Presentation on theme: "China China generated the first of the great classical societies, an agricultural society. Of all the societies in the world today, it is China that has."— Presentation transcript:
1ChinaChina generated the first of the great classical societies, an agricultural society. Of all the societies in the world today, it is China that has maintained the clearest links to its classical past. The pattern of Chinese culture was set in motion during the classical period, 1000 B.C.E., and lasted until the early part of the twentieth century of the modern era.
2China in the River Valley Era The Hwang He agricultural civilizationNew TechnologyArt & MusicCompared to Mesopotamia and Egyptian civilizations, Chinese civilization probably developed after civilization in Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates. By about 2,000 B.C.E, an agricultural Chinese society developed in isolation in the Hwang He River (Yellow River Valley) in northeastern China. They settled here because it was most conducive to agriculture. An organized state developed that regulated irrigation in the flood prone valley. New Technology included pottery making, horseback riding, bronze. Iron was introduced by 1000 B.C.E which they soon used to work with coal. Astronomy in the sciences. Art emphasized delicate designs. No massive monuments were built. A common system of writing provided cultural unity and identity. Chinese philosophy and writing also proved to be a way to help assimilate nomadic invaders. In the influence of geography upon culture, the Chinese most closely resembled Egypt.
3WritingProgressed from reading scratch marks on bones to ideographic symbolsancestor worshipIn Shang China or even perhaps before, the tradition of reading oracle bones and or turtle bones became import. Heat was applied that caused the bones to crack and then the pattern of cracks was interpreted. It was believed the marks were messages from ancestors and the process served as communication between the living and the dead. The divination or intercession by an interpreter- became the basis for Chinese writing. This is probably while writing was so valued by the Chinese and scholars were honored. Writing progress from scratch marks on bones to ideographic symbols. Chinese philosophy and writing also proved to be a way to help assimilate nomadic invaders.
5The Shang Dynasty- 1523-1029 B.C.E Constructed tombs and palacesChinese world view one of harmony between man and natureLife is cyclicalThe Shang Dynasty B.C.E, The first documented dynasty, a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation. Invasions from nomads caused a temporary decline in civilization after 1200 B.C.E, however less disruptive than in other river valley civilizations further west. View of history as cyclical more conducive to continuity.
7Shang DynastyThe era around 1200 B.C.E. saw the decline or collapse of most civilizations in Western Asia, Egypt, the eastern Mediterranean, and the Indus Valley who were dependant on the same trade routes.The only area that did not see significant decline was China, where the Shang Dynasty continued to rule.China was not as dependent on Western Asia trade.
9Classical Era The Era of Warring States 402-201 B.C.E. The Zhou (Chou) 1027 to 256 B.C.E.The Era of Warring States B.C.E.The Qin 221 B.C.E B.C.E.The Han 202 B.C.E – 220 C.E.
10Classical ChinaA difference between river-valley civilizations and classical civilizations and was that in classical civilizations political organizations were more elaborateA difference between river-valley civilizations and classical is that religious sacrifice was suppressed in the classical civilizations
11Zhou (Chou) Dynasty 1029-256 B.C.E. This dynasty flourished until about 700 B.C.E when it was beset by decline in its infrastructure and frequent invasions by nomadic peoples from border regions.
12Zhou (Chou) Dynasty 1029-256 B.C.E. Yang-tse River Gorge
13The Zhou extended the territory of China from the Hwang Ho River Valley by taking over the Yang-tze River Valley and this became known as “Middle Kingdom”. Wheat was grown in the North; rice in the South This agriculture diversity promoted population growth.
14Zhou Dynasty Promoted linguistic unity: Mandarin Chinese Increasing cultural unity helps explain why, when the Zhou empire did began to fail, scholars were able to use philosophical ideas to lesson the impact of growing political confusion.In the time of the Zhou, 2% were landowning upper class and the educated bureaucrats or mandarins formed the top group.Next came the laboring peasants, artisans, manufactured urban goodAmong the peasants land owned and controlled by the village or the extended family not by individuals. Social status passed from one generation to the next.At the botton came the “mean people” unskilled labors. Mean people were punished more harshly for crime and were forced to wear identifying green scarves. Household servants were in this class.
15Zhou DynastyPolitical concept known as the “mandate from heaven.” The dynasty members were known as “Sons of Heaven.”This concept was designed to promote loyalty to the emperor 2.centralization of power in the state 3. the remoteness of the emperor from his subjects 4. an explanation of the decline of dynasties.
