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Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what causes crime and why. To answer that question, we seek to detect crime and to measure it in all.

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Presentation on theme: "Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what causes crime and why. To answer that question, we seek to detect crime and to measure it in all."— Presentation transcript:

1 Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what causes crime and why. To answer that question, we seek to detect crime and to measure it in all its dimensions:  where, when, and why is it distributed in time and place  where, when, how, why and who is committing it  where when, how, why and who are the victims Based on an assessment of that information, a response or a treatment is prescribed in both a preventative and curative context if possible. Criminology seeks epistemological understanding so as to better prevent and respond to crime in a social/communal context and to minimize its negative Impacts.

2  Macro differentiation/inter crime specificity  Micro differentiation/intra crime specificity  Causality vs. contributing, precipitating, accentuating, aggravating  Micro responses  Macro responses (risk factors; protective factors)

3 Criminology assumes the medical model (discover the problem, assess its nature and extent, prescribe a response/a cure), but it falls short because: 1. There are no accurate diagnostic instruments (no criminological thermometers, no criminological x-rays or CAT scans) 2. No body of diagnostic knowledge 3. No evidence-based, generally consistent, uniformly applicable and effective treatment modalities

4  Macro differentiation/inter crime specificity  Micro differentiation/intra crime specificity  Causality vs. contributing, precipitating, accentuating, aggravating  Micro responses  Macro responses (risk factors; protective factors)

5 It is impossible to speak of one specific cause for the wide range of behavior classified as criminal ◦ Macro ◦ Micro

6 You cannot call something a cause of an event if it rarely produces the event. Many factors impact in a non-causal context, and would more appropriately be called:  Contributing factors  Precipitating factors  Accentuating factors  Aggravating factors  Compounding factors

7 Criminology, like medicine, assumes conformity and seeks to explain deviance. Perhaps we should assume deviance and explain conformity. - Why do nearly all people, nearly all the time, refrain from crime? - What is the cause of virtue? - How does society build a citizenry of character?

8 Level 1 – Fear of Punishment Level 2 – Promise of Reward Level 3 – Altruistic Motivation

9 Justice will be realized only when people are willing to obey the unenforceable.

10 An interdisciplinary social science-based field of study that seeks an etiological understanding of the preventative and curative aspects of crime. In so doing, it seeks to develop better measurement and diagnostic capabilities and ultimately, better preventative, control, and treatment options.

11 Science is constrained due to deep-rooted social, economic, and political factors (ala Dr. Goldberger). There are scientific truths and there are political truths. In the end, political “leaders” look not to the science, but to the political palatability coefficient, to the political truths, to survive. As a result, the science of criminology is regularly polluted by the politics of criminology.

12 Criminologists and justice professionals must: 1.Uncover scientific truths/grow the body of knowledge. 2.Be alert as to when the best time would be to bring results forward (be attuned to the zeitgeist). 3.Engage in activities that create a palatable environment/create a setting where truths can be aired and implemented.

13 I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII, Jerome 2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli 3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire

14 I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII, Jerome 2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli 3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire II.) Naturalistic Theories 1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke

15 Crime is to be prevented through fear of receiving sanctions. There are some costs (innocent punished), but we must avert chaos and maintain security, and these are the collateral consequences. There is crime because the state lacks certainty and severity in its punishment delivery systems. To stop crime, we need more police, prosecutors, and prisons.

16 1. Self determinism 2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory) 3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory 4. Focus on the crime

17  Specific vs. General  Swiftness  Certainty  Severity  Clarity Severity is not a substitute for certainty

18 I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII, Jerome 2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli 3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire II.) Naturalistic Theories 1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke 2.) Positivist ‑ Lombroso, Quetelet, Comte A. Biological Determinism ‑ Galton, Lombroso 1. Constitutional ‑ Gall, Goring, Hooton, Jacobs, Sheldon 2. Bio Social ‑ Hippchen, Jeffrey, Edward O. Wilson

19  Why are there bio-chemical imbalances? ◦ Internally sourced factors:  Enzyme/hormonal imbalances  Genetic sources  Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities ◦ Externally sourced factors:  Exposure to externally sourced toxic materials  General nutrition/vitamin deficiencies (orthomolecular deficiencies) Bio-Criminology…continued

