Presentation on theme: "Criminology Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what"— Presentation transcript:
1 Criminology Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what causes crime and why. To answer that question, we seek todetect crime and to measure it in all its dimensions:where, when, and why is it distributed in time and placewhere, when, how, why and who is committing itwhere when, how, why and who are the victimsBased on an assessment of that information, a response or atreatment is prescribed in both a preventative and curativecontext if possible. Criminology seeks epistemologicalunderstanding so as to better prevent and respond to crimein a social/communal context and to minimize its negativeImpacts.
3 Micro ResponsesCriminology assumes the medical model (discover the problem, assess its nature and extent, prescribe a response/a cure), but it falls short because: 1. There are no accurate diagnostic instruments (no criminological thermometers, no criminological x-rays or CAT scans) 2. No body of diagnostic knowledge 3. No evidence-based, generally consistent, uniformly applicable and effective treatment modalities
5 Type 1 (Alpha Error) It is impossible to speak of one specific cause for the wide range of behaviorclassified as criminalMacroMicro
6 Type II (Beta Error) You cannot call something a cause of an event if it rarely produces the event. Manyfactors impact in a non-causal context, andwould more appropriately be called:Contributing factorsPrecipitating factorsAccentuating factorsAggravating factorsCompounding factors
7 Type III ErrorCriminology, like medicine, assumes conformity and seeks to explain deviance. Perhaps we should assume deviance and explain conformity. - Why do nearly all people, nearly all the time, refrain from crime? - What is the cause of virtue? - How does society build a citizenry of character?
8 Kohlberg ModelLevel 1 – Fear of Punishment Level 2 – Promise of Reward Level 3 – Altruistic Motivation
9 Socrates and the Ring of Gyges Justice will be realized only when people are willing to obey the unenforceable.
10 Scientific Criminology An interdisciplinary social science-based field of study that seeks an etiological understanding of the preventative and curative aspects of crime. In so doing, it seeks to develop better measurement and diagnostic capabilities and ultimately, better preventative, control, and treatment options.
11 Political Criminology Science is constrained due to deep-rooted social, economic, and political factors (ala Dr. Goldberger). There are scientific truths and there are political truths. In the end, political “leaders” look not to the science, but to the political palatability coefficient, to the political truths, to survive. As a result, the science of criminology is regularly polluted by the politics of criminology.
12 Role of Criminologists Criminologists and justice professionals must:Uncover scientific truths/grow the body of knowledge.Be alert as to when the best time would be to bring results forward (be attuned to the zeitgeist).Engage in activities that create a palatable environment/create a setting where truths can be aired and implemented.
13 Theories of Deviance I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,Jerome2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire
14 Theories of Deviance I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,Jerome2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, VoltaireII.) Naturalistic Theories1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke
15 Classical TheoryCrime is to be prevented through fear of receiving sanctions. There are some costs (innocent punished), but we must avert chaos and maintain security, and these are the collateral consequences. There is crime because the state lacks certainty and severity in its punishment delivery systems. To stop crime, we need more police, prosecutors, and prisons.