16The Era of Warring States 402-201 B.C.E. Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism originated as responses to societal problems during the time of disruptionChinese belief systems differ from Hinduism and polytheism most in their secular outlook.The legacy of Confucianism and legalism is a China with a Confucian veneer combined with strong-arm tactics. Confucian remained more upper class. The poor needed more than civic virtue to survive in the harsh environment.
17Daoism the way of nature Lao-tzu Daoism: Nature contains a divine impulse which directs all life. True human understanding comes from withdrawing from the world and contemplating this life force. Dao means, the way of nature, the indescribable force, “the way”. Harmony with nature best promoted through fugal living. Political activity and learning irrelevant to a good life.
18LegalismLegalist disdained Confucian virtues in favor of authoritarian state that was ruled by force. For legalists, human nature was evil and required restraint and discipline- the army would control and the people labor- in the perfect state.
20ConfuciusK’ung Fu-tse or Confucius, c. 551 to 478 B.C.E., lived during the Era of Warring States Period between the Zhou and Han Dynasties, a time of political chaos.Confucianism is a system of ethics and was recorded in a book called AnalectsHierarchical vision for society; some had authority, some obeyed their superiorsHarmony within relationships, particular those in the familyK’ung Fu-tse or Confucius live 551 to 478 B.C.E. His life was devoted to teaching- political virtue and good government. He was not a religious leader. Chinese culture was unusual in the classical period, in that its dominate values were secular and not religious. Confucius saw himself as a spokesmen for Chinese tradition for the value before the decline of the Zhou. If people could be taught to revere tradition, a solid political life would naturally result. A. Respect one’s social superiors- including fathers and husbands as leaders of the family. However, the leader had to behave modestly and without excess, shunning abusive power and treating courteously those people in their charge. “When the leader excels as a father, son, and a brother, then the people imitate him.”
21The Chinese government accepted Daoism because Daoist did not have great political ambitionDaoist came to acknowledge the Son of HeavenDaoism provided spiritual insights for many in the upper classbelief in balance & harmony
22ConfucianismEstablished a hierarchy and insisted upon reciprocal duties between peopleIn official Chinese hierarchy, merchants ranked below students, peasants, artisans, & soldiers.The lowest people were the “mean people”Educated bureaucratic elite, peasants, artisans,soldiers, merchants, mean-popleCompared to a nobleman, a peasant in classical China differed in literacy, level of wealth, belief in cycles of history, belief in a number of gods or spirits of nature. Peasant’s retained animist beliefs probably because of the gap in literacy and or because of the lack of spirituality in Confucianism. A Confucian belief was that a good society has a firm hierarchy
23CultureCeremony became an important part of upper-class Chinese life because the Chinese believed that people should restrain crude impulses.
24Key Features of Chinese Family Life Ancestor Worship for the upper class that emphasized tight family values and structuresGender hierarchyParent-child hierarchyDisciplineAncestor worship encouraged a conservative political outlook, a veneration of past achievement.
26Qin Dynasty. Qin Shih Huangdi, First Emperor Qin conferred the name China to the regionHe realized that China’s problem lay in the regional power of the aristocrats, like many later centralizers in world history, i.e. Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIVA regional ruler, took the title of Qin Shih Huangdi, or First Emperor. The dynastic name is Qin. He was a brutal ruler but effective considering the internal disorder. He broke the power of the vassals in order to enhance the power of the emperor. He ordered nobles to leave their regions and appear at court, assuming control of their feudal estates. China was organized into large provinces ruled by bureaucrats appointed by the emperor and Shih Huangdi was careful to select the officials from the non-aristocratic groups, so they would owe their power to him and would not dare to develop their own independent bases. Under Shih Huangdi, powerful armies crushed regional resistance.
27Qin Shih HuangdiProvided a single law code for the whole empire and established a uniform tax systemDelegated special areas and decisions to the emperors ministers thus further promoting effective centralized government. Some dealt with finance, others with justiceFollowed up on centralization by extending Chinese territory to the south, reaching present-day Hong Kong on the South China Sea and influencing northern Vietnam.