20  Internal/Latent Bio-Chemical Imbalances (hormone and enzyme imbalances) ◦ Serotonin ◦ Dopamine ◦ Melatonin ◦ Testosterone ◦ MAOA ◦ Estrogen/PMS ◦ CSF/serum albumin ◦ Phenethylamine/MAO-B ◦ Oxytocin

21  Genes ◦ Violence genes, lying genes, crime genes, morality genes, alcoholism genes, religiousity genes? ◦ Impulsivity and ADHD (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder) are perhaps 75% genetically based ◦ Variations in the AR gene are associated with violent crime ◦ Caspi and Trembly studies

22  Caspi study ◦ abused/insufficient nurturing + genetically vulnerable = 85% developed anti-social behaviors ◦ abused/insufficient nurturing + no genetic vulnerability = virtually no anti-social tendencies ◦ not abused/sufficient nurturing + genetic vulnerability = virtually no anti-social tendencies

23 Behavior Impacted By (Trembly thesis is that the 66% figure will drop even further as time passes) GeneticEnvironment 18 months old82%18% 60 months old66%34%

24  Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities ◦ Reactive Aggressive Teens: high Amygdala activity and less frontal lobe activity ◦ Pedophiles: lower volume of gray matter in the orbitofrontal cortex, the cerebellum and the ventral striatum ◦ Pedophiles: abnormal serotonin subsystem in the brain ◦ Men v Women: low volume of gray matter in the orbitofrontal cortex is highly correlated with violent and anti-social behaviors; in the aggregate, men have lower volumes than women ◦ Antisocial individuals: damage in the dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus

25  Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities …continued: ◦ High norm compliance individuals: high activity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (areas not developed until early 20s) ◦ Violent offenders: large white matter volume in the occipital, parietal lobes and left cerebellum; large gray matter volume in the right cerebellum ◦ Violent offenders: atrophy in the postcentral gyri, frontopolar cortex and orbiofrontal cortex ◦ Youth Brain Shrinkage: frontal and pre-frontal cortex shrinkage ◦ Violent youth: slower neurological transmission issues ◦ Novelty seeking individuals: fast firing dopamine neurons in the brain ◦ Prenatal alcohol exposure: alters white matter structure in the frontal and occipital lobes

26  Externally Sourced Causes of Bio-Chemical Imbalances ◦ Lead, cadmium, mercury, PCBs (heavy metals) ◦ Sugar/hypoglycemia ◦ Manganese ◦ HCD (hexachlorobenzene) ◦ Prenatal nicotine exposure

27  Nutritional Deficiencies/Orthomolecular Deficiencies ◦ General vitamin and nutritional deficiencies ◦ Prenatal protein deficiencies ◦ Cholesterol deficiencies ◦ Zinc deficiencies ◦ Fatty acid deficiencies (Omega 3, Omega 6, DHA) ◦ Iron deficiencies ◦ Vitamin B and Chromium deficiencies

28  How do we respond? ◦ Eat healthy substances/orthomolecular therapy (take good things in) ◦ Eat substances that will remove the toxic substances from the body (get the bad things out) ◦ Move away from toxic sources (don’t let any more bad things in) ◦ Bio-chemical interventions in serious cases  Ritalin  Rebuifin  Lithium  Thorazine  Metoprolol  Galvanic skin implants  Depo-Provera/MPA Bio-Criminology…continued

29  Crime is caused by bio-chemical imbalances. These imbalances have: ◦ Internally sourced origins:  Enzyme/hormonal imbalances  Genetic sources  Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities ◦ Externally sourced origins:  Exposure to externally sourced toxic materials  General nutrition/vitamin deficiencies (orthomolecular deficiencies)  To reduce crime, we need to: ◦ Take good things in ◦ Get the bad things out ◦ Don’t let anymore bad things in ◦ Engage in physical interventions and drug therapy in serious cases

30  Ignores the Constitution  Ignores Durkheim (society of clones)  Ignores Durkheim (faulty intelligence to crime assumption)  Alpha error (explains violence, but little else)  Extreme potential for abuse

