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China China generated the first of the great classical societies, an agricultural society. Of all the societies in the world today, it is China that has.

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Presentation on theme: "China China generated the first of the great classical societies, an agricultural society. Of all the societies in the world today, it is China that has."— Presentation transcript:

1 China China generated the first of the great classical societies, an agricultural society. Of all the societies in the world today, it is China that has maintained the clearest links to its classical past. The pattern of Chinese culture was set in motion during the classical period, 1000 B.C.E., and lasted until the early part of the twentieth century of the modern era.

2 China in the River Valley Era
The Hwang He agricultural civilization New Technology Art & Music Compared to Mesopotamia and Egyptian civilizations, Chinese civilization probably developed after civilization in Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates. By about 2,000 B.C.E, an agricultural Chinese society developed in isolation in the Hwang He River (Yellow River Valley) in northeastern China. They settled here because it was most conducive to agriculture. An organized state developed that regulated irrigation in the flood prone valley. New Technology included pottery making, horseback riding, bronze. Iron was introduced by 1000 B.C.E which they soon used to work with coal. Astronomy in the sciences. Art emphasized delicate designs. No massive monuments were built. A common system of writing provided cultural unity and identity. Chinese philosophy and writing also proved to be a way to help assimilate nomadic invaders. In the influence of geography upon culture, the Chinese most closely resembled Egypt.

3 Writing Progressed from reading scratch marks on bones to ideographic symbols ancestor worship In Shang China or even perhaps before, the tradition of reading oracle bones and or turtle bones became import. Heat was applied that caused the bones to crack and then the pattern of cracks was interpreted. It was believed the marks were messages from ancestors and the process served as communication between the living and the dead. The divination or intercession by an interpreter- became the basis for Chinese writing. This is probably while writing was so valued by the Chinese and scholars were honored. Writing progress from scratch marks on bones to ideographic symbols. Chinese philosophy and writing also proved to be a way to help assimilate nomadic invaders.

4 Oracle shell Oracle bone

5 The Shang Dynasty- 1523-1029 B.C.E
Constructed tombs and palaces Chinese world view one of harmony between man and nature Life is cyclical The Shang Dynasty B.C.E, The first documented dynasty, a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation. Invasions from nomads caused a temporary decline in civilization after 1200 B.C.E, however less disruptive than in other river valley civilizations further west. View of history as cyclical more conducive to continuity.

6

7 Shang Dynasty The era around 1200 B.C.E. saw the decline or collapse of most civilizations in Western Asia, Egypt, the eastern Mediterranean, and the Indus Valley who were dependant on the same trade routes. The only area that did not see significant decline was China, where the Shang Dynasty continued to rule. China was not as dependent on Western Asia trade.

8 Silk Routes

9 Classical Era The Era of Warring States 402-201 B.C.E.
The Zhou (Chou) 1027 to 256 B.C.E. The Era of Warring States B.C.E. The Qin 221 B.C.E B.C.E. The Han 202 B.C.E – 220 C.E.

10 Classical China A difference between river-valley civilizations and classical civilizations and was that in classical civilizations political organizations were more elaborate A difference between river-valley civilizations and classical is that religious sacrifice was suppressed in the classical civilizations

11 Zhou (Chou) Dynasty 1029-256 B.C.E.
This dynasty flourished until about 700 B.C.E when it was beset by decline in its infrastructure and frequent invasions by nomadic peoples from border regions.

12 Zhou (Chou) Dynasty 1029-256 B.C.E.
Yang-tse River Gorge

13 The Zhou extended the territory of China from the Hwang Ho River Valley by taking over the Yang-tze River Valley and this became known as “Middle Kingdom”. Wheat was grown in the North; rice in the South This agriculture diversity promoted population growth.

