Presentation on theme: "The Two Golden Ages of China Group 1. The Tang Dynasty Reunifies China After the Han Dynasty collapsed in 220, China broke apart and stayed that way."— Presentation transcript:
The Two Golden Ages of China Group 1
The Tang Dynasty Reunifies China After the Han Dynasty collapsed in 220, China broke apart and stayed that way for nearly 400 years. During the Sui Dynasty ( ) emperor Sui Wendi reunited The north and south parts of China. However, China was not restored to its former glory until the Tang Dynasty in 618.
The Tang Build an Empire The first Tang emperor was Li Yuan. He was a general under the Sui Dynasty. Li and his son revolted and together they crushed their enemy and established the Tang Dynasty. Li’s son was Tang Taizong. He would become the most admired emperor.
The Song Dynasty The Song Dynasty was founded by Zhao Kuangyin in 960. Although the Song Dynasty was in constant danger of invaders, it ruled for 319 years. Despite its military setbacks, the song dynasty’s culture dominated east Asia. A system of canals was built to encourage trade and transportation farther inland.
One of these canals was the Grand canal. It linked the Huang river to the Chang River, and it reached its peak during the Song Dynasty.
China’s Ordered Society Under both the Tang and Song Dynasties, China had a well ordered society. The head of the Society was the Emperor, and his court was filled with royal families. This court overlooked a bureaucracy from which spread out officials all over China. The two main classes were the gentry, and the peasantry.
The gentry consisted of wealthy land owners, and the peasantry were the ones who worked the land. They usually live off of their crops weather it was selling them of eating them. They also made baskets or clothing that they could trade for salt, tools, or other things that they needed.
The Status of Women Women had a much higher status during the Tang and Song Dynasty than they did in later times. Women were at the head of the family. They solved most disputes and handled the families finances. Foot binding was a symbol of beauty and nobility and even though it was very painful, many women did it. (only women, not men)
The Tang and Song Develop a Rich Culture Both the Tang and Song Dynasty had a very rich economy. Poetry, painting and calligraphy were all essential parts of the upper class during the Tang and Song Dynasty. Buddhism influenced much of the architecture of China during this time. They also invented porcelain. It was known as chinaware and was considered the finest in the world.
A lot of poetry was written during this time, and it was expected to be mastered by all Confucian scholars.
Mongol armies build an Empire Mongols invade China Genghis Khan demanded loyalty and strict discipline from his soldiers. Known for being the most skilled horsemen in the world. Invade Asian Steppes with ease; fights China with cannons. Rulers establish order and peace 1200s-1300s Genghis Khans sons and grandsons set up Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace). Economic power expands with the control of the Silk Road trade route. Genghis Khans grandson Kublai Khan overthrows the last Song emperor in Rules all of China, Tibet and Korea.
China under Mongol rule An all Mongol Government Kublai Khan decrees only Mongols can serve in the army and have high government jobs. Though still allowed Chinese to rule in the provinces. Adopted a Chinese name for his dynasty. Kublai Khan named it the Yuan. Had Arab architects design his palace; Kublai rebuilt and extended the Grand Canal to his capital. Marco Polo writes about China Marco Polo was an Italian merchant that visited the Yuan dynasty in 1271 with his father and uncle. Served Kublai Khan for seventeen years. Mongols continue outside contact The Yuan had many different beliefs Muslim communities in China Popes sent Christian Priests to Beijing
Ming restore Chinese rule Economy Grows Ming China was productive and had fertile lands. Supported a population of a hundred million. 1500s new crops reach China from the Americas Culture Flourishes Ming China revived arts and literature. Composed novels – “The Water Margin” and produced the first detective stories
Chinese fleets sail the Seas Zheng He and his fleets Zheng He explored the coasts of southeast Asia and India. Also explored the entrances to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Voyages showed local rulers the power of the Chinese Empire. Exploration Ends 1435 Zheng He dies and new Ming Emperor bans the building and sailing of seagoing ships. Confucian scholars wanted to preserve ancient Chinese traditions. Sixty years later Columbus sails West from Spain, setting Spain on the map, becoming a major power, and impacting the world.
Korea and Its traditions
Geography of the Korean peninsula living among mountains and seas Koreas landscape: “A sea in a heavy gale”. Mountains cover 70% of Korea T’aebaek sea is the most important range. 5,400 mile coastline Depend upon seafood for most of their diet Today, South Korea has the largest fishing industries in the world
Location affects korea Located on Chinas Eastern border. Received many cultural and technological influences. Adopted Chinese traditions and passed it onto the Japanese. 108 B.C. Han emperor, Wudi, invaded Korea and set up a military colony. Confucian traditions and Chinese ideas about gov. and writing/farming methods, spread to Korea.
Development of the Silla and koryo dynasties Korea’s powerful local rulers forged 3 separate kingdoms. Koguryo in the North. Paekche to the Southwest. Silla to the Southeast. They often fought with each other or with China. Missionaries spread Mahayana Buddhism, which took root among the rulers and nobles.