28In the north, to guard against barbarian invasion, Shih Huangdi built a Great Wall, extending over 3000 miles, wide enough for chariots to move along its crest.This wall is probably the largest construction project in human history. It was done with conscripted labor of peasantry by the central bureaucracy
29Qin innovations in Chinese politics and culture National censusStandardization of coins, weights and measures; even the length of the axles on cart led to standardized road buildingAgricultural innovation: irrigation projectsPromoted manufacture, especially silk clothUniform written script, completing the process of creating a single basic language for all educated Chinese
30Demise of Qin Shih Huangdi His construction projects and high taxes made him unpopular as did theBanning and burning the classical textconstripting peasants and excessive labor projectsaristocrats lost landDaoist prists opposed himOn Shih Huangdi’s death in 210 C.E., popular revolts by the peasants led to one peasant leader establishing himself and his family as the new dynasty of ChinaShort lived despite innovations. Shih Huangdi’s attacks on intellectuals and his high taxes needed to support military expansion and the construction of the Great Wall, made him fiercely unpopular. On his death in 210 .C.E popular revolts by the peasants led to one peasant leader establishing himself and his family as the new dynasty of China
31The Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou It was more centralized
32Han Dynasty 202 B.C.E.-220C.EReduced the brutal repression of the Qin.
33Han Dynasty Promoted Confucian beliefs Instituted a system of examination to prepare professional civil servantspromoted scientific researchLarge construction projectsInstituted a system of punishment of criminalsPromoted Confucian beliefsCensus takingExerted military & legal powerThis dynasty which lasted over 400 years rounded out China’s basic political and intellectual structure. Retained the centralized administration of the Qin. They resumed the attack on local warrior-landlords. They realized the importance of a skilled bureaucracy. By the end of the Han period China had about 130,000 bureaucrats, representing 0.2 percent of the population. Examinations were held for bureaucratic positions, civil service tests, the model of the scholar bureaucrat. Schools were established to train men to be bureaucrats, most, but not all came from the landed upper class. The bureaucrats were a limited check on the emperor’s power.
34Han Dynasty The Han emperors revived Confucianism Confucian built the links among many levels of authority that came to characterize Chine politics at their best.For subordinates, Confucius recommended obedience and respect; people should know their place even under bad rulers. However Confucius urged an education system that promoted talented people. Trade particularly important during the Han period- produced by skilled artisans in the cities- silk, jewelry, leather goods, and furniture. Food was also traded. Copper coins began to circulate.
35Han DynastyTrade was particularly important during the Han period and was produced by skilled artisans in the cities.Silk, jewelry, leather goods, and furniture. Food was also traded. Copper coins began to circulate.Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain.
38Han DynastyExpanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina, and central AsiaContact with India and with the Parthian empire in the Middle East through trade with the Roman Empire around the MediterraneanRepaired the Great Wall to keep out the Huns
39Wu Ti, B.C.EEnforced peace throughout most of the continent of AsiaSupported Confucianism and established shrines to promote worship of the ancient philosopher as a god.Wu Ti, B.C.E. was the most famous Han ruler. 1. He enforced peace throughout most of the continent of Asia, rather like the Pax Romana of one hundred years later. 2 Han rule time of peace and prosperity for China 3. Urged support of Confucianism and established shrines to promote worship of the ancient philosopher as a god.
40Key Elements of Han Bureaucracy TrainingSpecializationConfucian-based ethicDaoism, a distinctive science and artistic traditions complemented this emphasis. Upper class cultural values emphasized a good life on earth and the virtues of obedience to the state more than speculations about God and the mysteries of heaven. Stressed harmonious life. Ceremonies venerating ancestors were conducted. Use of chopsticks began at the end of the Zhou dynasty; it encouraged a code of politeness at meals. Soon after this, tea was introduced.
41Demise of the Han Dynasty The Huns, a nomadic people from central Asia overturned the Hun dynasty and occupied China from 220 C.E. until 531 C.E.Between 220 and 589 China was in a state of chaos. By the time stability restored the classical and formative period of Chinese civilization had ended.A nomadic people from North central Asia. Organized into hordes, indomitable horsemen. They first appeared in the third century B. C. E. when the Great Wall of China was built to keep them out. They occupied China from the third century to 531 C. E. About 372 they invaded the Volga Valley and advanced west push the Ostrogoths and Visagoths before them., thus starting the waves of migration that destroyed the Roman Empire In 432 they forced Emperor Theodosius II to pay tribute to Attila from his head quarter in Hungary, levied tribute in nearly all central and eastern Europe but was defeated in Gaul in The Huns withdrew after his death and little is know of their later movements.