14 Zhou Dynasty Promoted linguistic unity: Mandarin Chinese
Increasing cultural unity helps explain why, when the Zhou empire did began to fail, scholars were able to use philosophical ideas to lesson the impact of growing political confusion. In the time of the Zhou, 2% were landowning upper class and the educated bureaucrats or mandarins formed the top group. Next came the laboring peasants, artisans, manufactured urban good Among the peasants land owned and controlled by the village or the extended family not by individuals. Social status passed from one generation to the next. At the botton came the “mean people” unskilled labors. Mean people were punished more harshly for crime and were forced to wear identifying green scarves. Household servants were in this class.

15 Zhou Dynasty Political concept known as the “mandate from heaven.” The dynasty members were known as “Sons of Heaven.” This concept was designed to promote loyalty to the emperor 2.centralization of power in the state 3. the remoteness of the emperor from his subjects 4. an explanation of the decline of dynasties.

16 The Era of Warring States 402-201 B.C.E.
Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism originated as responses to societal problems during the time of disruption Chinese belief systems differ from Hinduism and polytheism most in their secular outlook. The legacy of Confucianism and legalism is a China with a Confucian veneer combined with strong-arm tactics. Confucian remained more upper class. The poor needed more than civic virtue to survive in the harsh environment.

17 Daoism the way of nature Lao-tzu
Daoism: Nature contains a divine impulse which directs all life. True human understanding comes from withdrawing from the world and contemplating this life force. Dao means, the way of nature, the indescribable force, “the way”. Harmony with nature best promoted through fugal living. Political activity and learning irrelevant to a good life.

18 Legalism Legalist disdained Confucian virtues in favor of authoritarian state that was ruled by force. For legalists, human nature was evil and required restraint and discipline- the army would control and the people labor- in the perfect state.

19 K’ung Fu-tse

20 Confucius K’ung Fu-tse or Confucius, c. 551 to 478 B.C.E., lived during the Era of Warring States Period between the Zhou and Han Dynasties, a time of political chaos. Confucianism is a system of ethics and was recorded in a book called Analects Hierarchical vision for society; some had authority, some obeyed their superiors Harmony within relationships, particular those in the family K’ung Fu-tse or Confucius live 551 to 478 B.C.E. His life was devoted to teaching- political virtue and good government. He was not a religious leader. Chinese culture was unusual in the classical period, in that its dominate values were secular and not religious. Confucius saw himself as a spokesmen for Chinese tradition for the value before the decline of the Zhou. If people could be taught to revere tradition, a solid political life would naturally result. A. Respect one’s social superiors- including fathers and husbands as leaders of the family. However, the leader had to behave modestly and without excess, shunning abusive power and treating courteously those people in their charge. “When the leader excels as a father, son, and a brother, then the people imitate him.”

21 The Chinese government accepted Daoism because
Daoist did not have great political ambition Daoist came to acknowledge the Son of Heaven Daoism provided spiritual insights for many in the upper class belief in balance & harmony

22 Confucianism Established a hierarchy and insisted upon reciprocal duties between people In official Chinese hierarchy, merchants ranked below students, peasants, artisans, & soldiers. The lowest people were the “mean people” Educated bureaucratic elite, peasants, artisans,soldiers, merchants, mean-pople Compared to a nobleman, a peasant in classical China differed in literacy, level of wealth, belief in cycles of history, belief in a number of gods or spirits of nature. Peasant’s retained animist beliefs probably because of the gap in literacy and or because of the lack of spirituality in Confucianism. A Confucian belief was that a good society has a firm hierarchy

23 Culture Ceremony became an important part of upper-class Chinese life because the Chinese believed that people should restrain crude impulses.

24 Key Features of Chinese Family Life
Ancestor Worship for the upper class that emphasized tight family values and structures Gender hierarchy Parent-child hierarchy Discipline Ancestor worship encouraged a conservative political outlook, a veneration of past achievement.

