Presentation on theme: "老贾老贾 Organizational Behavior and Management Chapter 02."— Presentation transcript:
老贾老贾 Organizational Behavior and Management Chapter 02
Exercises Contribution Online Homework Test One Test Two Final Examination Project OR Paper
Term Paper You will write a ten-page paper adhering to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition. This includes, for example, double-spacing throughout, one-inch margins all around, and 12-point Time Roman font. I will provide a sample paper using correct APA format that you can use as a guide. The topic can be any way of applying something from our textbook to a real life problem. The problem need not have anything to do with business, so long as there is an organization involved. This will be due in hard copy by the end of the 13th week, to leave you time to prepare for finals.
Group Project You and four other students, assigned by me, will prepare and present a lecture on a theory or topic from the last three chapters of the textbook. I will coordinate these topics so they do not overlap. You will present during the 12th, 13th, or 14th class week. The project will be graded one-third on your accurate understanding and explanation of the topic or theory, one- third on the professionalism of your PowerPoint slides (or other electronic visual aids), and one third on the professionalism of your spoken presentation. There is no need for everyone to speak; divide up the work among yourselves however you see fit.
Decision Time If you like writing papers, or hate to be graded for group work, select the “Term Paper” option and I will send you a sample APA paper. If you hate writing papers, or like to share the load with others, select the “Group Project” option. I will coordinate members/topics.
Defining Diversity Diversity – the multitude of individual differences that exist among people – the host of individual differences that make unique and different
Layers of Diversity
Affirmative Action Affirmative action – an artificial intervention aimed at giving management a chance to correct an imbalance, an injustice, a mistake, or outright discrimination that occurred in the past. – Yes, affirmative action is “reverse discrimination.”
Discrimination – occurs when employment decisions about an individual are due to reasons not associated with performance or job-related
Managing Diversity Managing diversity – entails enabling people to perform up to their maximum potential – focuses on changing an organization’s culture and infrastructure such that people provide the highest productivity possible – however, it sees diversity as a problem to be handled
the Business Case Organizations have a strategic advantage when employees contribute their full talents, abilities, motivation, and commitment. Thus it is essential for an organization to create an environment or culture that allows all employees to reach their full potential. Dealing with diversity is a critical component of doing so. But let’s think of it as “harvesting diversity.” Wouldn’t it be foolish if farmers didn’t bother harvesting some of their crops?
the Workforce Workforce demographics – statistical profiles of the characteristics and composition of the adult working population enable managers to anticipate and adjust for surpluses or shortages of appropriately skilled individuals.
Demographics Women navigate a labyrinth after breaking the glass ceiling Racial groups are encountering a glass ceiling and perceived discrimination Mismatch between workers’ educational attainment and occupational requirements Generational differences in an aging workforce
Leviticus 27 3 'If your valuation is of the male from twenty years even to sixty years old, then your valuation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary. 4 'Or if it is a female, then your valuation shall be thirty shekels
Glass Ceiling Glass ceiling – Sometimes misused to refer to an absolute barrier or solid roadblock that prevents women from advancing – But really refers to the subtle and hidden barriers that do not even seem to be there (you know, like glass) …
Laura Zubulake, Director of Equity Sales, sued UBS because she had been excluded from outings and passed over for promotion by her male manager and because they had fired her after she filed a complaint with the EEOC. The jury awarded her $9.1 million as compensation and $20.1 million in punitive damages. No. 02 Civ. 1243, Docket No. 1 (SDNY filed Feb. 15, 2002) She was excluded from events and her ideas were not noticed by superiors or colleagues from other areas. The Meeting after the Meeting
The main impact of Dukes 1 on gender discrimination class action lawsuits in the finance sector has been to shift the focus from challenging disparate treatment—where plaintiffs must show an intent to discriminate—to challenging policies that have a disparate impact on women—policies that appear neutral on their face but in practice disproportionately hurt women Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, 131 S. Ct (2011) 2.Wendi S. Lazar and Jennifer L. Liu. “Pay and promotion equity for women on Wall Street.” The New York Law Journal, 250(74): October 15, The Meeting after the Meeting
Key Trends Men start their careers at higher levels than women Men report higher starting salaries (negotiation) Men move up the career ladder faster and further Men have higher career satisfaction over time
Causes of Differences Women face discrimination. Women spend more time on domestic and child care. Women encounter obstacles to leadership and authority. Why? We associate “male” qualities with leadership. (deep voice, controlled emotion, standing tall).
before …and after
Causes of Differences Women accumulate less continuous work experience, partly because they sometimes exit the workforce for family or motherhood. Women sometimes develop less social capital and smaller personal networks than men.
Minority Groups Members of minority groups generally advance less in the managerial and professional ranks. The number of documented race-based cases of discrimination increased from 294 in 1995 to 1,061 in Members of minority groups tend to earn less personal income.
Growth by Race
Generations Around half of the “workforce” (not necessarily working) is over 50 and 80% will be over 50 in five years. The number of people living into their 80s is increasing, and this group is disproportionately sick. Traditional born War/Depression Baby Boomers born Riots/Assassinations Generation X born AIDs/Oklahoma City Millennials born after 1980September 11/Katrina
Gender Differences Focus on being exceptionally competent. Seek mentors or sponsors. Network to build social capital. Seek work–life balance by delegating or hiring out housekeeping. Improve your negotiating skills. Take credit for your accomplishments. Work toward developing mutually supportive personal relationships.
Race Differences Negative stereotypes not only block qualified people from obtaining promotions, but they can undermine a person’s confidence in their ability to lead. Given the projected increase in the number of Hispanics entering the workforce over the next 25 years, managers should consider progressive methods to recruit, retain, and integrate this segment of the population into their organizations.
Aging Workforce Provide challenging work assignments that matter to the firm. Give the employee considerable autonomy and latitude. Provide access to technical training and learning opportunities. Provide frequent recognition for skills, experience, and wisdom. Provide mentoring opportunities to benefit both parties. Ensure that all workers receive sensitive, high-quality supervision. Design a work environment that is both stimulating and fun.
PROs and CONs Information/decision-making theory – diverse groups should outperform homogenous groups. – known in STEM fields as requisite variety Social categorization theory – similarities and differences are a basis for categorizing and distinguishing between “us” and them.” – people tend to like and trust in-group members more than out-group members and generally favor in-groups over out-groups
Diversity is Hard We trust others who are like us. It feels a little like looking in a mirror. When people want us to trust them, they use this.
Benefits Diverse groups are expected to do a better job in earlier phases of problem solving The existence of diverse perspectives can help groups to brainstorm or uncover more novel alternatives during problem-solving activities. Diversity can enhance the number of contacts a group or work unit has at its disposal.
Fault Lines Hypothetical dividing lines that may split a group into subgroups based on one or more attributes. Fault lines form when work-group members possess varying demographic characteristics Negative interpersonal processes occur when people align themselves based on these.
Challenge s Need to update performance appraisal + reward systems Lack of political savvy on the part of diverse employees An unsupportive and hostile working environment Diversity is not seen as an organizational priority Difficulty in balancing career and family issues Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice Fears of reverse discrimination A negative diversity climate Poor career planning Resistance to change Ethnocentrism
Diversity Climate Diversity climate – Employees’ aggregate perceptions about an organization’s policies, practices, and procedures pertaining to diversity