What impact did China have upon the World? How was China the focal point of Asia?
Sui Dynasty 589- Wendi –Unites northern and southern China –Buddhist –Lowered taxes –Granaries –Killed by son
Yangdi [son of Wendi] –Milder legal system –Promoted scholar-gentry in imperial administration by Upgrading Confucian education Scholar-gentry re-established Restored examination system –Grand Canal completed—helps to feed people 1 million build canal almost half die Thousands die rebuilding Great Wall Widespread revolts due to war losses In 618 he was murdered by his own ministers
Tang Dynasty 618-907 Reconquers lands in north and west Extends influence to Korea Empress Wu –Only woman to hold title of emperor Expanded roads and canals Promoted foreign trade Promoted agricultural improvements
Confucianism during the Tang Dynasty What role did it play? How were the Scholar-gentry involved with this? Was it exclusive? Was it monitored?
Civil Service examination revived Scholar-gentry Special status for office holders Jinshi = highest offices achieved by passing the more difficult exams on Chinese literature. Family connection still helpful.
The Examination System What was its purpose? Who administered the exams? What were the exams based upon? What does the phrase “examining the examined” have to do with the exams? What was the role of families and birth?
Foundations of the scholar- gentry class: 1.wealth—primarily through land ownership 2.degree holding—passing exam
Religion Strong social, economic, and political force Early Tang continued to patronize Buddhism while promoting Confucian classics State patronage of Confucian learning threatened old aristocratic families and Buddhist monastic orders –Mahayana or pure land Refuge from war and turmoil –Chan or Zen Appealed to educated Meditation and appreciated for natural beauty
Empress Wu and Buddhism –Tries to elevate it to status of state religion –Commissions Buddhist paintings and sculptures
Anti-Buddhist Backlash Attacked by Confucian and Daoist rivals Scholar-administrators—they posed economic challenge to imperial order –because monastic land not taxed and therefore they lost revenue –Lost labor power because they could not conscript peasants who worked on monastic estates Restrictions imposed on land and resources for monastic orders Restrictions grew into persecution –Thousands of monasteries and shrines destroyed –Monks and nuns forced to return to civilian life –Survived but never regained political and economic influence
Buddhist-Confucian Conflict Early Tang acceptance of Buddhism –Which leader strengthened it in China? Monastery construction Was this a threat? Yes! To who? Why? Results What was the “new” central ideology that emerged?
Fall of Tang or (Blame it on a Woman) Poor leadership--Yang Guifei leads emperor astray
Fall of Tang Heavy taxation burdens people but still not enough for military and building projects –751 defeat at Battle of Talas River against Muslims An Lushan led unsuccessful revolt 755 Worsening economic conditions Border attacks and rebellion 907 capital sacked
Song Dynasty 960-1279 Paid tributes to northern enemies but failed to stop threat –Khitans from Manchuria Their Liao dynasty recognized the Song’s cultural superiority (Sinified)
Confucian scholar-gentry gain power and status –Number of bureaucrats grew High pay Little to do Now in the Song era, the bureaucrats are finally more powerful than the aristocratic families and the Buddhists With the stress on Confucianism
Neo Confucianism –Stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action –Personal morality highest goal –Virtue could be attained through book learning and personal observation –Hostility to foreign philosophical systems Less receptive to foreign influences and ideas Stifles innovation and critical thinking as time passes –Emphasis on rank, tradition, obligation Reinforced class, age, and gender distinctions –Patriarchal
Effects of Neo-Confucianism which endure today 1. simplified rituals and behaviours for each segment of society 2. strengthen patriarchy 3. spiritual needs acknowledged 4. reinforce hierarchies
Decline of Song Challenges from nomadic peoples from north continued –Tribute for protection costly –Cost of army Emphasis on civil administration and scholar-gentry Funds diverted from military needs to scholarly and entertainment pursuits
Wang Anshi as Chief Minister Reforms –Legalist basis –Cheap loans and government assisted irrigation projects to promote agricultural growth –Taxed landlord and scholarly class who had been exempted from military service –Used money to establish well trained army –Education emphasized critical thinking rather than rote memorization of classics Lost support and reforms reversed Neo-Confucians came to wield greater influence and ended Wang’s attempts at reform
Southern Song Jurchens overthrow Khitans and establish Jin Dynasty in 1127 Overran Song territory to the Yangtze Valley Southern Song –Rapid economic growth –Merchants grew rich from trade –Culturally the most glorious era in Chinese history
Changes in China Population doubled from Tang-Song –100 million –10 cities with 1 million –Agricultural Advances new type of rice helped to feed growing population
Agrarian Production Peasants encouraged to move to uncultivated areas State regulated irrigation Canals increased markets for crops New types of rice to feed growing population Manures Wheelbarrow Policies to redistribute land from large landholders to free peasants –Weakened powerful aristocracy
Commercial Organization and Imperial Supervision Cities’ market quarters—local products, artisan production, overseas trade goods Hours and marketing measures regulated Guilds “deposit shops”—first use of paper money (flying money) credit Changan, Song capital
Silk Road Linked China with west for growing trade
Arab dhow Chinese junks Watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, oars, sails, compasses, bamboo fenders, gunpowder-propelled rockets for self-defense.
Poetry and Art Tang poetry –Praised Confucian virtues and orderliness Song art –Daoist influence –Use of black ink
Changes in Society More mobile as more move to cities Civil service=advancement –Old aristocratic family power declined –Scholar-gentry--officials rose in status –Education rather than land ownership gave status Urban middle class –Merchants, shopkeepers, skilled artisans, minor officials Urban lower class –Laborers, soldiers, servants Peasants –Toiled for wealthy landowners
Women Always seen as subservient to men Decline more during Tang and Song –Especially upper class in cities Women’s work less important to family’s prosperity and status Foot binding –Peasant women affected less as they worked fields and helped produce food and income