42Era of DivisionsThe demise of the Han Dynasty and occupation of China by the Huns resulted in a chaotic time known as the Era of Divisions that lasted from 220 C.E. until 531 C.E.
43Demise of the Han Dynasty With the collapse of the Han dynasty, Daoism (which would join with Buddhist influence from India during the chaos that followed in the years of the Hun occupation) guaranteed that the Chinese people would not be united by a single religious or philosophical system. In time Daoism became a formal religion
44Key Elements of the Classical Era In literature, a set of five classics, written during the early part of the Zhou dynasty and then edited during the Confucian period, provided important literary tradition. They were used, among other things, as a basis for civil service exams. The five classics contain many things: historical treatises, speeches, and other political material, a discussion on etiquette, and ceremonies, 300 poems dealing with love, politics, joy, family life.From the classical period forward, the ability to learn and recite poetry became the mark of the educated Chinese.
45Key Elements of the Classical Era Chinese art during the classical period was largely decorative, stressing detail and craftsmanship. Calligraphy became important art form. Chinese artists worked in bronze, pottery, carved jade, and ivory, and wove silk screen.Classical China did not produce monumental building because of the absence of a single religionChinese art during the classical period was largely decorative, stressing detail and craftsmanship. Calligraphy became important art form. Chinese artists worked in bronze, pottery, carved jade, and ivory, and wove silk screen.Classical China did not produce monumental building because of the absence of a single religion
46Key Elements of the Classical Era In science practical work was encouraged rather than Imaginative theorizingChinese astronomers developed an accurate calendar by 444 B.C.E based on a year of daysAstronomers calculated the movement of the planets Saturn and JupiterAstronomers observed sunspots more than 1500 years before comparable knowledge developed in EuropeIn science practical work was encouraged rather than Imaginative theorizing. Chinese astronomers developed an accurate calendar by 444 B.C.E based on a year of days. Later astronomers calculated the movement of the planets Saturn and Jupiter and observed sunspots more than 1500 years before comparable knowledge developed in Europe. Purpose- understanding harmony between the heaven and the earth. Developed a seismograph to register earthquakes during the Han dynasty.
47Key Elements of the Classical Era Medical research- precise anatomical knowledge, studied hygene to promote a longer lifeMedical research- precise anatomical knowledge, studied hygiene to promote a longer life.Chinese mathematics stressed the practical. Studied the mathematics of music. *Very different from the abstract definition of science developed in classical Greece.
48Major Technological Innovations of Classical China Paperwheelbarrowadvances in metalwork
49Economic Strength of Classical China A key element of economic strength was the high level of technological innovationThe government was active in the economy.It directly organized the production of iron and salt. It standardized the currency, weights and measures, sponsored public works projects such as irrigation and canals. The Han set up storage warehouse to regulate agriculture and control prices.
50Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.” Political Institution- became one of the hallmarks of classical Chinese cultureStrong local units never disappearedChina relieved heavily on patriarchal families. Whether within the family or the central state, most Chinese believed in the importance of respect for those in powerThe central government had little effect on the everyday life of the people.Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.”More than any other factor, it was the structure of the government that explained how such a vast territory could be governed effectively. Chinese government was the largest political structure in the classical world.
51The central government had little effect on the everyday life of the people. Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.”
52Hallmarks of Classical China Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain.Chinese classical society evolved with little outside influenceClassical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain.Chinese classical society evolved with little outside influence
53Post Classical China 220-589 Era of Division 581-618 Sui Dynasty Tang DynastySong DynastyThe agrarian societies on the east and south of China were the regions of Asia most drawn to Chinese cultural and political models.
54Era of DivisionThe period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the Era of DivisionBuddhism eclipsed Confucian teachings1. Trade and city life declined as the central government dissipated.2. With mainly Buddhist exceptions, thought degenerated into the quest for magical cures.3. Nomadic peoples raided and conquered across the north China plain.4. Chinese technology stagnated during this time.The Great Wall was divided between kingdoms and usually poorly defended and non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China. Nomads raided across the northern plains.