16 Classical Theory1. Self determinism 2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory) 3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory 4. Focus on the crime
17 General Deterrence Theory Specific vs. GeneralSwiftnessCertaintySeverityClaritySeverity is not a substitute for certainty
18 Theories of Deviance I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,Jerome2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, VoltaireII.) Naturalistic Theories1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke2.) Positivist ‑ Lombroso, Quetelet, ComteA. Biological Determinism ‑ Galton, Lombroso1. Constitutional ‑ Gall, Goring, Hooton, Jacobs, Sheldon2. Bio Social ‑ Hippchen, Jeffrey, Edward O. Wilson
19 Bio-Criminology…continued Why are there bio-chemical imbalances?Internally sourced factors:Enzyme/hormonal imbalancesGenetic sourcesInsufficient brain development/brain abnormalitiesExternally sourced factors:Exposure to externally sourced toxic materialsGeneral nutrition/vitamin deficiencies (orthomolecular deficiencies)
20 Bio-Criminology Internal/Latent Bio-Chemical Imbalances (hormone and enzyme imbalances)SerotoninDopamineMelatoninTestosteroneMAOAEstrogen/PMSCSF/serum albuminPhenethylamine/MAO-BOxytocin
21 Bio-Criminology…continued GenesViolence genes, lying genes, crime genes, morality genes, alcoholism genes, religiousity genes?Impulsivity and ADHD (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder) are perhaps 75% genetically basedVariations in the AR gene are associated with violent crimeCaspi and Trembly studies
22 Bio-Criminology…continued Caspi studyabused/insufficient nurturing + genetically vulnerable =85% developed anti-social behaviorsabused/insufficient nurturing + no genetic vulnerability =virtually no anti-social tendenciesnot abused/sufficient nurturing + genetic vulnerability =
23 Bio-Criminology…continued Behavior Impacted By (Trembly thesis is that the 66% figure will drop even further as time passes)GeneticEnvironment18 months old82%18%60 months old66%34%
24 Bio-Criminology…continued Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalitiesReactive Aggressive Teens: high Amygdala activity and less frontal lobe activityPedophiles: lower volume of gray matter in the orbitofrontal cortex, the cerebellum and the ventral striatumPedophiles: abnormal serotonin subsystem in the brainMen v Women: low volume of gray matter in the orbitofrontal cortex is highly correlated with violent and anti-social behaviors; in the aggregate, men have lower volumes than womenAntisocial individuals: damage in the dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus
25 Bio-Criminology…continued Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities …continued:High norm compliance individuals: high activity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (areas not developed until early 20s)Violent offenders: large white matter volume in the occipital, parietal lobes and left cerebellum; large gray matter volume in the right cerebellumViolent offenders: atrophy in the postcentral gyri, frontopolar cortex and orbiofrontal cortexYouth Brain Shrinkage: frontal and pre-frontal cortex shrinkageViolent youth: slower neurological transmission issuesNovelty seeking individuals: fast firing dopamine neurons in the brainPrenatal alcohol exposure: alters white matter structure in the frontal and occipital lobes
27 Bio-Criminology…continued Nutritional Deficiencies/Orthomolecular DeficienciesGeneral vitamin and nutritional deficienciesPrenatal protein deficienciesCholesterol deficienciesZinc deficienciesFatty acid deficiencies (Omega 3, Omega 6, DHA)Iron deficienciesVitamin B and Chromium deficiencies
28 Bio-Criminology…continued How do we respond?Eat healthy substances/orthomolecular therapy (take good things in)Eat substances that will remove the toxic substances from the body (get the bad things out)Move away from toxic sources (don’t let any more bad things in)Bio-chemical interventions in serious casesRitalinRebuifinLithiumThorazineMetoprololGalvanic skin implantsDepo-Provera/MPA
29 Bio-criminology Summary Crime is caused by bio-chemical imbalances. These imbalances have:Internally sourced origins:Enzyme/hormonal imbalancesGenetic sourcesInsufficient brain development/brain abnormalitiesExternally sourced origins:Exposure to externally sourced toxic materialsGeneral nutrition/vitamin deficiencies (orthomoleculardeficiencies)To reduce crime, we need to:Take good things inGet the bad things outDon’t let anymore bad things inEngage in physical interventions and drug therapy in serious cases
30 Bio-Criminology Problems Ignores the ConstitutionIgnores Durkheim (society of clones)Ignores Durkheim (faulty intelligence to crime assumption)Alpha error (explains violence, but little else)Extreme potential for abuse