31 I.) Demonological Theories 1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII, Jerome 2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli 3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire II.) Naturalistic Theories 1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke 2.) Positivist ‑ Lombroso, Quetelet, Comte A. Biological Determinism ‑ Galton, Lombroso 1. Constitutional ‑ Gall, Goring, Hooton, Jacobs, Sheldon 2. Bio Social ‑ Hippchen, Jeffrey, Edward O. Wilson B. Cultural Determinism ‑ Quetelet 1. Psychological ‑ Tarde a. Cognitive Theory ‑ James, Menninger, Piaget b. Freudian Theory/Psychoanalysis ‑ Freud, Jung c. Learning Theory ‑ Bandura, Skinner

32 2. Sociological ‑ Durkheim, Ferri a. Social Structure Theories ‑ Burgess 1. Culture Conflict ‑ Miller, Sellin 2. Differential Opportunity ‑ Cloward, Ohlin 3. Relative Deprivation ‑ Blau and Blau 4. Social Disorganization ‑ McKay, Shaw, Thrasher 5. Strain ‑ Agnew, Merton 6. Subculture Conflict ‑ Cohen

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34 2. Sociological ‑ Durkheim, Ferri a. Social Structure Theories ‑ Burgess 1. Culture Conflict ‑ Miller, Sellin 2. Differential Opportunity ‑ Cloward, Ohlin 3. Relative Deprivation ‑ Blau and Blau 4. Social Disorganization ‑ McKay, Shaw, Thrasher 5. Strain ‑ Agnew, Merton 6. Subculture Conflict ‑ Cohen b. Social Process Theories ‑ Sutherland 1. Bonding ‑ Hindelang, Hirschi 2. Control - Durkheim, Gottfredson, Hirschi, Reckless 3. Differential Anticipation ‑ Glazer 4. Differential Association ‑ Cressy, Sutherland 5. Differential Reinforcement ‑ Akers 6. Drift ‑ Matza, Sykes 7. Labeling ‑ Allport, Braithwaite, Lemert, Rosenthal 8. Life Course - Laub, Moffitt, Sampson 9. Social Development ‑ Weis

35 1. Labeling stigmatization 2. Medical model knowledge base lacking: a. Diagnostic instruments b. Body of diagnostic knowledge c. Consistent/applicable/effective treatment modalities 3. External factors (prisonization) 4. Re-habilitation

36 1. Transferability 2. Limited exposure 3. Too late 4. Constancy dictum 5. Nihil Nocere

37 1. Not enough research to date. 2. Same rate of success as oncologists. 3. A life-long cure not reasonable and not expected in medicine in particular. 4. The need for inter-crime and intra-crime specificity only now beginning to be realized. 5. The problem is often not the program, but implementation issues. 6. Internal motivation/cognitive orientation of the individual. Need an internal conversion.

38 1. Internal conversion of the treated (fertile ground) 2. Proper timing/Zeitgeist (palatable environment) 3. Good program (good seed) 4. Capable program personnel (knowledgeable and skilled farmer) 5. Dedicated and persistent program personnel If any one of these is missing, the program fails/the crops fail.

39 3.) Conflict ‑ Marx A. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, Vold B. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, Stigler C. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young

40 1. Every society is based on the coercion of some of its members by others. 2. Law is a function of political power. It is used by the more powerful to maintain control over the less powerful. The more threatened a ruling group feels, the more rigorously it tends to enforce the law. 3. Laws are the codification of ruling class interests. Laws become legitimate simply because the ruling class has the power to enforce them and the ability to create the ideology by which they are made to appear justified. 4. The police, the courts and the correctional systems are all instruments utilized by the ruling class to insure adherence to their laws. 5. People who are socio-economically close to the power group tend to develop normative behavioral systems that are similar to members of the power group. The further away a person is from the power group, the more likely they will possess different normative behavioral systems, and the greater the likelihood that those different behaviors will be defined as criminal.

