Post-Han China Period of the Six Dynasties (220-589CE) Bureaucracy collapsed Buddhism gained strength, replacing Confucianism Non-Chinese nomads rule much Chinese territory
Sui Dynasty (589-618CE) Established by Wendi Followed by Yangdi Reunification under the Sui and Tang Sui Empire reunified China Established a government based on Confucianism but heavily influenced by Buddhism Sui’s rapid decline and fall may have been due to its having spent large amounts of resources on a number of ambitious construction, canal, irrigation, and military projects The Tang Empire: 618 CE Tang state carried out a program of territorial expansion, avoided over-centralization Tang emphasized Confucian tradition
Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) Li Yuan Tang armies extend to Afghanistan, parts of Tibet, Red River Valley in present-day Vietnam, and Manchuria dominating nomads on borders
Xuanzang returning to Chang'an Buddhism in Tang Xuanzang returning to Chang'an Buddhism and the Tang Empire Tang emperors legitimized their rule with Buddhist ideas -Monasteries were important allies of early Tang emperors Mahayana Buddhism -More flexible, adaptable Buddhism spread through Central and East Asia -Followed trade routes -Chang’an central to trade routes -Chang’an = cosmopolitan city
Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) Rebuilt Bureaucracy Confucian (restored) Political authority shared Examination System—Ministry of Rites Training Some commoners Granted them special social status
Tang Dynasty Gossip… Empress Wu Empress Wei Females in general
East Asia After Fall of Han After the fall of the Tang, a number of new states emerged in the former Tang territory: the Liao, the Jin, and the Chinese Song. As the Liao and Jin cut the Chinese off from Central Asia, the Song developed seafaring and strengthened contacts with Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
Industrial Revolution Many mathematic and navigation advancements during the Song dynasty: 1. Song inventors improved the previously invented compass, making it suitable for seafaring. 2. Shipbuilding, the Song introduced the sternpost rudder and watertight bulkheads Ship innovations were later adopted in the Persian Gulf. 3. Standing, professionally trained, regularly paid military. Iron and coal = important strategic resources for military. large amounts of high-grade iron and steel for weapons, armor, and defensive works GUNPOWDER!
Cities during the Song Example: Hangzhou Crowded but well-managed Scholars, monks, shopkeepers Restaurants, parks
Song Dynasty (969-1279CE) Decline Nomads on the borders Neo-Confucianism weakens the military Poor leadership—Wang Anshi’s reforms of the 11 th Century Mongols – eventually invade Song China
Legacies – Tang and Song Grand Canal Commercial Expansion (Silk Road, Urban Centers) Agricultural Production Family (male-dominated households Technology (compass, junk, printing) Art (poetry!) Bureaucracy was re-established
Women vs. Men: Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism Roles of women and men (Neo- Confucians) Advocated confining women Men—permitted far more sexual freedom Women: less educated, “homemakers” Laws favored men
Foot-binding Counterpart to veiling in Islam? Small feet preferred At the age of 5-6, a girl’s toes were turned under and bound with silk. It was wound more tightly as she grew. Greatly impaired a woman’s ability to walk. Easier to confine.
Question As part of the Tang ___________ system, participating countries sent embassies to the Tang capital to acknowledge the Chinese emperor’s supremacy. A.examination B.exchange C.tributary D.colonization
Answer As part of the Tang ___________ system, participating countries sent embassies to the Tang capital to acknowledge the Chinese emperor’s supremacy. A.examination B.exchange C.tributary (correct) D.colonization Hint: See page 314.
Question The most dramatic change in the status of Chinese women during the Song dynasty was manifested by A.footbinding. B.admittance of women into the military. C.veiling. D.the introduction of education for women.
Answer The most dramatic change in the status of Chinese women during the Song dynasty was manifested by A.footbinding. (correct) B.admittance of women into the military. C.veiling. D.the introduction of education for women. Hint: See page 327.
Question The hostility of Tang elites to ___________ resulted in an incalculable cultural loss to China. A.Confucianism B.educated women C.Buddhism D.Islam
Answer The hostility of Tang elites to ___________ resulted in an incalculable cultural loss to China. A.Confucianism B.educated women C.Buddhism (correct) D.Islam Hint: See page 319.