55The Era of Divisiondominated by political division among many small warring states who were often ruled by nomadic invadersperiod of Buddhist dominancegrowth of monastic movementloss of imperial centralizationloss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracyContrast the Era of Division with the Sui- Tang era.Era of Division: dominated by political division among many small warring statesoften ruled by nomadic invaders; period of Buddhist dominance; growth of monastic movement; loss of imperial centralization; loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy. Sui- Tang: return to centralized administration, unified empire; reconstruction of bureaucracy; reconstruction of Confucian scholar- gentry at expense of both Buddhists and aristocracy; restoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state.
56The Sui Dynasty Wendi Yangdi The emergence of the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century C. E. (580s), after nearly four centuries of discord, signaled a return to strong dynastic control.The short-lived Sui dynasty reestablished a centralized empireIn the early 580s, the factional struggle that gave rise to the Sui dynasty appeared to be just another of the factional struggles of the sort that had splintered China for centuries after the fall of the Han. Wendi, who was from a Chinese noble family ,made an alliance between his daughter and the ruler of the northern Zhou empire. The Zhou had recently defeated several rival rulers and united much of the north China plain. After much intrigue, Wendi seized the throne of his son-in-law and proclaimed himself emperor.
57Sui CalligraphyThe man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was Wendi. The support of the nomadic warrior elite made the reunification of China under the first Sui emperor possible. The creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor. Unlike his father, the second Sui emperor, Yangdi favored the Confucian scholar-gentry. He reconstructed the Great Wall. Excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty. An uprising caused Yangdi to flee and he was assassinated.
58Wendi secured his power base Won support of the neighboring nomadic military commandersHe reconfirmed their titles at the expense of the Confucian scholar-gentry classWith the support of the nomadic military commanders he spread his empire across northern ChinaMap In 589 Wendi attacked and conquered the Chen kingdom that ruled much of the south and reunited much of the traditional areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in three and a half centuries.
59Wendi won support Lowered taxes Established granaries to ensure a reserve of foodLarge landowners and peasants alike were taxed a portion of their crop to keep the granaries filledSurplus grain was brought to market in times of food shortage to hold down the price of the people’s staple foodThe man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was Wendi. The support of the nomadic warrior elite made the reunification of China under the first Sui emperor possible. The creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor.
60Established a milder legal code YangdiEstablished a milder legal codeUpgraded Confucian education; restored the examination system for regulating entry into the bureaucracyBroad policy of promoting the scholar-gentry in the imperial administrationWendi was murdered by his son Yangdi. At first, Yangdi strengthened the political and economic foundations laid down by his father, and then went in his own direction. He extended his father’s conquests and drove back nomadic intruders who threatened the northern frontiers of the empire. Unlike his father, Yangdi favored the Confucian scholar-gentry. He reconstructed the Great Wall. His promotion of the scholar-gentry often worked to the detriment of the aristocratic families and nomadic military commanders. Excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty.
61Yangdi’s policies led to widespread revolt He forcibly conscripted hundreds of thousands of peasants to build a new capital city at LoyangHe had a series of canals builtYanngdi was overly fond of luxury and extravagant construction projects, see map In his new capital he made his subjects dig up large trees in the nearby hills and cart them miles to be replanted in artificial mounds his new game park. His subjects were exhausted and angry.
63Unsuccessful campaigns in Korea and central Asia against the Turks. Provincial governors declared independenceBandit gangs raided at willNomadic peoples seized sections of the north China plainYangdi then led his subjects into a series of unsuccessful wars to bring Korea back under Chinese rule. His failures in campaigns between 611 and 614 and his near fatal reverses in central Asia at the hands of Turkic nomads in 615 set in motion revolts throughout the empire. Yangdi became deranged and retreated to his pleasure palaces in the city of Yangzhou on the Yantze river to the south. Yangdi was assassinated by his ministers in 618 and it looked as if China would return to the Era of Divisions, the political and social turmoil it had endured for centuries.
64Tang Dynasty MapThe Tang built an empire that was far larger than that of the early Han, an empire whose boundaries in many directions extended beyond the borders of modern China
65The Golden Age of the Tang Li YuanTang TaizongThe dissolution of the imperial order was averted by the military skills and political savvy of one of Yangdi’s officials, Li Yuan. He was of mixed Chinese-nomadic heritage. He had been loyal to Yangdi and had even saved his life when trapped by a far larger force of Turkic cavalry in a small fort that was part of the Great wall defense. But as Yangdi grew more irrational and unrest spread from one end of the empire to the other, Li Yuan was convinced by his sons and allies that only rebellion could save the empire. A fter Yangdi’s death, a struggle for control continued until 623 and Li Yuan emerged as the victor. Together with his second son, Tang Taizong, in whose favor he abdicated in 626, Li Yuan laid the basis for the golden age of the Tang.
