Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EMPIRES OF THE “OTHER” Part Two: China. Writing into the day: What does it mean for a culture to be isolated? In what ways doe China Appear to be isolated.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EMPIRES OF THE “OTHER” Part Two: China. Writing into the day: What does it mean for a culture to be isolated? In what ways doe China Appear to be isolated."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMPIRES OF THE “OTHER” Part Two: China

2 Writing into the day: What does it mean for a culture to be isolated? In what ways doe China Appear to be isolated from the rest of the world during the post classical period? (possible test question) In what ways is China connected with the rest of the world during the post classical period? (possible test question!) In this unit I have referred to China as being on the “periphery” of the civilized world during the post- classical period? Is this true? Why or why not? Why do you think that we in the western world have adopted this Euro-centric view of the world?

3 VideoVideo Questions 1.Does anything in this film surprise you? 2.In what specific ways did eastern and western culture fuse in Greco-Buddhism? 3.Greco-Buddhism refers to the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture‍ and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BCE and the 5th century CE, and is a part of a new trend in research on‍ links between Buddhism and the Alexandrine world. In what ways does this change some of our historical notions of how classical and postclassical societies interacted with each other? What is the value in constantly reconsidering historical data and formulating new conclusions?

4

5

6 I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras The Sui dynasty came out of the Nor5thern Zhou empire. Wendi, a member of a prominent family struck up an alliance with the Zhou and seized power, forming the Sui dynasty. He lowered taxes and built up the Infrastructure by establishing granaries throughout the empire, thus providing a reserve food supply and garnering widespread support. His major military victories including the defeat of the Chen empire in eastern China. A. Sui Excesses and Collapse -Yangdi was Wendi’s son and took the throne by murdering his father. -He established a milder legal code and advocated for Confucian education. -Scholar-gentry was an emerging class of intellectuals who competed with the power of the aristocracy. -Yangdi began the trend of sui dynasty excesses by undertaking massive construction projects, such as a capital at Loyang. -The grand canal was an 1100 mile canal built to connect the Yellow and Yangtze river for the purposes of trade. -Yangdi’s military accomplishments were significant, making war as far as Korea in the north and Vietnam in the south. His defeat by Turkic nomads in inner Asia coupled with losses in Korea weakened the dynasty tremendously, leading ultimately to Yangdi’s assassination at the hands of his own ministers.

7 I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras (continued) B. The Emergence of the Tang and the Restoration of the Empire -Li Yuan, Duke of Tang rebelled against the Sui dynasty only after becoming disillusioned by the excesses of its leaders. -Conquering territory deep into Asia, all the way to modern Afghanistan, Li Yuan rebuilt the empire and established the Tang dynasty -The Empire extended to Tibet in the west and re-annexed the Yangtze river basin in the south for the first time since the Han dynasty. C. Rebuilding the Bureaucracy -loyal and well educated officials from the scholar gentry helped to rebuild the bureaucracy. -Through the building of the bureaucracy an executive department was formed, divided into 6 ministries including war, justice, and public works

8 I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras (continued) E. State and Religion in the Tang and Song Eras -Confucianism and Buddhism were potential rivals for several reasons. Primarily the rigid social tenants of Confucianism put an emphasis on following a strict code and maintaining social order. Buddhism was a significantly more free religion, teaching more equality in terms of societal structure and in particular with regards to women. -Theravada Buddhism focused primarily on meditation and concentration, the eighth of the Eightfold Noble Path; as a result, it centered on a monastic life and an extreme expenditure of time in meditating. This left little room for the bulk of humanity to join in, so a new schism erupted within the ranks of Buddhism in the first century AD, one that would attempt to reformulate the teachings of Buddha to accommodate a greater number of people. They called their new Buddhism, the "Greater Vehicle" (literally, "The Greater Ox-Cart") or Mahayana, since it could accommodate more people and more believers from all walks of life. They distinguished themselves from mainstream Theravada Buddhism by contemptuously referring to Theravada as Hinayana, or "The Lesser Vehicle."

