3 Early Dynasties Shang Dynasty1766-1122 Zhou Dynasty1122-221 Last 400yrs - warring statesQin Dynasty BCEShi huangdi (1st emperor)Legalist philosophyFirst coinage, writing system,CensorshipLasts 15 yearsChina- in 2,000 years - 23 dynasties - 9 important ones
4 Han Dynasty Classical period Confucian based society (five relationships)Merit system-bureaucrats (meritocracy)Paper & porcelain inventedFor 400 years after fall of Han - time of great troubles…Buddhism becomes popular in this period – Why?
5 Post-Han China Period of the Six Dynasties (220-589CE) Bureaucracy collapsedBuddhism gained strength, replacing ConfucianismNon-Chinese nomads rule much Chinese territory
6 Era of Division vs. Sui-Tang Small warring statesperiod of Buddhist dominanceloss of imperial centralizationloss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracySui-Tang:return to centralized administrationunified empirereconstruction of bureaucracyreconstruction of Confucian scholar-gentry at expense of both Buddhists and aristocracyrestoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state
7 Sui Dynasty (589-618CE) Sui dynasty established by Wendi Lowered taxesEstablished granaries – stable, cheap food supplyYangdi replaced his father, WendiBrought scholar-gentry back into the administrationBuilt the Grand CanalHow do you think the canal impacted life in China? Economically? Politically? Socially? Militarily?
8 Tang Dynasty (618-918) Tang Increased boundaries Heavy dependence on militarism
9 Tang Dynasty ( CE)First emperor & minister (Wei Zheng)- model of good ruleImperial power and moral restraint in theory - in practice hard to maintainTrade & commerce growPrinting developsArts- focus on landscape/natureGun powderWoodblock printingCapital city Chang’an (eternal peace) -walled cityArtistic / commercial & invention continues in Song era
11 Empress Wu Ruled for 50 years - 705 Reform of land system Biggest challenge deal with scholar/gentry and old aristocratsEconomy remained strong!Reform of land systemCivil exam systemBlow to noble classSocial mobilityConfucianism as official philosophy = cultural literacy uniting ChinaBuddhism – Wu spreads
12 Tang Xuanzong (The Profound Emperor) and Consort Yang
13 Decline of Tang - Losing the Mandate of Heaven Xuanzong(Empress Wu’s grandson)Patron of artsDecline due to lack of morality?Other reasons for decline- Equal land system breaks downPoor attention to canal & irrigation systemsNomadic attacksMoral: China’s view(long lasting)Centralization = unity = peace (stability)VS.Decentralization = civil war
14 Song Dynasty (969-1279CE) Taizu reunited China under the Song Politics Failed to defeat border nomads – sets legacy of weaknessPoliticsNot as strong politically or militarily as the TangStrong support of Confucian valuesNeo-Confucianism – emphasis on high morality, hostility to foreign influence, stress on tradition (stifled innovation), authority of menCHARACTERISTICS/ACHIEVEMENTS:Scholar-gentry class dominatesabuses in civil service exam developPaper moneyArts & commerce11C Needle compass (3rd century - South pointer)
15 Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE Northern Song (960-1127) Based in KaifengSouthern Song ( )Based in HangzhouMove South due to barbarian pressure from the North
16 Status of Women Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty More influence on family affairsWives/mothers-in-law = managed homes/servantsBUT – still subordinate in accordance to Confucian traditionSong Dynasty-Less active in politics/public-Footbinding emerges – What impact do you think this had on women’s status?BUT – retained (kept) property rights
17 Footbinding: indicator of change of role of women
18 Regional and age differences in role of women The emergence of a new ideal of the "willow-waisted woman," a stronger advocacy against widow remarriage, the presence of some bound feet in Southern Song all suggest a decline in status of women.However, the control women gained over property, their ability to inherit, their control of family budgets, and of their children's education show that older women were not without authority.
19 Culture Made refinements in the ideal of the universal man combined the qualities of scholar, poet, painter, and statesmanSong intellectuals sought answers to all philosophical and political questions in the Confucian Classics.This renewed interest in the Confucianism coincided with the decline of BuddhismSeen as offering few practical guidelines for the solution of political and other mundane problems.
20 What impact do you think foreign rule might have on China’s society? End of Song Dynasty/Beginning of Yuan Dynasty: Mongol Empire (1271 – 1368)Heavy dependence on growth of civilian government at expense of militaryBy 1127, the Song court could not push back the Northern nomadic invadersSurrounded by north ‘empires’Invasion of Mongols from NorthWhat impact do you think foreign rule might have on China’s society?