Silla dynasty unites kingdoms Silla Dynasty ruled from 668 to 935 Korea prospered and the arts flourished. Buddhism grew to become a powerful force In Kyongju aristocracy pursued a life of high culture and extravagance (medicine, astronomy, metal casing, sculpture, and textile manufacturing reached especially high levels). Set up a national Confucian academy to train high officials and later instituted a civil- service examination modeled on that of China Conflicts between peasants and the aristocrats led to the overthrow of the Silla dynasty
The Koryo Dynasty Replaced the Silla dynasty in 918 A new capital formed at Songak known as present day Kaesong Woodblocks printing from China to produce Buddhist texts Perfected the technique for making celadon Created movable metal to print large books 1200s, Mongols overran Korea destroying the secret of making celadon
The Choson dynasty rules for over 500 years In 1392, Korean general Yi Song-gye overthrew the Koryo dynasty and set up the Choson dynasty. King Sejong had experts develop hangful, the Korean phonetic alphabet In 1590s, Japanese rulers decided to invade China through Korea General Yi set up a government based on Confucian principles
Japan Looks to China Prince Shotoku studied China traditions directly instead of Korean resources. Japanese visit china, they return from China and spread the Chinese tradition Japanese nobles adopted the Chinese tradition as they adapted the fashion, the talking and the style of eating In 710, the Japanese emperor built a new capital at Nara, modeled on the Tang capital at Chang’an. Buddhism monasteries grew rich as they adopted the pagoda architecture. Selective borrowing preserves the culture as the Japanese kept Chinese ways, but discarded or modified others.
Geography sets Japan apart Japan is on the archipelago which is a chain of islands about 100 miles off the Asian mainland. Japans location gives it the upper hand because it is close enough to China to and Korea to learn from them but not to be conquered by China The seas that surround japan offer trade routes and plenty of food. Japan is also located near an area called the ring of fire which is a chain of volcanoes. These volcanoes cause a lot of under water earthquakes that cause tsunamis. The people that live in Japan today probably migrated there 2000 years ago. Most of the natives live in the upper island called Hokkaido.
The Heian Period The Imperial Capital was in Heian present in Kyoto. Men studied Chinese but women were forbidden to learn the language, but despite of the restrictions Heian woman produced the most important works of Japanese literature. Lady Murasaki wrote the world’s 1 st novel, she was the best known Heian Writer, Her works we the tale of the Genji which was the world’s 1 st long novel, it recounts the adventures of prince Genji and his son.
Warriors establish Feudalism Local warlords and some Buddhist temples formed armed bands that are loyal to them instead of the central government. Samurai’s code of honor (bushido) shows honor, bravery, and absolute loyalty to one’s lord. Positions of women decline when the samurai progressed and feudal warfare increased. Mongols attempt to attack Japan many times, but ended up in a typhoon. Japan has the special protection of the God.
Emperor (powerless) Shogun (powerful) Daimyo (vassal lords) Samurai (lesser lords) Peasants (backbone of feudal society Artisans (provides good for samurai) Merchants (lowest rank) Japanese Feudal System
The Tokugawas Unite Japan Kamakura shogunate crumbled after Mongol invasions. 1338 new dynasty Oda Nobunaga had unified Japan’s central region by the time of his death in 1502 General Toyotomi hideyoshi had brought most of Japan under his control by Tokugawa shogunate ruledJapan till Trade flourished Japan. Countryside agriculture improved and expanded with peace.
Zen Buddhist shape culture Buddhist sects win wide acceptance among samurai became known as Zen Zen-self reliance meditation brought enlightment devotion to duty killeZen was contradictory the Zen scholars cluttered mind and stressed importance to reach non knowing. Zen believed in compassion but samurai d. It sought freedom but had strict rules Artistic traditions change Edo and Osalea exploded in arts and theatre where nobles mixed with urban middle class.
Chapter 12 Section 5
Geography of Southern Asia Southeast Asia is made up of two regions. The first mainland southeast Asia, in cludes several peninsulas that jut south between India and china. The second region, island southeast Asia, consists of more than 20,000 islands scattered between the Indian ocean and the south china sea.
Separated by Mountains The mainland is separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and high plat-eo us. Mountains also separate the four main river valleys of southeast Asia the irr-a waddy, chao phraya, mekong, and red. All seaborne trade between china and India had to pass through either th-e m alacca or sunda straits.
Trade Routes in the Southern Areas The monsoons, or seasonal winds, shaped trading patterns in the southern seas. Ships traveled northeast in summer and southwest winter. Between seasons, while waiting for the winds to shift, merchants harbored their vessels in southeast Asian ports, which became importants centers of trade and culture. Originally, the key product of southeast Asia was spices, and only a fraction of those traded in the region made their way to the markets in Europe.
Early Traditions The peoples of southeast Asia developed their own cultures before Indian or Chinese’s influences shaped the region. Over the centuries, diverse ethnic groups speaking many languages settled in southeast Asia. Women had greater equality in southeast Asia than elsewhere in Asia. female merchants took part in the spice trade, gaining fame for their skill in bargaining, finance, and languages. Matrilineal descents, or inheritance through the mother, was an accepted custom in southeast Asia.
Indian Culture Spreads to Southast Asia Indian merchants and Hindu priests filtered into southeast Asia, slowly spreading their culture. Following the path of trade and religion came the influence of writing, law, government, art, architecture, and farming.
Indian Influence Reaches its Peak In the early centuries AD Indians traders settled in South East Asia port cities in growing numbers. Trade brought prosperity it's as merchants exchanged products such as cotton cloth, jewels, and perfume for raw materials such as timber, spices and gold. As these contracts increased, Indian beliefs and ideas 1 widespread acceptance. Indian influence reached its speak between 500 and 1000.
Chinese Domination In 111 B.C., Han armies conquered the region, and china remained in control for the next 1000 years. They adopted the Chinese civil service system and build a government bureaucracy send more to that found in China. I'm like the rest of Southeast Asia, where Theravada who do ISM have the strength intact, Vietnam adopted Mahayanna from China. Daoism also helped shape Vietnamese society.
The Vietnamese Preserve their Identity Despite these powerful Chinese influence, the Vietnamese preserved a strong sense of their separate identity. To this day, the Trung sisters are remembered as great martyrs Heroes. Finally in 939, as the Tang Dynasty collapse in China, Vietnam we able to break free from China. There after, the Vietnamese turn back repeated Chinese effort to reach re conquer their land, but they still remain a tributary of China for years to come.