31 Theories of Deviance I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,Jerome2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, VoltaireII.) Naturalistic Theories1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke2.) Positivist ‑ Lombroso, Quetelet, ComteA. Biological Determinism ‑ Galton, Lombroso1. Constitutional ‑ Gall, Goring, Hooton, Jacobs, Sheldon2. Bio Social ‑ Hippchen, Jeffrey, Edward O. WilsonB. Cultural Determinism ‑ Quetelet1. Psychological ‑ Tardea. Cognitive Theory ‑ James, Menninger, Piagetb. Freudian Theory/Psychoanalysis ‑ Freud, Jungc. Learning Theory ‑ Bandura, Skinner
34 Theories of Deviance…continued 2. Sociological ‑ Durkheim, Ferria. Social Structure Theories ‑ Burgess1. Culture Conflict ‑ Miller, Sellin2. Differential Opportunity ‑ Cloward, Ohlin3. Relative Deprivation ‑ Blau and Blau4. Social Disorganization ‑ McKay, Shaw, Thrasher5. Strain ‑ Agnew, Merton6. Subculture Conflict ‑ Cohenb. Social Process Theories ‑ Sutherland1. Bonding ‑ Hindelang, Hirschi2. Control - Durkheim, Gottfredson, Hirschi, Reckless3. Differential Anticipation ‑ Glazer4. Differential Association ‑ Cressy, Sutherland5. Differential Reinforcement ‑ Akers6. Drift ‑ Matza, Sykes7. Labeling ‑ Allport, Braithwaite, Lemert, Rosenthal8. Life Course - Laub, Moffitt, Sampson9. Social Development ‑ Weis
35 Positivist Theory Problems Labeling stigmatizationMedical model knowledge base lacking:a. Diagnostic instrumentsb. Body of diagnostic knowledgec. Consistent/applicable/effective treatmentmodalitiesExternal factors (prisonization)Re-habilitation
36 Positivist Theory Problems…continued TransferabilityLimited exposureToo lateConstancy dictumNihil Nocere
37 Palmer and Gendreau Not enough research to date. Same rate of success as oncologists.A life-long cure not reasonable and not expected in medicine in particular.The need for inter-crime and intra-crime specificity only now beginning to be realized.The problem is often not the program, but implementation issues.Internal motivation/cognitive orientation of the individual. Need an internal conversion.
38 Rehabilitation Program Implementation Needs Internal conversion of the treated (fertile ground)Proper timing/Zeitgeist (palatable environment)Good program (good seed)Capable program personnel (knowledgeable and skilled farmer)Dedicated and persistent program personnelIf any one of these is missing, the programfails/the crops fail.
39 Theories of Deviance…continued 3.) Conflict ‑ MarxA. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, VoldB. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, StiglerC. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young
40 Some Fundamental Concepts Regarding Law and Crime Every society is based on the coercion of some of its members by others.Law is a function of political power. It is used by the more powerful to maintain control over the less powerful. The more threatened a ruling group feels, the more rigorously it tends to enforce the law.Laws are the codification of ruling class interests. Laws become legitimate simply because the ruling class has the power to enforce them and the ability to create the ideology by which they are made to appear justified.The police, the courts and the correctional systems are all instruments utilized by the ruling class to insure adherence to their laws.People who are socio-economically close to the power group tend to develop normative behavioral systems that are similar to members of the power group. The further away a person is from the power group, the more likely they will possess different normative behavioral systems, and the greater the likelihood that those different behaviors will be defined as criminal.
41 Radical Criminological Theory Capitalism is the root of all crime and needs to be abandoned as an economic system.Restructure society, moving toward a classless, utopian, socialistic state.The restructuring may require a revolution.Tear down the prisons.Abolish police forces.Adopt a non-interventionist strategy
42 Some Fundamental Concepts Regarding Law and Crime Crime is not an inherent quality of any act. All behavior patterns in fact have the potential to be defined as criminal. Criminality is merely a label given to certain behaviors by the ruling authorities.The ability to confer criminal status is a privilege enjoyed by the powerful classes, to the broad detriment of the less powerful. Generally, criminal behavior is merely behavior that threatens the interests of the powerful.Law and definitions of crime may be modified from time to time, but never to the extent that existing political and economic relationships are jeopardized. As a rule, law changes are a reflection of changes in the needs and interests of the powerful.The freedoms that laws confer grant a great deal more freedom to some groups than to others. The freedoms allegedly protected by law, are only protected for those who can afford it. In the end, legal efficacy reigns supreme, not the law.Rather than being an independent arbitrator of conflict, the state is in fact the prize for which different groups compete in order to gain control.