41 1. Capitalism is the root of all crime and needs to be abandoned as an economic system. 2. Restructure society, moving toward a classless, utopian, socialistic state. 3. The restructuring may require a revolution. 4. Tear down the prisons. 5. Abolish police forces. 6. Adopt a non-interventionist strategy

42 1. Crime is not an inherent quality of any act. All behavior patterns in fact have the potential to be defined as criminal. Criminality is merely a label given to certain behaviors by the ruling authorities. 2. The ability to confer criminal status is a privilege enjoyed by the powerful classes, to the broad detriment of the less powerful. Generally, criminal behavior is merely behavior that threatens the interests of the powerful. 3. Law and definitions of crime may be modified from time to time, but never to the extent that existing political and economic relationships are jeopardized. As a rule, law changes are a reflection of changes in the needs and interests of the powerful. 4. The freedoms that laws confer grant a great deal more freedom to some groups than to others. The freedoms allegedly protected by law, are only protected for those who can afford it. In the end, legal efficacy reigns supreme, not the law. 5. Rather than being an independent arbitrator of conflict, the state is in fact the prize for which different groups compete in order to gain control.

43 1. Ignores Durkheim (after the revolution there will still be deviance, just new definitions) 2. There is a value to deviance 3. High cost of the revolution, and it would ironically be born by the very people it is suppose to help. 4. Capitalism is the root of much crime, but not the root of all crime. 5. Give no insight into how deviances arises initially.

44 1. Catalyst for change and progress. 2. Forces a re-examination and modification of values and behaviors. 3. Redistributes opportunities for leadership. 4. Refines the truth (forces opposing parties to better prepare). 5. Promotes community cohesion by drawing people together in mutual condemnation 6. Responses to deviance inculcates values into society. 7. Removes bureaucratic red tape/provides for quicker responses.

45 Without deviance, we would be a society of clones, incapable of dealing with the variation around us. Diversity is mandatory to confront the tumultuous, ever changing world in which we live. The question, is how what types of deviance should be allowed, and how much?

46 Crime is a natural by-product of capitalism, like automobile exhaust. It is an inevitable artifact. Why? A. Unemployment: 1. Capitalism by its very nature does not yield stability but rather volatility. We often talk of business cycles in a very detached fashion, but business cycles means, there are times when people will be out of work. The cyclical nature of capitalism with its risk-based orientations, results in economic instability and periodic unemployment. 2. Capitalism needs a core number of people to be unemployed for two reasons: a. Some number of unemployed people are needed as a threat, to potentially take over the jobs if workers threaten to quit due to low wage and working condition concerns. b. Some number of unemployed people are needed to turn to in times of peak production needs. The optimum unemployment rate from the capitalist point of view is thought to be roughly 3% - 4%. In a nation of roughly 500 million workers, that is 15 million – 20 million people unemployed, and with unemployment comes crime, for a variety of reasons.

47 A. Capitalism results in a small number of people accumulating great wealth and others, a large number, living in or near poverty levels. Capitalism, and particularly un-regulated and un-controlled capitalism, yields a large socio-economic inequity coefficient. Nations with a high socio-economic inequity coefficient have high property and violent crime rates. B. The basic econometrics of business results in workers being paid less than what is necessary for them to buy all of the goods and services they need in life, let alone to be able buy the things they are told to buy by the capitalist marketers, so many resort to illegitimate means to make ends meet. C. Planned obsolescence D. Conspicuous consumption E. Monopolistic tendencies

48 Capitalism seeks monopolies and exploits the poor. By very definition, many lack the capital needed to obtain basic needs and wants. When wealth is equated with success, the problem becomes more acute. Crime is normal in a society that stresses wealth and simultaneously restricts legitimate opportunity to acquire it. The market culture accentuates the crime problem.

49 Every program and proposal carries within it a potential for failure and abuse, equal and opposite to the program’s potential for success.

50 3.) Conflict ‑ Marx A. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, Vold B. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, Stigler C. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young 4.) Neo‑Classical ‑ Van den Haag, DiIulio, James Q. Wilson

51 There is crime because the state lacks certainty and severity in its punishment delivery systems. To stop crime, we need more police, prosecutors, and prisons. Crime is to be prevented through fear of receiving sanctions. There are some costs (innocent punished), but we must avert chaos and maintain security, and these are the necessary and acceptable collateral consequences.

