Presentation on theme: "Neuroscience Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. University of Washington, Seattle, WA"— Presentation transcript:
Neuroscience Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D. University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Neuroscience? Why important? History of neuroscience Neuroanatomy o Neurons o Spinal cord o Brain Senses Movement Learning/memory Sleep
Why Neuroscience? Why is it important to understand the brain?
Why Study Neuroscience? Neurological disorders are common Education “Standards/Benchmarks” Career Opportunities Social Issues/Life-Style Choices Education Practices Knowing more about ourselves SocietyFamily/Individual Standards/Benchmarks/Guidelines NEUROSCIENCE ?
Ovbiagele et al., Forecasting the future of stroke in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, Stroke, 44: , By 2030: 3.88%: US population (>18 years of age) will have had a stroke. $ billion: Total direct annual stroke- related medical costs. $56.54 billion: Indirect annual costs (attributable to lost productivity) Impending “Surge” (Stroke)
Impending Global “Surge” Ferri, C.P., et al., Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study, The Lancet, 366: , YEAR People with dementia (millions) Estimates of dementia 24,300,000 42,300,000 81,100,000
Social Consequences Legal: lie detectors, polygraph, courtroom Ethical: mental competency, cognitive enhancement Medical: brain death, life, drug abuse and mental health treatment “NEUROETHICS”
The Nervous System What does the nervous system do? What is the nervous system made of? What are the parts of the nervous system? ?
The Senses: see, hear, smell, taste, touch Emotions: happiness, sadness, anger Movement: muscle control Automatic responses: heart rate, breathing Cognition think, plan, problem solve Language speech, reading, writing Functions of the Nervous System? ?
Brain, Brain…What is a Brain? How are these objects like a brain?
Composition of the Nervous System? Two main types of brain cells: Nerve Cells (Neurons) - communicate with other neurons; store information Glial Cells (Glia) - support, insulation, clean-up (made of lipid [fat]) Water (78%), lipids/fats (10%) and protein (8%).
Composition of the Nervous System? Cerebrospinal Fluid Protection Buoyancy Excretion of waste products Endocrine medium for the brain
Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Nerves
Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Left Right
Divisions of the Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System
Organization of the Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
External Features Top View Side View Back Bottom Front Top Size (weight)? Gender differences?
Brain Size Adult human brain weight = 1.4 kg (~3 lb) (Data from Dekaban, A.S. and Sadowsky, D., Ann. Neurology, 4: , 1978)
Brain/Body Ratio (Data from Dekaban, A.S. and Sadowsky, D., Ann. Neurology, 4: , 1978)
Right Side Left Side Brain Hemispheres Cerebral Cortex Corpus Callosum
Brain Hemispheres Left Right Hemisphere Left Right Hand LANGUAGE – left side!
Handedness Which hand is dominant?
Foot, Ear, Eye Dominance Which is dominant? Kick ball Step up Step on Tube look Finger site Paper hole Cup ear Hear wall Hear box
Language Speaking the written word Speaking the heard word
The Brain Cerebral cortex Thalamus Midbrain Hypothalamus Cerebellum Brainstem
Speaking of Neuroscience Origin of brain words from Greek and Latin. Amygdala = Dendrite = Almond Arachnoid =Spider web Cochlea =Snail shell Tree
CEREBRAL CORTEX Thought Voluntary movement Language Reasoning Perception Function/Structure CEREBELLUM Movement Balance Posture BRAIN STEM Breathing Heart Rate Blood Pressure HYPOTHALAMUS Body Temperature Emotions Hunger Thirst Circadian Rhythms
Function/Structure THALAMUS Sensory processing Movement MIDBRAIN Vision Audition Eye Movement Body Movement BASAL GANGLIA Movement Reward LIMBIC AREAS (amygdala, hippocampus, etc.) Emotions Memory
The Brain Gray matter – areas of the CNS with high concentrations of cell bodies; outer surface of cerebrum (cerebral cortex) White matter – areas of the CNS with mostly myelinated axons; inner part of cerebrum Glial cells – cells in the brain that nourish and protect neurons
Cerebral Cortex Controls information processing; wrinkled to increase surface area Composed of 8 lobes (4 on each side)
Brain Areas are Specialized for Different Functions
Comparative Neuroanatomy Comparative Mammalian Brain Museum
Lobes of the Brain Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe
Frontal Lobes Located in the forehead region Includes the motor cortex (part of brain that controls voluntary movement) Includes Broca’s area (needed for forming words; located in left hemisphere only) Association areas in this region – judgment, planning, processing new memories
Parietal Lobes Located on the top and rear of head Contains the sensory cortex (part of brain that registers and processes tactile information (phantom limb) Contains the angular gyrus (left hemisphere only) which is involved in converting written words into sound
Occipital Lobes Located in the back of the head Contains the visual cortex
Temporal Lobes Located on the sides of head, above ears Receives and processes auditory information Includes Wernicke’s area (left hemisphere only) - part of brain involved in understanding language
Corpus Callosum Bundle of nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres Corpus Callosum Men, W., et al. Brain 2013; brain.awt252 ?
Brain Stem Medulla – where spinal cord meets the skull; controls heartbeat and breathing Pons – above the medulla, this also controls involuntary functions. Reticular formation– bundle of nerves running through the brainstem; controls arousal; filters irrelevant background information from senses; modulates pain.
Thalamus Pair of egg-shaped organs above the brainstem; receives information from the senses (EXCEPT FOR SMELL) and relays it to the rest of the brain. Thalamus
Cerebellum Controls balance and coordination In the rear of the head, behind the brainstem
Test the Cranial Nerves I - smell II - vision III – eye move./pupil IV – eye move V – touch face; muscle chew VI – eye move VII – face muscles; ant 2/3 taste VIII – balance, hearing IX – post. 2/3 taste, swallow, intraoral touch X – sensory/motor/auton. viscera XI – head movement XII – tongue muscles I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII