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Han Dynasty Overview of Political History Political Philosophy Scholar-Gentry Conquering Geography Expansion and Contact with Nomads Trade and the Silk.

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Presentation on theme: "Han Dynasty Overview of Political History Political Philosophy Scholar-Gentry Conquering Geography Expansion and Contact with Nomads Trade and the Silk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Han Dynasty Overview of Political History Political Philosophy Scholar-Gentry Conquering Geography Expansion and Contact with Nomads Trade and the Silk Road Peasants Family/Gender Invention/Innovation Rome vs. Han

2 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Power Struggles Resentment from… Treasury

3 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Power Struggles Resentment from… Treasury Rebellion Vassals vs. Burs Peasants and Aristocrats Winner: Liu Bang

4 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Power Struggles Resentment from… Treasury Rebellion Vassals vs. Burs Peasants and Aristocrats Winner: Liu Bang Liu Bang Misspent Youth  Village Headman  Rebel General Talent Emperor in 202 Liu Pang, founder of the Han dynasty, surrounds and captures his main rival, Hsiang Nu.

5 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Power Struggles Resentment from… Treasury Rebellion Vassals vs. Burs Peasants and Aristocrats Winner: Liu Bang Liu Bang Misspent Youth  Village Headman  Rebel General Talent Emperor in 202 Liu Bang’s Rule (Gaozu): BCE A Move Back to Feudalism? Removed Unpopular Features (laws, taxes, econ) Kept Centralized Admin “You won the world from horseback, but can you rule it from horseback?”

6 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Power Struggles Resentment from… Treasury Rebellion Vassals vs. Burs Peasants and Aristocrats Winner: Liu Bang Liu Bang Misspent Youth  Village Headman  Rebel General Talent Emperor in 202 Liu Bang’s Rule (Gaozu): BCE A Move Back to Feudalism? Removed Unpopular Features (laws, taxes, econ) Kept Centralized Admin Han Wudi (Wu): BCE Benevolent Conf mold  Firmer Imperial Control “Martial Emperor” Further Weakens Nobility (Seizing land, inheritance, adopted heirs, officials) Gov’t Takeover of Econ Scholar Officials

7 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Rebellion Liu Bang Liu Bang’s Rule (Gaozu): BCE Han Wudi (Wu): BCE Interlude Early Han (206 BCE - 9 AD) Popular Uprisings Later Han ( AD)

8 Political History Overview of Political History Qin Problems Rebellion Liu Bang Liu Bang’s Rule (Gaozu): BCE Han Wudi (Wu): BCE Interlude Early Han (206 BCE - 9 AD) Popular Uprisings Later Han ( AD) Later Han Recovery Problems Nomadic Threat Increased Popular Burden Court Intrigue: wives’ families, eunuchs, scholar-gentry Generals/Local Officials Collapse

9 Political Philosophy Fate of Legalism Shi resentment Rescind Ban Milder Law Codes Legalism Blended into Han Philosophy

10 Political Philosophy Fate of Legalism Shi resentment Rescind Ban Milder Law Codes Legalism Blended into Han Philosophy Rise of Confucianism By end of 2 nd BCE Scholar-Gentry/Confucian Texts Service, Obedience, Moral Exemplar Shortcomings of Ruler

11 Political Philosophy Fate of Legalism Shi resentment Rescind Ban Milder Law Codes Legalism Blended into Han Philosophy Rise of Confucianism By end of 2 nd BCE Scholar-Gentry/Confucian Texts Service, Obedience, Moral Exemplar Shortcomings of Ruler Key Ideas Model of Governance: Monarchism Bureaucracy>Nobility Tianxia Shang Ren (Mythology of Emps; Sage Kings) Strict Correspondence between natural/human order Understanding Natural World Emperor and Natural World

12 Political Philosophy Fate of Legalism Shi resentment Rescind Ban Milder Law Codes Legalism Blended into Han Philosophy Rise of Confucianism By end of 2 nd BCE Scholar-Gentry/Confucian Texts Service, Obedience, Moral Exemplar Shortcomings of Ruler Key Ideas Model of Governance: Monarchism Bureaucracy>Nobility Tianxia Shang Ren (Mythology of Emps; Sage Kings) Strict Correspondence between natural/human order Understanding Natural World Emperor and Natural World