52 1. Self determinism 2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory) 3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory 4. Focus on the crime

53 Crime Control vs. Due Process Crime Control Model Due Process Model Aggravates long-term stability Aggravates short term contingencies Apprehend the guilty Protect the innocent Assumes deviance and explains conformity Assumes conformity and explains deviance Authoritarian, trained police Social service, educated police Burden of proof on defense to demonstrate Burden of proof on prosecutor to demonstrate innocence at beyond reasonable doubt guilt at reasonable doubt Closed bureaucratic justice structures Open, linking-pin justice structures Corporal punishment Non-interventionist treatment Criminal intent of little concern Criminal intent of an overriding concern Discretionary power to police and Discretionary power to judicial and prosecutorial officials correctional officials Emphasis on efficiency Emphasis on effectiveness Emphasis on training Emphasis on education Few confession extraction guidelines Completely voluntary confessions Few search and seizure rules Strict search and seizure rules Frequent use of the death penalty Abolition of the death penalty Harm, frighten, scare, intimidate Encourage, help, aid, assist Harms innocent persons Allows known guilty to go free Harsh sentences Lenient sentences High certainty of apprehension/justice system Low certainty of apprehension/justice system processing processing Large, demeaning prisons Community-based corrections

54 Crime Control vs. Due Process Crime Control Model Due Process Model Large private sector police force Small private sector police force Legal counsel provided on rare occasions Legal counsel provided as a right at all stages Maintain the status quo Respond to social inequities Mandatory, determinate sentencing Indeterminate sentencing Many law enforcement officers Few law enforcement officers Many penalties Few penalties Maximize level of offender intrusion into system Minimize level of offender intrusion into system National, centrally organized police force Local, autonomous, decentralized police force No pretrial discovery for defense Unlimited pretrial discovery for defense Plea bargaining emphasis Complete adjudication Presumption of guilt Presumption of innocence Preventive deterrence policy Curative rehabilitation policy Protect society from evolutionary change Protect society from revolutionary change Protect society in the short run Protect society in the long run Punish the guilty Protect the innocent Punishment fits the crime Punishment fits the criminal Quick, informal justice Formalized, individualized justice Rational, economic man theory Crime a psycho-sociological entity Social order Individual liberty Supervision of offenders Advocate of offenders Swift, certain punishment Treatment, but only when needed

55 1. Self determinism 2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory) 3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory 4. Focus on the crime

56  Specific vs General  Swiftness  Certainty  Severity  Clarity Severity is not a substitute for certainty

57 1. Pragmatic logistic limitation of low certainty. 2. Human rights concerns - macro. 3. Human rights concerns – micro 4. Certainty/Severity Reciprocity Phenomenon 5. Inherent irrationality of some behavior a. Temporary insanity/acts of ration vs. acts of passion b. Permanent Mental illness c. Aware of the odds of capture/punishment 1. worth the cost 2. have a death wish 3. excited by the challenge

58 6. Displacement: a. geographic location b. nature/substantive offense c. offender 7. Pragmatic operational limitation 8. Overkill phenomenon 9. Overthrust irony 10. Potential for abuse

59 3.) Conflict ‑ Marx A. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, Vold B. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, Stigler C. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young 4.) Neo‑Classical ‑ Van den Haag, DiIulio, James Q. Wilson 5.) Chaos - Lorenz, Poincare, Walker

60 1. Casual links are so obscure, so convoluted, that the outcomes appears to be random, serendipitous chance. The causal links are there, but they are so enmeshed and entangled, we cannot figure it out. 2. Small, seemingly innocuous, insignificant events can have a tremendous impact on event trajectory. 3. Small differences in the initial stage in particular, at the starting point if you would, can result in significant long-term outcomes variation. 4. Ensemble forecasting

61 1. Inter and intra specificity 2. Death and crime analogy 3. Scientific criminology is still in the late 1700s in a medical analogy context 4. Spending very little on research 5. Implementation problems 6. Nilhil nocere 7. Political criminology vs. Scientific criminology


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