Presentation on theme: "RESPONSE to LITERATURE Analyzing a Theme TAKE NOTES"— Presentation transcript:
1RESPONSE to LITERATURE Analyzing a Theme TAKE NOTES
2To analyze means to break down a topic into smaller parts and determine how the parts relate to one another.
3Sportswriters are often asked to analyze sporting events.
4For example, a baseball writer may break down a particular game according to three main parts – fielding, pitching, and hitting – and then determine how each part contributed to a team’s overall performances.
5Objective Analyze the theme or main point of a short story.
6You will base your essay on a close examination of two key elements – the plot (key events) and characterization (the thoughts and actions of the main character).
7Writing Guidelines Subject:. A short story Form:. Essay Purpose: Writing Guidelines Subject: A short story Form: Essay Purpose: To analyze a theme Audience: Classmates
9In literature, the theme is usually a lesson learned or a statement about life.
10Sometimes the theme is openly stated in the story but more often it is not.
11In some long pieces of literature, there may be more than one significant theme.
12One way to think about literary themes is to consider lessons that are often learned from experience.
13For example, in To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout Finch learns not to prejudge people.
14Study the following cluster of life lessons Study the following cluster of life lessons. Some of these lessons are familiar proverbs.
15It is better to give than receive. Never give up on a dream. Life LessonsIt is better to give than receive.Never give up on a dream.People are responsible for their own actions.Hard work pays off.Look before you leap.Silence is golden.Treat others the way you want to be treated.
23The topic sentence introduces the author, the story, and the theme. The theme of “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry is love means making sacrifices. The main character’s actions and decisions support this theme. A husband and wife named Jim and Della want to give each
24The sentences in the body focus on the main characters’ actions. other a special holiday gift, even though they are poor. Della wants to give Jim a gold chain for his gold watch, and Jim wants to give Della a set of expensive combs for her beautiful, long hair. Jim and Della both sacri-The sentences in the body focus on the main characters’ actions.
25The sentences in the body focus on the main characters’ actions. fice something they treasure. Della’s prized possession is her hair, but she has it cut and sells it to a wig maker so she can afford to buy a gold chain for Jim’s watch. Jim’s prized possession is his goldThe sentences in the body focus on the main characters’ actions.
26The closing sentence analyzes the theme. watch, but he sells it to buy Della special combs for her hair. When they open their gifts, each of them realizes the sacrifice that the other has made. In the end, their best gift is knowing that they love each otherThe closing sentence analyzes the theme.
27so much that they would sacrifice their prized possessions for one another.
31Write a thesis statement that explains your interpretation of theme of the story. Then select specific details to support the statement.ideas
32Write clear beginning, middle, and ending paragraphs Write clear beginning, middle, and ending paragraphs. Use transitions to effectively connect sentences and paragraphs.organization
33Sound interested in, and knowledgeable about, the story you are analyzing. voice
34Quote words and phrases from the story that support the theme Quote words and phrases from the story that support the theme. Use literary terms that reveal your understanding of the story.Word choice
35Write sentences that read well and flow smoothly. Sentence fluency
36Correct all punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and grammar errors. conventions
376 ideasThe ideas show a complete understanding of the reading.5 The essay has a clear focus statement and necessary supporting details.OrganizationAll the parts work together to create an insightful essay.VoiceThe voice expresses interest and complete understanding. It engages the reader.Word ChoiceThe word choice reflects careful thinking about the reading.Sentence FluencyThe sentences in the essay make the ideas really stand out.ConventionsGrammar and punctuation are correct, and the copy is free of all errors.
413. Looking at the beginning, middle, and ending of the story, find the key plot events and the characters’ actions that reveal the main theme.
424. Write a clear thesis statement about the theme.
435. Decide how to organize the information in your middle paragraphs.
446. Write a topic sentence for each middle paragraph.
45Prewriting: Find topic ideas Prewriting: Find topic ideas. A graphic organizer like the following ideas chart can help you think of possible stories to write about. This chart lists favorite stories, a statement about the basic plot in each story, and a comment about the main character.
