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LEACH Week 11 Lecture 2 5/7/2015LEACHFolie 1 von XYZ.

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Presentation on theme: "LEACH Week 11 Lecture 2 5/7/2015LEACHFolie 1 von XYZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 LEACH Week 11 Lecture 2 5/7/2015LEACHFolie 1 von XYZ

2 5/7/2015 Outline 1.Preface. 2.Problem Definition. 3.LEACH Assumptions. 4.LEACH Protocol Architecture. 1.Determining Cluster Head nodes. 2.Set-up phase. 3.Steady State phase. 4.LEACH Protocol Variations (LEACH-C, LEACH-F). 5.Simulations of LEACH. 6.Conclusion. 7.References. LEACH2

3 5/7/2015 Basic fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Network 1.Small 2.Cheap 3.Efficient of Energy LEACH3

4 5/7/2015 Requirement Design of Wireless Sensor Network From book Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network 1.Type of Service 2.Quality of Service 3.Fault Tolerant 4.Life Time 5.Scalability 6.Range of Density 7.Programability 8.Maintainability LEACH4

5 5/7/2015 Problem Definition in WSN Ease of Deployment Sensor Network may contain hundreds untill thousands node System Life Time Long life time as possible. Latency Data distribution is time sensitive Quality Reduce same redundant data between nodes LEACH5

6 5/7/2015 Assumption Radio characteristics 1.Same energy dissipation in transmit and receive circuitry 2.r 2 Energy loss due to channel transmission 3.Radio channel is symmetric Sensor Characteristics 1.Sensors are sensing environments at fixed rate 2.Sensors communicate among each other and to the base station 3.All sensors are homogenous and have energy-constraint Base Station 1.Base station is fixed 2.Base station is located far from sensors LEACH6

7 5/7/2015 LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) 1.Self-Organizing, adaptive clustering protocol. 2.Even distribution of energy load among the sensors. 3.Dynamic cluster formation. 4.Randomized rotation of cluster heads after each round. 5.Cluster-heads communicate data with the base station. 6.Application-specific data processing, such as data aggregation. LEACH7

8 5/7/2015 LEACH – Architecture LEACH8

9 5/7/2015 Phase Life of Leach Protocol Each Leach operation round consists of  Set-up phase (clusters are organized).  Cluster Head Selection.  Cluster Formation.  Steady state Phase (data transmission). Timeline showing LEACH operation [6] LEACH9

10 Setup phase  At the beginning of each round, each node advertises it probability, (depending upon its current energy level) to be the Cluster Head, to all other nodes.  Nodes (k for each round) with higher probabilities are chosen as the Cluster Heads.  Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.  Based on the received signal strength, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round (random selection with obstacle).  Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.  Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster. 5/7/2015LEACH10

11 5/7/2015 Flow graph for Setup phase[6] LEACH11

12 Cluster Head Selection Algorithm[6] P i (t) is the probability with which node i elects itself to be Cluster Head at the beginning of the round r+1 (which starts at time t) such that expected number of cluster-head nodes for this round is k. (1) k = number of clusters during each round. N = number of nodes in the network. 5/7/2015LEACH12

13 Cluster Head Selection Algorithm [6]  Each node will be Cluster Head once in N/k rounds (Round #1,2,3 … Round #N/K, then Round #1, #2, …). -- N/K also means cluster size ! – In each cluster, each sensor has equal chance to become CH.  Probability for each node i to be a cluster-head at time t (2) C i (t) = it determines whether node i has been a Cluster Head in current round cycle (Total: r rounds; every N/K rounds we form a “cycle”; In each cycle each node should become CH ONLY ONCE). k = number of clusters during each round. N = number of nodes in the network. 5/7/2015LEACH13 If in a “cycle “(it has N’K rounds) a sensor has become CH, it shouldn’t be CH again in the current “cycle”. Let’s assume N=100 nodes; K= 5 clusters. In each round we select 5 nodes out of 100 to be CHs. Suppose r =19 rounds already passed. That is, 5 * 19 =95 nodes already became CHs once. N/K = 20 rounds in each big cycle. All nodes should be a CH ONCE per big cycle. Pi(t) = 5 / (100-5*( 19 mod 20)) = 5 / (100-5*19) = 5/5 = 1. This means 5 remaining nodes should 100% be CHs.

14 Cluster Head Selection Algorithm[6] (3) = total no. of nodes eligible to be a cluster-head at time t. This ensures energy at each node to be approx. equal after every N/k rounds. Using (2) and (3), expected no of Cluster Heads per round is, (4) 5/7/2015LEACH14

15 Cluster Formation Algorithm [2]  Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.  ADV = node’s ID + distinguishable header.  Based on the received signal strength of ADV message, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round (random selection with obstacle).  Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.  Join-REQ = node’s ID + cluster-head ID + header.  Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster.  TDMA Schedule  Prevents collision among data messages.  Energy conservation in non cluster-head nodes. 5/7/2015LEACH15

16 Original thesis 5/7/2015LEACH16 Has been a CH in last N/K rounds; we said “ be a CH once per N/K rounds”. Thus P(t)=0 k: Each round has k CHs ! N/k means the length of a “small round cyle” ! (r mod N/k) means how many “small round cycles” passed. Note: We are looking at (r+1) –th round !!! (It means r rounds have passed, k -- # CHs in each round