9 I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras (continued) E. State and Religion in the Tang and Song Eras -Mahayana Buddhism- The Mahayanists claimed to be recovering the original teachings of Buddha, in much the same way that the Protestant reformers of sixteenth century Europe claimed that they were not creating a new Christianity but recovering the original form. Adapting local religions and adopted customs of the local villages was a common practice with the Mahayana. (This approach was similar top that of Islam in southeast Asia and Christianity in western Europe.) -The idea of the bodhisattva was one of the most important innovations of Mahayana Buddhism. The boddhisattva, or "being of wisdom," was originally invented to explain the nature of Buddha's earlier lives. Before Buddha entered his final life as Siddhartha Gautama, he had spent many lives working towards Buddhahood. In these previous lives he was a bodhisattva, a kind of "Buddha-in-waiting," that performed acts of incredible generosity, joy, and compassion towards his fellow human beings. An entire group of literature grew up around these previous lives of Buddha, called the Jataka or "Birth Stories." -Chan (Zen) Buddhism stresses meditation and an appreciation of natural and artistic beauty. This appealed to the educated classes of China.

10 I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras (continued) Empress Wu Buddhism encouraged women in politics, and Wu Zhao was a venerated tang leader and this flew in the face of Confucian custom. Interestingly, gender conflict is still a major issue in China today. Wu married into the imperial family, seized control of the government in 690 declared herself emperor. She based her legitimacy on Mahayana Buddhism, claiming to be a bodhisattva. She favored Buddhists over Confucianists in her government. Later Confucian writers expressed contempt for wu, leading to her vilification (we tend to do this with strong women). One such writer lamented that her influence caused “the hearts of fathers and mothers everywhere not to value the birth of boys, but the birth of girls.”

11 II. Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song Emperor Xuanzong marked the peak of chinese civilazation under the tang dynasty The 755 revolt was led by An Lushan due to the Tang dynasty losing control and allowing disorder to spread. A. The Founding of the Song Dynasty -200 years after the 755 revolt and the decline of the Tang, scholar general Zhao Kuangyin led to the formation of the song (soong)dynasty

12 II. Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song (continued) B and C: Song Politics: Settling for Partial Restoration Again, the Scholar-gentry will regain power. This neo-Confucianism stressed tradition, personal morality, and hostility toward foreign influences. Women are again relegated to a lower status.

13 Writing into the day: What does it mean for a culture to be isolated? In what ways doe China Appear to be isolated from the rest of the world during the post classical period? (possible test question) In what ways is China connected with the rest of the world during the post classical period? (possible test question!) In this unit I have referred to China as being on the “periphery” of the civilized world during the post- classical period? Is this true? Why or why not? Why do you think that we in the western world have adopted this Euro-centric view of the world?

14 II. Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song (continued) D. Roots of Decline: The mandate of heaven will be lost again! -Khitan independence encouraged other nomadic peoples to carve out kingdoms on the northern borders of the Song empire. -Tangut tribes, originally from Tibet, had established a kingdom named Xi Xia in the southwest. The Song had to pay them tribute to gaurd their northern borders. -Wang Anshi-A song minister who tried to institute sweeping bureaucratic reforms to delay the inevitable collapse of the empire. Government financed irrigation projects and agricultural expansion wee among the reforms implemented. E. Reaction and Disaster: The Flight to the South In 1085, The emperor who Wang worked under died, and with his death the neo-Confucians retook control, and the reforms of Wnag ended. -The Jurchens established the Jin kingdom in the north of Song territory. Though the Song dynasty technically lasted for another century, all real power had ended.

15 III. Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age A. A New Phase of Commercial Expansion Silk routes reopened: Sea trade (and identify junks): Commerce expands: Urban growth: B. Expanding Agrarian Production and Life in the Country What New areas were cultivated and why was this important? Describe Aristocratic estates:

16 III. Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age (continued) C. Family and Society in the Tang-Song Era Identify Marriage brokers: Describe the opportunities of Elite women: What was the role of divorce? D. The Neo-Confucian Assertion of Male Dominance In what ways did Neo-Confucians reduce role of women? Describe Confinement of women: Describe the education of women: Describe Foot binding and explain its significance in the rihts and freedoms of women:

17 III. Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age (continued) E. A Glorious Age: Invention and Artistic Creativity How was the Economy stimulated? Explain the importance of Explosives: Compasses: Abacus: What was the significance of Bi Sheng? F. Scholarly Refinement and Artistic Accomplishment Scholar-gentry key Describe the change in art: Identify Li Bo: What were common themes in Poetry and art?


Download ppt "EMPIRES OF THE “OTHER” Part Two: China. Writing into the day: What does it mean for a culture to be isolated? In what ways doe China Appear to be isolated."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google