43 Radical Criminology Problems Ignores Durkheim (after the revolution there will still be deviance, just new definitions)There is a value to devianceHigh cost of the revolution, and it would ironically be born by the very people it is suppose to help.Capitalism is the root of much crime, but not the root of all crime.Give no insight into how deviances arises initially.
44 Values of Deviance Catalyst for change and progress. Forces a re-examination and modification of values and behaviors.Redistributes opportunities for leadership.Refines the truth (forces opposing parties to better prepare).Promotes community cohesion by drawing people together in mutual condemnationResponses to deviance inculcates values into society.Removes bureaucratic red tape/provides for quicker responses.
45 Values of Deviance Without deviance, we would be a society of clones, incapable of dealing with thevariation around us. Diversity is mandatoryto confront the tumultuous, ever changingworld in which we live. The question, is howwhat types of deviance should be allowed,and how much?
46 Capitalism and CrimeCrime is a natural by-product of capitalism, like automobile exhaust. It is an inevitable artifact. Why? A. Unemployment: 1. Capitalism by its very nature does not yield stability but rather volatility. We often talk of business cycles in a very detached fashion, but business cycles means, there are times when people will be out of work. The cyclical nature of capitalism with its risk-based orientations, results in economic instability and periodic unemployment. 2. Capitalism needs a core number of people to be unemployed for two reasons: a. Some number of unemployed people are needed as a threat, to potentially take over the jobs if workers threaten to quit due to low wage and working condition concerns. b. Some number of unemployed people are needed to turn to in times of peak production needs. The optimum unemployment rate from the capitalist point of view is thought to be roughly 3% - 4%. In a nation of roughly 500 million workers, that is 15 million – 20 million people unemployed, and with unemployment comes crime, for a variety of reasons.
47 Capitalism and CrimeCapitalism results in a small number of people accumulating great wealth and others, a large number, living in or near poverty levels. Capitalism, and particularly un-regulated and un-controlled capitalism, yields a large socio-economic inequity coefficient. Nations with a high socio-economic inequity coefficient have high property and violent crime rates.The basic econometrics of business results in workers being paid less than what is necessary for them to buy all of the goods and services they need in life, let alone to be able buy the things they are told to buy by the capitalist marketers, so many resort to illegitimate means to make ends meet.Planned obsolescenceConspicuous consumptionMonopolistic tendencies
48 Capitalism and Crime Capitalism seeks monopolies and exploits the poor. By very definition, many lack the capitalneeded to obtain basic needs and wants.When wealth is equated with success, theproblem becomes more acute. Crime isnormal in a society that stresses wealth andsimultaneously restricts legitimateopportunity to acquire it. The market cultureaccentuates the crime problem.
49 Bureaucratic Gravitation Phenomenon Every program and proposal carries within it a potential for failure and abuse, equal and opposite to the program’s potential for success.
50 Theories of Deviance…continued 3.) Conflict ‑ MarxA. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, VoldB. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, StiglerC. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young4.) Neo‑Classical ‑ Van den Haag, DiIulio, James Q. Wilson
51 Neo-Classical TheoryThere is crime because the state lacks certainty and severity in its punishment delivery systems. To stop crime, we need more police, prosecutors, and prisons. Crime is to be prevented through fear of receiving sanctions. There are some costs (innocent punished), but we must avert chaos and maintain security, and these are the necessary and acceptable collateral consequences.
