356, 1978)

21 Brain/Body Ratio (Data from Dekaban, A.S. and Sadowsky, D., Ann. Neurology, 4:345-356, 1978)

22 Right Side Left Side Brain Hemispheres Cerebral Cortex Corpus Callosum

23 Brain Hemispheres Left Right Hemisphere Left Right Hand LANGUAGE – left side!

24 Handedness Which hand is dominant?

25 Foot, Ear, Eye Dominance Which is dominant? Kick ball Step up Step on Tube look Finger site Paper hole Cup ear Hear wall Hear box

26 Language Speaking the written word Speaking the heard word

27 Neuroanatomy Frontal Sagittal Horizontal Medial Lateral Dorsal Ventral Rostral Caudal Rostral Caudal Dorsal Ventral Rostral Caudal

28 The Brain Cerebral cortex Thalamus Midbrain Hypothalamus Cerebellum Brainstem

29 Speaking of Neuroscience Origin of brain words from Greek and Latin. Amygdala = Dendrite = Almond Arachnoid =Spider web Cochlea =Snail shell Tree

30 CEREBRAL CORTEX Thought Voluntary movement Language Reasoning Perception Function/Structure CEREBELLUM Movement Balance Posture BRAIN STEM Breathing Heart Rate Blood Pressure HYPOTHALAMUS Body Temperature Emotions Hunger Thirst Circadian Rhythms

31 Function/Structure THALAMUS Sensory processing Movement MIDBRAIN Vision Audition Eye Movement Body Movement BASAL GANGLIA Movement Reward LIMBIC AREAS (amygdala, hippocampus, etc.) Emotions Memory

32 The Brain Gray matter – areas of the CNS with high concentrations of cell bodies; outer surface of cerebrum (cerebral cortex) White matter – areas of the CNS with mostly myelinated axons; inner part of cerebrum Glial cells – cells in the brain that nourish and protect neurons

33 Cerebral Cortex Controls information processing; wrinkled to increase surface area Composed of 8 lobes (4 on each side)

34 Brain Areas are Specialized for Different Functions


36 Comparative Neuroanatomy 1 2 3 4 5 6 Comparative Mammalian Brain Museum

37 Lobes of the Brain Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe

38 Frontal Lobes Located in the forehead region Includes the motor cortex (part of brain that controls voluntary movement) Includes Broca’s area (needed for forming words; located in left hemisphere only) Association areas in this region – judgment, planning, processing new memories


40 Parietal Lobes Located on the top and rear of head Contains the sensory cortex (part of brain that registers and processes tactile information (phantom limb) Contains the angular gyrus (left hemisphere only) which is involved in converting written words into sound


42 Occipital Lobes Located in the back of the head Contains the visual cortex

43 Temporal Lobes Located on the sides of head, above ears Receives and processes auditory information Includes Wernicke’s area (left hemisphere only) - part of brain involved in understanding language

44 Corpus Callosum Bundle of nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres Corpus Callosum Men, W., et al. Brain 2013; brain.awt252 ?

45 Brain Stem Medulla – where spinal cord meets the skull; controls heartbeat and breathing Pons – above the medulla, this also controls involuntary functions. Reticular formation– bundle of nerves running through the brainstem; controls arousal; filters irrelevant background information from senses; modulates pain.

46 Thalamus Pair of egg-shaped organs above the brainstem; receives information from the senses (EXCEPT FOR SMELL) and relays it to the rest of the brain. Thalamus

47 Cerebellum Controls balance and coordination In the rear of the head, behind the brainstem

48 Spinal Cord

49 Cranial Nerves

50 Test the Cranial Nerves I - smell II - vision III – eye move./pupil IV – eye move V – touch face; muscle chew VI – eye move VII – face muscles; ant 2/3 taste VIII – balance, hearing IX – post. 2/3 taste, swallow, intraoral touch X – sensory/motor/auton. viscera XI – head movement XII – tongue muscles I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII

51 Reflexes Pupillary Reflex Knee-jerk Reflex Blink Reflex

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