13 4. From Dong Zhongshu (Tung Chung-shu), Essays on Kingship HOW THE WAY OF THE KING JOINS THE TRINITY Those who in ancient times invented writing drew three lines and connected them through the middle, calling the character “king” [(to add later)]. The three lines are Heaven, earth, and man, and that which passes through the middle joins the principles of all three. Occupying the center of Heaven, earth, and man, passing through and joining all three—if he is not a king, who can do this? Thus the king is but the executor of Heaven. He regulates its seasons and brings them to completion. He patterns his actions on its commands and causes the people to follow them. When he would begin some enterprise, he observes its numerical laws. He follows its ways in creating his laws, observes its will, and brings all to rest in humanity. The highest humanity rests with Heaven, for Heaven is humaneness itself. It shelters and sustains all creatures. It transforms them and brings them to birth. The ruler holds the position of life and death over men; together with Heaven he holds the power of change and transformation. There is no creature that does not respond to the changes of Heaven. The changes of Heaven and earth are like the four seasons. When the wind of their love blows, then the air will be mild and the world team with life, but when the winds of their disfavor come forth, the air will be cold and all things die. When they are joyous the skies are warm and all things grow and flourish, but from their wrath comes the chill wind and all is frozen and shut up. THE THREEFOLD OBLIGATIONS OF THE RULER The ruler is the basis of the state. In administering the state, nothing is more effective for educating the people than reverence for the basis. If the basis is revered then the ruler may transform the people as though by supernatural power, but if the basis is not revered then the ruler will have nothing by which to lead his people. Then though he employ harsh penalties and severe punishments the people will not follow him. This is to drive the state to ruin, and there is no greater disaster. What do we mean by the basis? Heaven, earth, and man are the basis of all creatures. Heaven gives them birth, earth nourishes them, and man brings them to completion. Heaven provides them at birth with a sense of filial and brotherly love, earth nourishes them with clothing and food, and man completes them with rites and music. The three act together as hands and feet join to complete the body and none can be dispensed with.

14 5. Han Wendi (Wen-ti), On the Eclipse of the Sun I have heard that Heaven installs rulers to govern the people it creates and that it will warn a ruler with natural disasters if he has lost virtue or if his rule has become unjust. On the eleventh month of this year there was an eclipse of the sun. No natural disaster can be more serious than this: Heaven has reproached me! I have inherited the duty of protecting the temples of our imperial ancestors. A simple and insignificant person though I was, I was called to become the king of all people and scholars. I am solely responsible for all occurrences on earth, be they good or evil. In administering the vast empire, I am assisted by some of my closest minister-advisers. I have lost my virtue indeed as my inability to take care of my people has aroused the wrath of the sun, the moon, and the stars. Let it be known that immediately after this decree is issued, all of you should think seriously about my shortcomings and inform me on happenings that I have not been able to hear and see myself. Report your findings to me. directly! Moreover, you are urged to recommend to me the virtuous, the upright, the honest, and the out spoken so that I can benefit from their counsel and advice. Be it also decreed that all of you are to be diligent at your tasks and that you are to reduce taxes and corvée [enforced labor] duties among my subjects.

15 Revenge of the Shi: Scholar-Gentry Bureaucratic Structure Overview (Hierarchy, Career Burs, Merit-based) Size Hierarchy State hand in local rule

16 Revenge of the Shi: Scholar-Gentry Bureaucratic Structure Overview (Hierarchy, Career Burs, Merit-based) Size Hierarchy State hand in local rule Education: Scholar-Bureaucrats Merit-Based Education Privilege and Limitations

17 Revenge of the Shi: Scholar-Gentry Bureaucratic Structure Overview (Hierarchy, Career Burs, Merit-based) Size Hierarchy State hand in local rule Education: Scholar-Bureaucrats Merit-Based Education Privilege and Limitations Status/Land: Scholar-Gentry Three Social Strata Land/Wealth/Status

18 Military Expansion and Nomadic Contact Xiong Nu Who are they? Society Pastoral Nomadic Horses Social Structure Relations with Chinese

19 Military Expansion and Nomadic Contact Xiong Nu Who are they? Society Pastoral Nomadic Horses Social Structure Relations with Chinese Relationship with the Nomads Broad Context: trade, milit conflict, diplomacy Liu Bang: Gifts Han Wudi: Military