66Tang strategy Contain the Turkic tribes Repair the Great Wall Create frontier armiesHeavenly khanTang armies conquered deep into central Asia as far as present-day Afghanistan. Nomadic peoples now had to submit to the Tang. Of all the nomadic peoples, the Turkic tribes posed the greatest threat. Therefore early Tang rulers tried to play off one Turkic tribe against another, a strategy that often succeeded. They also completed repairs on the Great Wall begun by the Sui and other early rulers. They created frontier armies recruited in part from nomadic peoples, these units became the most potent military units in the empire. Leaders of Turkictribes were compelled to submit as vassals to the Tang rulers who took the title of Heavenly Khan. The daughters of the Turkic khans often married into the imperial family. The sons were sent to the capital as hostages to guarantee the good behavior of the tribe in question. At the tang capital, they were also educated in Chinese ways in the hope of their eventual assimilation into Chinese culture.
67Tang strategyThe empire was also extended to parts of Tibet in the west, the Red River valley homeland of the Vietnamese in the south and Manchuria in the north
68Emperor Kaozong In 668, Chinese armies overran Korea Silla, the Korean vassal kingdom, was established at it remained loyal to the TangIn a matter of decades the Tang built an empire far larger than the Han and one whose boundaries extended far beyond the borders of present-day China
69Tang DynastyThe Tang supported the reinstitution of the Confucian scholar-gentryJinshiThe title of Jinshi was reserved for those who passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature. Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty , birth continued to be important in securing high office.
70Zen BuddhismEarly Tang rulers continued to patronize Buddhism while trying to promote education in Confucian classics.By the time of the Tang unification, Buddhism, particularly Zen Buddhism, had appeal to the educated classes of China. The goal of those who followed Zen was to come to know the ultimate wisdom, and thus find release from the cycle of rebirth, through introspective meditation. It was often expressed in poetic metaphors and riddles such as those in an 8th century treatise called Hymn to Wisdom. (270)
71Tang Dynasty Empress Wu, the only female emperor, 690-705 supported BuddhismThe Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty. The 840s was the decade when open persecution of Buddhism within the Chinese empire begin. The result of the imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence 0£ the early Tang years. The impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the twentieth century
72Anti-Buddhist Backlash Daoist rivals began stressing their own magical and predictive powersConfucian-scholar-administrators launched the most damaging campaigns against BuddhismBuddhist successes aroused the envy of Confucian and Daoist rivals and they attacked the religion as foreign althougth the faith followed by most of the Chinese was very different from that originally preached by the Buddhist or that preached in India or southeast Asia. Confucian-scholar-administrators launched the most damaging campaigns against Buddhism to convince Tang rulers that the large Buddhist monastic establishments posed an economic challenge to the imperial order.
73Emperor Wuzong, 841-847 Openly persecuted the Buddhist Thousands of Buddhist monasteries and shrines were destroyedHundreds of thousands of monks and nuns were forced to abandon their monastic orders and return to civilian life and again subject to taxationAlthough Buddhism survived this and other bouts of repression, it was weakened. Never again would the Buddhist monastic orders have the political influence and wealth they enjoyed in the first centuries of Tang rule. The great age of Buddhist painting gave way to art dominated by Daoist and Confucian subjects and styles in the late Tang and the Song era that followed.
74Legacy of Chinese Buddhism Buddhism left its mark on the arts, the Chinese language, and Chinese thinking about such things as heaven, charity, and lawBuddhism ceased to be a dominate force in ChinaIn contrast to its impact on the civilizations of southeast Asia, Tibet, and parts of central Asia.