17 5/7/2015LEACH17

18 5/7/2015LEACHFolie 18 von XYZ

19 Dynamic Cluster Formation 5/7/2015 Clusters at time tClusters at time t+d LEACH19

20 5/7/2015  TDMA schedule is used to send data from node to head cluster.  Head Cluster aggregates the data received from node cluster’s.  Communication is via direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and each cluster uses a unique spreading code to reduce inter-cluster interference.  Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA. Steady-State Phase Timeline showing LEACH operation [6] LEACH20

21 5/7/2015  Assumptions  Nodes are all time synchronized and start the setup phase at same time.  BS sends out synchronized pulses to the nodes.  Cluster Head must be awake all the time.  To reduce inter-cluster interference, each cluster in LEACH communicates using direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).  Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA. Steady-State Phase Timeline showing LEACH operation [6] LEACH21

22 Flow Chart for Steady Phase[6] 5/7/2015LEACH22

23 5/7/2015LEACHFolie 23 von XYZ

24 Sensor Data Aggregation  Data aggregation is performed on all the uncompressed data at cluster head.  Performing local data aggregation requires less energy than sending all the unprocessed data to the BS. »L:1 data compression. »E DA : energy dissipation per bit for data aggregation. »E TX : energy dissipation per bit to transmit to BS. 5/7/2015LEACH24

25 Sensor Data Aggregation [6]  L = 20, BS is 100m away, cost of commn. to BS = 1.05 X J /bit.  Result: when energy to perform DA < 1.05 X J, total energy dissipation of the system is less using data aggregation. 5/7/2015LEACH25

26 LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation  LEACH doesn’t guarantee cluster head spread in the network.  Centralized clustering algorithm for cluster formation.  Uniform distribution of Cluster Heads through out the network.  Uses same steady-state protocol as LEACH.  Set-up phase  Each node specifies its location(using GPS) and energy level to the BS.  BS runs an optimization algorithm to determine the cluster’s for that round.  BS determines optimal clusters and broadcasts a message containing cluster head ID for each node. 5/7/2015LEACH26

27 LEACH-F: Fixed Cluster, Rotating Cluster Head  Clusters are formed once using centralized cluster formation algorithm(LEACH-C) and are fixed.  Cluster Head position rotates among the nodes in the cluster.  BS determines optimal clusters and broadcasts a message containing cluster head ID for each node.  First node listed in the cluster becomes Cluster Head for first round.  Steady-state protocol is identical to LEACH protocol.  Advantage: No setup overhead at the beginning of each round.  Disadvantages  Requires more transmit power from nodes.  Increases energy dissipation of non CH node and inter-cluster interference.  Not practical for dynamic system.  Doesn’t handle node mobility. 5/7/2015LEACH27

28 LEACH Simulation [6] 5/7/2015LEACH node random test network

29 LEACH Simulation t round = 0.08 seconds * (E start / 9 mJ) E start : initial energy of the nodes. t round : time after which cluster-heads and associated clusters should be rotated 5/7/2015LEACH29

30 5/7/2015 LEACH – Simulation Result Energy dissipation System Lifetime LEACH30

31 5/7/2015 LEACH - System Life Time After 1200 rounds Live nodes (circled) Dead nodes (dotted) LEACH31

32 5/7/2015 LEACH – Results 1.Factor of 7 reduction in energy dissipation as compared to Direct Communication 2.Uniform distribution of energy-usage in the network 3.Doubles the system lifetime compared to other methods 4.Nodes die essentially in random fashion, thus maintain the network coverage LEACH32

33 5/7/2015 LEACH-Centralized (Leach-C ): Base Station Cluster Formation Mechanism Send data about position and energy level to the Base Station Base Station are calculating Energy consume that needed Base Station define cluster head and cluster node with the ID number and also cluster area. In fact.. LEACH-C delivers 40% more data per unit energy than LEACH LEACH33

34 5/7/2015 LEACH-C : Simulation Result Total amount of data received at the BS over time. Number of nodes alive per amount of data sent to the BS LEACH34

35 5/7/2015 LEACH – Pros Pros 1.As Hierarchical Topology, LEACH is fundamental algorithm design. 2.Theoretical analysis go well with the simulation results. 3.Better energy utilization and system life time. 4.The algorithm provides prolonged network coverage ( low latency ). LEACH35

36 5/7/2015 LEACH –Cons Cons 1.The simulations are still to be performed using the Network simulator 2.Fault-tolerance issues – when nodes fail or behave unexpectedly 3.The paper assumes all the nodes begin with same energy – this assumption may not be realistic LEACH36

37 Optimal percentage of cluster heads  If number of cluster-heads is less than k, some nodes have to transmit very far to reach the cluster head, large global energy.  If number of cluster-heads is more than k, distance does not reduce substantially, more cluster heads have to transmit the long haul distances to the base station, hence compression is less. 5/7/2015LEACH37

38 LEACH Simulation 5/7/2015LEACH38

39 5/7/2015 Reference 1.Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, Chandrakasan Anantha, and Balakrishnan Hari. Energy- Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks. In IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 4-7, 2000, Maui, Hawaii. 2.Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, Chandrakasan Anantha, and Balakrishnan Hari. An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks. IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communication, Vol. 1, No. 4, October Handy. M. J, Haase. M, Timmermann. D. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head Selection. IEEE International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks, 2002, Stockholm. 4.Yrjölä Juhana. Summary of Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, 13th March Karl Holger, Willig Andreas. Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network, John Willey and Sons Ltd, W. Heinzelman, “Application-specific protocol architectures for wireless networks,” Ph.D. dissertstion, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge, LEACH39


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