(Han)-Sui-Tang-Song Block printing Porcelain Mechanical clock (water) Movable Type Gunpowder Paper money Magnetic compass Rice (champas or wet rice) bridges
Early Dynasties Shang Dynasty1766-1122 Zhou Dynasty1122-221 –Last 400yrs - warring states Qin Dynasty 221 -206 BCE –Shi huangdi (1st emperor) –Legalist philosophy –First coinage, writing system, –Censorship –Lasts 15 years China- in 2,000 years - 23 dynasties - 9 important ones
Han Dynasty Classical period –Confucian based society (five relationships) –Merit system-bureaucrats (meritocracy) –Paper & porcelain invented For 400 years after fall of Han - time of great troubles… –Buddhism becomes popular in this period – Why?
Post-Han China Period of the Six Dynasties (220-589CE) –Bureaucracy collapsed –Buddhism gained strength, replacing Confucianism –Non-Chinese nomads rule much Chinese territory
Era of Division vs. Sui-Tang Era of Division : –Small warring states –period of Buddhist dominance –loss of imperial centralization –loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy Sui-Tang: –return to centralized administration –unified empire –reconstruction of bureaucracy –reconstruction of Confucian scholar- gentry at expense of both Buddhists and aristocracy –restoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state
Sui Dynasty (589-618CE) Sui dynasty established by Wendi –Lowered taxes –Established granaries – stable, cheap food supply Yangdi replaced his father, Wendi –Brought scholar-gentry back into the administration –Built the Grand Canal How do you think the canal impacted life in China? Economically? Politically? Socially? Militarily?
Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) First emperor & minister (Wei Zheng)- model of good rule Imperial power and moral restraint in theory - in practice hard to maintain Trade & commerce grow Printing develops Arts- focus on landscape/nature Gun powder Woodblock printing Capital city Chang’an (eternal peace) -walled city Artistic / commercial & invention continues in Song era
Empress Wu Ruled for 50 years - 705 –Biggest challenge deal with scholar/gentry and old aristocrats –Economy remained strong! Reform of land system Civil exam system –Blow to noble class –Social mobility Confucianism as official philosophy = cultural literacy uniting China Buddhism – Wu spreads
Tang Xuanzong (The Profound Emperor) and Consort Yang
Decline of Tang - Losing the Mandate of Heaven Xuanzong –(Empress Wu’s grandson) –Patron of arts –Decline due to lack of morality? Other reasons for decline -Equal land system breaks down –Poor attention to canal & irrigation systems –Nomadic attacks Moral: China’s view (long lasting) Centralization = unity = peace (stability) VS. Decentralization = civil war
Song Dynasty (969-1279CE) Taizu reunited China under the Song –Failed to defeat border nomads – sets legacy of weakness Politics –Not as strong politically or militarily as the Tang –Strong support of Confucian values Neo-Confucianism – emphasis on high morality, hostility to foreign influence, stress on tradition (stifled innovation), authority of men CHARACTERISTICS/ACHIEVEMENTS: –Scholar-gentry class dominates abuses in civil service exam develop –Paper money –Arts & commerce –11C Needle compass (3rd century - South pointer)
Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE Northern Song (960-1127) Based in Kaifeng Southern Song (1127-1279) Based in Hangzhou Move South due to barbarian pressure from the North
Status of Women Tang Dynasty – More influence on family affairs – Wives/mothers-in-law = managed homes/servants – BUT – still subordinate in accordance to Confucian tradition Song Dynasty -Less active in politics/public -Footbinding emerges – What impact do you think this had on women’s status? BUT – retained (kept) property rights
Footbinding: indicator of change of role of women
Regional and age differences in role of women The emergence of a new ideal of the "willow- waisted woman," a stronger advocacy against widow remarriage, the presence of some bound feet in Southern Song all suggest a decline in status of women. However, the control women gained over property, their ability to inherit, their control of family budgets, and of their children's education show that older women were not without authority.
Culture Made refinements in the ideal of the universal man –combined the qualities of scholar, poet, painter, and statesman –Song intellectuals sought answers to all philosophical and political questions in the Confucian Classics. –This renewed interest in the Confucianism coincided with the decline of Buddhism Seen as offering few practical guidelines for the solution of political and other mundane problems.
End of Song Dynasty/Beginning of Yuan Dynasty: Mongol Empire ( 1271 – 1368) Heavy dependence on growth of civilian government at expense of military –By 1127, the Song court could not push back the Northern nomadic invaders –Surrounded by north ‘empires’ Invasion of Mongols from North What impact do you think foreign rule might have on China’s society?