75The economic challenge to the imperial order Monastic lands not taxed; Tang regime lost huge revenues as a result of imperial grants to Buddhist monasteriesThe wills of ordinary Chinese people that turned family property over to Buddhist monasteriesThe state was denied labor because it could not tax or conscript peasants who worked on monastic estates.By the mid-8 century, state fears of Buddhist wealth and power led to measures to limit the flow of land and resources to the monastic orders By the mid-8 century, state fears of Buddhist wealth and power led to measures to limit the flow of land and resources to the monastic orders
76Tang Decline Internal rebellion Nomadic incursions Yang Guifei An LushanGeneral weakening began in the 8th century. Empress Wu, , tried to establish a new dynasty. A second attempt to control the throne was made by a high born women who had married into the imperial family. Backed by her powerful relatives and a group of courtiers, Empress Wei poisoned her husband, the son of Empress Wu, and placed her own small child on the throne. But Empress Wei attempt to seize power was thwarted by another prince, who led a palace revolt that ended with the destruction of Wei and her supporters. This prince became Emperor Xuanzong, and his reign marks the peak of Tang power. He paTRONIZED THE ARTS. Love affair with Yang Guifei led him to neglect the affairs of the state. Economic distress and disorder. Crisis in 755 when one of his generals, An Lushan, led a revolt with the aim of starting a new dynasty. Although revolt crushed and Tang dynasty preservered, Emperior Wuzong was forced to have her executed and his GRIEF over Yang Guifei made it impossible for him to rule.
77The Song Dynasty The last Tang was forced to resign in 907 Zhao KuangyinEmperor TaizuThe Northern Liao Dynasty, nomadic Khitan people of Manchia.Zhao Kuangyin, founder of the Song, able general who was also a scholarly man. As emperor took the name Taizu. Found a dynasty that would rule China for the next 3 centuries. The one rival that Emperor Taizu could not best was Liao and this set precedent for weakness o f Song Dynasty in dealing with nomadic peoples of the north. This will plague them until their defeat by the Mongols in 1279, the 13th century.
78Song Dynasty MapThe Song empire compared to the Tang in that the Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire
79The Song dynasty Zhao Kuangyin was the founder of the Song dynasty The Song empire compare to the Tang? The Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire. What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire was the military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.
80The Song eraThe ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era.Zhu Xi was the most prominent of the Neo-Confucians during the Song eraZhu Xi was the most prominent of the Neo-Confucians during the Song era
81Impact of Neo-Confucianism impact of the development of Neo-Confucian schools of thought: hostility to foreign philosophical systems like Buddhism ; the stifling of innovation and critical thinking in favor of traditionalism ; reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions ; historical experiences held to be the most practical guide to lifelevel 0£ technology
82Neo-Confucians also became familiar with Buddhist beliefs Li- a concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of both Hinduism and BuddhismNew form of ConfucianismReconciled Confucianism and BuddhismIt influenced philosophical thought in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in all subsequent eras.Neo-ConfucianismThe conflict between Confucianism and Buddhism during the late Tang Dynasty eased under the Song dynasty, partly because of the development of Neo-Confucianism. Classical Confucians were concerned with practical issues of politics and morality, and their main goal was an ordered social and political structure.Neo-Confucians also became familiar with Buddhist beliefs, such as the nature of the soul and the individual’s spiritual relationships. They came to refer to li, a concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of both Hinduism and Buddhism. This new form of Confucianism was an important development because it reconciled Confucianism and Buddhism , and because it influenced philosophical thought in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in all subsequent eras..
83Constructionism Wang Anshi Wang Anshi, a prime minister in the and attempted to reform Song government .on the basis of what Confucian school of thought, Constructionism. 1. ) the introduction of government-assisted irrigation projects to encourage agricultural expansion 2. ) taxation of the landlord and scholarly classes 3. ) the establishment of well-trained mercenary forces
84Weakness of the Song The Song paid “tribute” to the Khatan Distain for military and too much emphasis on Confucian elite.Money for protection of northern border.