46WHAT THE MAIN CHARACTER IS LIKE IDEAS CHARTSTORY AND AUTHORWHAT THE STORY IS ABOUTWHAT THE MAIN CHARACTER IS LIKE“The Birds” by Daphne du MaurierSwarms of birds attack a family living on the coast of England.Nat is a brave father who tries to protect his family.“Helen on Eighty-sixth Street” by Wendi KaufmanA girl tries to understand why her dad went away.Vita is very smart.“Thank You, Ma’m” by Langston HughesA teenage boy tries to rob an old lady, and she drags him home with her.Roger is a tough hid who is not so tough when he gets caught.
47WHAT THE MAIN CHARACTER IS LIKE IDEAS CHARTSTORY AND AUTHORWHAT THE STORY IS ABOUTWHAT THE MAIN CHARACTER IS LIKE
48Consider possible topics. Make an ideas chart Consider possible topics. Make an ideas chart. List short stories that you have read and liked. For each title, write one sentence that tells what the story is about and one sentence that tells about the main character.
49Choose a topic. It will be easier to write your essay if you choose a story that you know and enjoy. Be sure that you have a clear understanding of the story’s plot and the actions of the main character. In your analysis, you will be expected to trace the development of the theme through the main character’s thoughts, feelings, and actions.
50SHORT STORIES The Man to Send Rain Clouds 48 The Devil and Tom Walker 349Gary Keillor 424The Masque of the Red Death 454The Fall of the House of Usher 473Dr Heidegger’s Experiment 500A Rose for Emily 516The Life You Save May Be Your Own 528An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 580A Mystery of Heroism 593The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County 679A Wagner Matinee 688The Yellow Wallpaper 765The Story of an Hour 783Seventeen Syllables 788I Stand Here Ironing 806Winter Dreams 840America and I 863In the American Society 877The End of Something 1018The Jilting of Granny Weatherall 1035The Man Who Was Almost a Man 1045Armistice 1076Ambush 1105The Writer in the Family 1157Teenage Wasteland 1168Separating 1180Hostage 1200
51Choose your topic. Review the stories in your chart. Put an asterisk ( Choose your topic. Review the stories in your chart. Put an asterisk (*) next to the title you choose. Then write a few sentences that explain the reason for your choice. (Perhaps you identify with the main character, enjoy the author’s writing style, or so on.)
53Sometimes a theme is clearly stated, but often it is found deep within a story. The following are three ways to uncover a theme.
54Look for clues in the title. “Irraweka, Mischief-Maker” 1
55Look for the author’s statements about life Look for the author’s statements about life. “The very best thing in all this world that can befall a man is to be born luck.”2
56Identify a life lesson that the main character learns Identify a life lesson that the main character learns. In the short story “To Build a Fire,” the main character learns that he must accept his unfortunate fate.3
57Find a theme. Answer the following questions to find the theme of your story. Try it.
58Does the title say anything about the main character? If so, what? Does the title say anything about a life lesson? If so, what?Does the author make any statements about life? List them.How does the main character change in the story?What does the main character learn?
59Finish this sentence. After answering the “Try it Finish this sentence. After answering the “Try it!” questions, complete the following sentence to identify a main theme in your story. A main theme in my story is _________________.
60Focus on the traits. Ideas Focus on the traits. Ideas. Authors sometimes use figure of speech to convey ideas to the reader. Figures of speech include idioms, similes, metaphors, the oxymoron, and hyperbole. Look for these as you analyze your short story. They often hold clues to theme and character development.
61Idiom: a phrase or an expression that means something different from what the words actually say. That answer was really out in left field. (This means the answer was not even close to being correct.)Next year you’ll sing a different tune. (This means you’ll think differently.)
62Simile: A figure of speech that compares two things using like or as. Metaphor: A figure of speech that compares two things without using the words like or as.The sheep were dense, dancing clouds scuttling across the road.Oxymoron: Connecting two words with opposite meaning. small fortune, cruel kindness, original copy.
63Hyperbole: Exaggeration used to emphasize a point. The music was loud enough to make your ears bleed.