20 Military Expansion and Nomadic Contact Xiong Nu Who are they? Society Pastoral Nomadic Horses Social Structure Relations with Chinese Relationship with the Nomads Broad Context: trade, milit conflict, diplomacy Liu Bang: Gifts Han Wudi: Military Other Han Milit Expeds HugeArmies North Korea (108 BCE) SE Asia: Nam Viet (111 BCE) Central Asia

21 Military Expansion and Nomadic Contact Xiong Nu Who are they? Society Pastoral Nomadic Horses Social Structure Relations with Chinese Relationship with the Nomads Broad Context: trade, milit conflict, diplomacy Liu Bang: Gifts Han Wudi: Military Other Han Milit Expeds HugeArmies North Korea (108 BCE) SE Asia: Nam Viet (111 BCE) Central Asia Dealing with the Cost Auxiliary Forces, Milit Colonies, Gifts Gov’t Takeover of Econ Wudi Changes his Ways

22 Military Expansion and Nomadic Contact Xiong Nu Who are they? Society Pastoral Nomadic Horses Social Structure Relations with Chinese Relationship with the Nomads Broad Context: trade, milit conflict, diplomacy Liu Bang: Gifts Han Wudi: Military Other Han Milit Expeds HugeArmies North Korea (108 BCE) SE Asia: Nam Viet (111 BCE) Central Asia Dealing with the Cost Auxiliary Forces, Milit Colonies, Gifts Gov’t Takeover of Econ Wudi Changes his Ways Trade…

23 Trade and the Silk Road Trading Networks Milit Expansion  Contact with other states Wu gains control of routes Silk for “Western” goods

24 Trade and the Silk Road Trading Networks Milit Expansion  Contact with other states Wu gains control of routes Silk for “Western” goods Sericulture Feed Mulberry Leaves  Long threads  2000 cocoons per pound  Boil  Twist

25 Trade and the Silk Road Trading Networks Milit Expansion  Contact with other states Wu gains control of routes Silk for “Western” goods Sericulture Feed Mulberry Leaves  Long threads  2000 cocoons per pound  Boil  Twist Popularity of Silk Beauty Versatility Luxury Item Transcontinental Trade

26 Trade and the Silk Road Trading Networks Milit Expansion  Contact with other states Wu gains control of routes Silk for “Western” goods Sericulture Feed Mulberry Leaves  Long threads  2000 cocoons per pound  Boil  Twist Popularity of Silk Beauty Versatility Luxury Item Transcontinental Trade Trading at Home Growth of Towns Factors helping growth Different kinds of towns Status of Merchants

27 Invention/Innovation/Influence Inventions and Innovations Infrastructure Artisan Work: Brush Pen and Paper, Watermills, Compass Ag Techniques Science: Experiment vs. Theorizing Math: Finding Orderly Patterns Significance Worldwide through trade East/Central Asia: Pervasive Social Force

28 Comparison vs. Rome Similarities Population/Area Monarchs/Burs/Armies Nomads Infrastructure Cultural Assimilation of borderlands Similar Decline

29 Comparison vs. Rome Similarities Population/Area Monarchs/Burs/Armies Nomads Infrastructure Cultural Assimilation of borderlands Similar Decline Important Differences Linguistic/Cultural Diversity Political Philosophy

30 Conquering Geography The Problem of Massive Empires The Solution Land… Water… But still…

31 Peasants Advances in Peasant Productivity Tools/Tech Spread of Peasants

32 Peasants Advances in Peasant Productivity Tools/Tech Spread of Peasants Plight of Peasants Some lived well… Peasant Insecurity (SOURCE)

33 Peasants Advances in Peasant Productivity Tools/Tech Spread of Peasants Plight of Peasants Some lived well… Peasant Insecurity (SOURCE) Role of Gov’t Needs them independent/productive Efforts to Fight Poverty

34 Peasants Advances in Peasant Productivity Tools/Tech Spread of Peasants Plight of Peasants Some lived well… Peasant Insecurity (SOURCE) Role of Gov’t Needs them independent/productive Efforts to Fight Poverty Summary

35 Family/Gender Family Structure Similarities with Rome/India Distinct Chinese Practices

36 Family/Gender Family Structure Similarities with Rome/India Distinct Chinese Practices Women More Freedom than later Chinese society Still Subordinated (POEM on 93) Two Texts Ban Zhao—”Lessons for Women” “Biographies of Exemplary Women: Ideal


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