52 Classical Theory1. Self determinism 2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory) 3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory 4. Focus on the crime
53 Crime Control vs. Due Process Crime Control Model Due Process ModelAggravates long-term stability Aggravates short term contingenciesApprehend the guilty Protect the innocentAssumes deviance and explains conformity Assumes conformity and explains devianceAuthoritarian, trained police Social service, educated policeBurden of proof on defense to demonstrate Burden of proof on prosecutor to demonstrateinnocence at beyond reasonable doubt guilt at reasonable doubtClosed bureaucratic justice structures Open, linking-pin justice structuresCorporal punishment Non-interventionist treatmentCriminal intent of little concern Criminal intent of an overriding concernDiscretionary power to police and Discretionary power to judicial andprosecutorial officials correctional officialsEmphasis on efficiency Emphasis on effectivenessEmphasis on training Emphasis on educationFew confession extraction guidelines Completely voluntary confessionsFew search and seizure rules Strict search and seizure rulesFrequent use of the death penalty Abolition of the death penaltyHarm, frighten, scare, intimidate Encourage, help, aid, assistHarms innocent persons Allows known guilty to go freeHarsh sentences Lenient sentencesHigh certainty of apprehension/justice system Low certainty of apprehension/justice systemprocessing processingLarge, demeaning prisons Community-based corrections
54 Crime Control vs. Due Process Crime Control Model Due Process ModelLarge private sector police force Small private sector police forceLegal counsel provided on rare occasions Legal counsel provided as a right at all stagesMaintain the status quo Respond to social inequitiesMandatory, determinate sentencing Indeterminate sentencingMany law enforcement officers Few law enforcement officersMany penalties Few penaltiesMaximize level of offender intrusion into system Minimize level of offender intrusion into systemNational, centrally organized police force Local, autonomous, decentralized police forceNo pretrial discovery for defense Unlimited pretrial discovery for defensePlea bargaining emphasis Complete adjudicationPresumption of guilt Presumption of innocencePreventive deterrence policy Curative rehabilitation policyProtect society from evolutionary change Protect society from revolutionary changeProtect society in the short run Protect society in the long runPunish the guilty Protect the innocentPunishment fits the crime Punishment fits the criminalQuick, informal justice Formalized, individualized justiceRational, economic man theory Crime a psycho-sociological entitySocial order Individual libertySupervision of offenders Advocate of offendersSwift, certain punishment Treatment, but only when needed
55 Classical Theory1. Self determinism 2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory) 3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory 4. Focus on the crime
56 General Deterrence Theory Specific vs GeneralSwiftnessCertaintySeverityClaritySeverity is not a substitute for certainty
57 Neo-Classical Problems 1. Pragmatic logistic limitation of low certainty.2. Human rights concerns - macro.3. Human rights concerns – micro4. Certainty/Severity Reciprocity Phenomenon5. Inherent irrationality of some behaviora. Temporary insanity/acts of ration vs. acts ofpassionb. Permanent Mental illnessc. Aware of the odds of capture/punishment1. worth the cost2. have a death wish3. excited by the challenge
58 Neo-Classical Problems 6. Displacement: a. geographic location b. nature/substantive offense c. offender 7. Pragmatic operational limitation 8. Overkill phenomenon 9. Overthrust irony 10. Potential for abuse
59 Theories of Deviance…continued 3.) Conflict ‑ MarxA. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, VoldB. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, StiglerC. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young4.) Neo‑Classical ‑ Van den Haag, DiIulio, James Q. Wilson5.) Chaos - Lorenz, Poincare, Walker
60 Chaos TheoryCasual links are so obscure, so convoluted, that the outcomes appears to be random, serendipitous chance. The causal links are there, but they are so enmeshed and entangled, we cannot figure it out.Small, seemingly innocuous, insignificant events can have a tremendous impact on event trajectory.Small differences in the initial stage in particular, at the starting point if you would, can result in significant long-term outcomes variation.Ensemble forecasting
61 Concluding Points Inter and intra specificity Death and crime analogy Scientific criminology is still in the late 1700s in a medical analogy contextSpending very little on researchImplementation problemsNilhil nocerePolitical criminology vs. Scientific criminology