85The flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China JurchensWhat caused the flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China? the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom
86Economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties The Silk Road connected Chang’an (Xi’an) with Antioch, Asia MinorA) trade increasingly carried by Chinese ships and sailorsB) enlarged market quarters found in all cities and major townsC) growing sophistication in commercial organization and forms of creditD) a series of technological breakthroughs
87Urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities than that found in any other contemporary civilization
88HangzhouThe capital of the southern Song dynasty
89The agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors Numbers of free peasantry increasedFortunes of the old aristocratic families declinedLands were distributed more equitably to the free peasant households of the empireThe gentry side of the scholar-gentry came to dominate the bureaucracyThe following were a result of the agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors
90Society in Tang- Song China Age at time of marriage was the primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classesThe status of womenFootbindingAmong members of the lower classes marriages tended to be consummated at an earlier age than among members of the elite. Women- The assertion of male dominance within the family and beyond was especially pronounced in the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers. Footbinding: As wealth and agricultural productivity increased, the patriarchal social of Chinese society also tightened. With family fortunes to preserve, elites insured the purity of their lines by further confining women to the home. The custom of foot binding became very popular among these families. Foot binding involved tightly wrapping young girls’ feet so that natural growth was seriously impaired. The result was a tiny malformed foot with the toes curled under and the bones breaking in the process. The women generally could not walk except with canes. Peasants and middle class women did not bind their feet because it was impractical, but for elite women, the practice- like wearing veils in the Islamic lands- indicated their subservience to their male guardians
91Chinese landscape painting Members of the ruling political elite in China produced many of the paintings in the SongShanshui, the art of drawing with brush and inkDuring the Song dynasty the interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature was most apparent in their production of landscape painting
92PoetryLi BoWas the outstanding poet of the Tang era
93The independence of Chinese women In what way did footbinding serve to diminish the independence 0£ Chinese women by the end of the Song era . Footbinding sufficiently crippled women to ef£ectively confine their mobility to theirhousehold.
94Technological innovation of the Tang-Song Era Coal used for fuelGunpowderComplex bridgesAbacusMoveable typeGunpowder, abacus, paper , complex bridges, coal used for fuel . Sheng was the artisan was responsible for the development of movable type
95Confucianintellectual schools were responsible for the production of most literary and artistic works during the Tang-Song era
96The decline of Buddhism in the later Tang and Song dynasties Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign innovation in ChinaConfucians convinced emperors that monastic control of land represented an economic threatPersecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.Explain the decline of Buddhism in the later Tang and Song dynasties.Answer: Restoration of imperial government implied strengthening of traditional schools of Confucianism and resuscitation of scholar-gentry; Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign innovation in China; convinced emperors that monastic control of land represented an economic threat; persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.
97Demise of the southern Song Dynasty in 1279 MongolsMongols were responsible for the fall of the southern Song dynasty in 1279
98growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration Comparison & Contrast of the the empire under the Tang and the Song dynasties Similaritiescontinued intellectual and political dominance of Confucian scholar- gentrygrowth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administrationDifferences:smaller in sizeunable to control nomadic dynasties of the northpayment of tribute to nomadic statesmilitary decline with subjection of aristocracy to scholar-gentryfailure of Wang Anshi's reforms led to military defeatCompare and contrast the empire under the Tang and the Song dynastiesSimilarities: : continued intellectual and political dominance of Confucian scholar- gentry; growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration. Differences: smaller in size; unable to control nomadic dynasties of the north; payment of tribute to nomadic states; military decline with subjection 0£ aristocracy to scholar-gentry; failure of Wang Anshi's re£orms led to military defeat
99The elements of Tang-Song economic prosperity The full incorporation of southern China into the economy as a major £ood- producing region, center of trade; commercial expansion with West, southern Asia, southeast Asia; establishment 0£ Chinese merchant marine; development 0£ new commercial organization and credit techniques; improved agricultural productivity with expansion 0£ acreage, greater production per acre; expanded urbanization throughout China.
100Ways the Tang-Song era departed from previous developments in Chinese civilization Full incorporation of southern China into economydominance of south as food- producing region & center of population and political capital of southern Songdecline of influence of Buddhismincreasing trend toward intellectual and technological isolationextraordinary level of urbanization--up to 10 percent of populationextraordinary level of technologywhat ways did the Chinese empire during the Tang-Song era depart from previous developments in Chinese civilization?Answer: Full incorporation 0£ southern China into economy; dominance 0£ south as £ood- producing region, center 0£ population, political capital 0£ southern Song; decline 0£ influence 0£ Buddhism; increasing trend toward intellectual and technological isolation; extraordinary level of urbanization--up to 10 percent 0£ population; level of technology .
101China’s HegemonyHegemony occurs when a civilization extends its political, economy, social, and cultural influence over others.China was the richest and most powerful of all, and extended its reach over most of Asia.In the time period, it was impossible foionr one empire to dominate the entire globe, largely because of distance and communicatillon were so difficult. Both the Islamic Caliphates and the Mongol Empire fell partly because their land space was too large to control effectively. So the best any empire could do was to establish regional gegonomy