Presentation on theme: "Safety Chocolate is not typically associated with many safety hazards; however that does not mean it is always safe to eat. Salmonella can survive storage."— Presentation transcript:
Safety Chocolate is not typically associated with many safety hazards; however that does not mean it is always safe to eat. Salmonella can survive storage for 3 – 4 weeks in dry raw materials, demonstrating the importance of implementing effective lethal processes and segregation procedures to prevent cross-contamination to ensure the safety of confectionery products regarding Salmonella (Komitopoulou, 2009). Sweet Science: The Health Benefits of Chocolate Ashley Skibsted Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Concordia College, Moorhead, MN References Aaron, S. & Bearden, M. (2008). Chocolate — A Healthy Passion. Amherst: Prometheus Books. Engler, M. (2006). The Emerging Role of Flavonoid-Rich Cocoa and Chocolate in Cardiovascular Health and Disease. Nutrition Reviews, 64(3), 109-118. Francis, S.T., K. Head, P.G. Morris, and I.A. Macdonald. (2006). The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 47, S215- S220. Grassi, D., Lippi, C., Necozione, S., Desideri, G., and Ferri, C. (2004). Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81, 611-14. Heinrich, U., Neukam, K., Tronnier, H., Sies, H., and Stahl, W. (2006). Long-term ingestion of high flavonol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-Induced Erythema and improves skin condition in women. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 1565-69. Komitopoulou, E., & Penaloza, W. (2009). Fate of Salmonella in dry confectionery raw materials. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106(6), 1892-1900. McShea, A., Ramiro-Puig, E., Munro, S., Casadesus, G., Castell, M., & Smith, M. (2008). Clinical benefit and preservation of flavonols in dark chocolate manufacturing. Nutrition Reviews, 66(11), 630-641. Taubert, D., Roesen, R., Lehmann, C., Jung, N., & Schomig, E. (2007). Effects of Low Habitual Cocoa Intake on Blood Pressure and Bioactive Nitric Oxide. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(1), 49-60. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Background Chocolate dates back to 1400 BCE, when the first people to use cacao beans were an ancient tribe from southern Mexico. The Maya and Aztecs also used cacao as gifts and in ceremonies and was heavily incorporated into their culture (Fig 2). When slaves were to be killed as sacrifices to the gods, they were served chocolate on the eve of the ceremony to comfort them. Cocao was also known for its healing powers and was used to treat stomach and intestinal problems. The first encounter of the Spanish with cocao is when Christopher Columbus captured a canoe that contained cacao beans in 1502. Eventually the Spaniards began using cane sugar to sweeten the bitter chocolate drinks that were so famous to the indigenous, and by the 17 th century, chocolate had spread throughout the world. Figure 2. Aztec sculpture holding a cocao bean Summary From ancient civilizations to today ’ s generations, chocolate has been used for a plethora of reasons. Most commonly known for its sweet taste, the cacao bean is actually good for our bodies. Recent research indicates that the phytonutrients in chocolate called flavonoids serve as antioxidants in the body. As antioxidants, cocoa flavonoids act as a vasodilator, therefore decreasing blood pressure and increasing blood flow to the skin and brain resulting in beauty and cognitive benefits. Besides acting as a vasodilator, cocoa flavonols may help to reduce blood sugar and decrease inflammation. Cleary, chocolate is more than just a tasty indulgence. In moderation, chocolate can be a simple and delicious way to stay healthy. Introduction Millions of people around the world enjoy chocolate. In fact, the average American consumes about 13 pounds of chocolate every year (Aaron, 2008). Besides being a tasty treat, cacao beans are particularly rich in phytonutrients called flavonols, which play an important role in the body as antioxidants. According to the USDA, two tablespoons of natural cocoa have more antioxidant capacity than four cups of green tea, one cup of blueberries, or one and a half glasses of red wine (Aaron, 2008) (Fig 1). Studies are repeatedly showing that dark chocolate, rich in antioxidants, has many benefits to our health, finally giving us a reason to indulge in this exotic luxury. Figure 1. (Aaron, 2008) Comparison of antioxidant capacity in certain foods, including various types of chocolate Production (McShea, 2008) Picking: Cacao beans are picked from the Theobroma cacao tree Native to warm climates about 20° below the equator Figure 3. Theobroma cacao tree Fermentation: Yeast ferments the beans for 24 hours Heat and organic acids break down theseed Under-fermented cacao has higher antioxidant content Figure 4. Cocao beans fermenting Roasting: Cacao is dried, cleaned, and roasted A wide variety of flavors can be produced during roasting Figure 5. Cocao beans in roaster Milling: Cacao becomes a “ nib ” and is about 2-5mm First time cacao is palatable Interaction between flavonoids and other molecules in the nib determine flavor and final antioxidant activity The nibs are ground to develop further flavor Cacao contains 50-56% cocoa butter Figure 6. Cacao beans in the drying process Conching: Further rounds of refining and multi-day heat treatments increase flavor Chocolate is tempered for a glossy finish, hard consistency, and resistance to cosmetic discoloration The chocolate is now ready to be molded into bars and/or other things Figure 7. Nibs being conched into chocolate liquor Health Benefits Phytonutrients: Flavonoids abundant in cacao beans have protective effects by guarding against diseases. Cardiovascular Health: Flavonols prevent coagulation, thus maintaining blood flow. In a study conducted in Germany, blood pressure was significantly decreased with moderate intake of flavonol-rich dark chocolate (Fig 8). Ingesting cocoa can also improve endothelial function due to the action of the cocoa polyphenols and is linked to lower cardiovascular mortality (Engler, 2006). Immune System: The flavonols suppress compounds that create harmful immune responses in the body (Aaron, 2008). By decreasing inflammation, the incidence of diseases such as arthritis, heart disease, and autoimmune diseases may decrease. Cognitive: Cocoa may enhance brain function by increasing blood flow to the brain. The increase in blood flow to key areas of the brain could indicate a potential use for cocoa flavonols in the treatment of vascular impairment, including dementia and stroke (Francis, 2006). Beauty: According to an article in the European Journal of Nutrition, the consumption of a cocoa drink rich in flavonols acutely increases total plasma epicatechin concentration and cutaneous blood flow (Heinrich, 2006). Blood Sugar: Chocolate may help to increase insulin sensitivity and therefore decrease blood sugar levels (Grassi, 2004). Minerals: Cocoa is rich in copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc and have been estimated to contribute about 9.4% of the daily copper intake to a typical American diet (Aaron, 2008). Figure 8. (Taubert, 2007) Changes in systolic blood pressure after 18 weeks of dark in relation to baseline blood pressure
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