25 Qin Dynasty China

26 Qin Dynasty. Qin Shih Huangdi, First Emperor
Qin conferred the name China to the region He realized that China’s problem lay in the regional power of the aristocrats, like many later centralizers in world history, i.e. Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV A regional ruler, took the title of Qin Shih Huangdi, or First Emperor. The dynastic name is Qin. He was a brutal ruler but effective considering the internal disorder. He broke the power of the vassals in order to enhance the power of the emperor. He ordered nobles to leave their regions and appear at court, assuming control of their feudal estates. China was organized into large provinces ruled by bureaucrats appointed by the emperor and Shih Huangdi was careful to select the officials from the non-aristocratic groups, so they would owe their power to him and would not dare to develop their own independent bases. Under Shih Huangdi, powerful armies crushed regional resistance.

27 Qin Shih Huangdi Provided a single law code for the whole empire and established a uniform tax system Delegated special areas and decisions to the emperors ministers thus further promoting effective centralized government. Some dealt with finance, others with justice Followed up on centralization by extending Chinese territory to the south, reaching present-day Hong Kong on the South China Sea and influencing northern Vietnam.

28 In the north, to guard against barbarian invasion, Shih Huangdi built a Great Wall, extending over 3000 miles, wide enough for chariots to move along its crest. This wall is probably the largest construction project in human history. It was done with conscripted labor of peasantry by the central bureaucracy

29 Qin innovations in Chinese politics and culture
National census Standardization of coins, weights and measures; even the length of the axles on cart led to standardized road building Agricultural innovation: irrigation projects Promoted manufacture, especially silk cloth Uniform written script, completing the process of creating a single basic language for all educated Chinese

30 Demise of Qin Shih Huangdi
His construction projects and high taxes made him unpopular as did the Banning and burning the classical text constripting peasants and excessive labor projects aristocrats lost land Daoist prists opposed him On Shih Huangdi’s death in 210 C.E., popular revolts by the peasants led to one peasant leader establishing himself and his family as the new dynasty of China Short lived despite innovations. Shih Huangdi’s attacks on intellectuals and his high taxes needed to support military expansion and the construction of the Great Wall, made him fiercely unpopular. On his death in 210 .C.E popular revolts by the peasants led to one peasant leader establishing himself and his family as the new dynasty of China

31 The Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou
It was more centralized

32 Han Dynasty 202 B.C.E.-220C.E Reduced the brutal repression of the Qin.

33 Han Dynasty Promoted Confucian beliefs
Instituted a system of examination to prepare professional civil servants promoted scientific research Large construction projects Instituted a system of punishment of criminals Promoted Confucian beliefs Census taking Exerted military & legal power This dynasty which lasted over 400 years rounded out China’s basic political and intellectual structure. Retained the centralized administration of the Qin. They resumed the attack on local warrior-landlords. They realized the importance of a skilled bureaucracy. By the end of the Han period China had about 130,000 bureaucrats, representing 0.2 percent of the population. Examinations were held for bureaucratic positions, civil service tests, the model of the scholar bureaucrat. Schools were established to train men to be bureaucrats, most, but not all came from the landed upper class. The bureaucrats were a limited check on the emperor’s power.

34 Han Dynasty The Han emperors revived Confucianism
Confucian built the links among many levels of authority that came to characterize Chine politics at their best. For subordinates, Confucius recommended obedience and respect; people should know their place even under bad rulers. However Confucius urged an education system that promoted talented people. Trade particularly important during the Han period- produced by skilled artisans in the cities- silk, jewelry, leather goods, and furniture. Food was also traded. Copper coins began to circulate.

35 Han Dynasty Trade was particularly important during the Han period and was produced by skilled artisans in the cities. Silk, jewelry, leather goods, and furniture. Food was also traded. Copper coins began to circulate. Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain.

36 Calligraphy

37 Civil Service Examinations

38 Han Dynasty Expanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina, and central Asia Contact with India and with the Parthian empire in the Middle East through trade with the Roman Empire around the Mediterranean Repaired the Great Wall to keep out the Huns

39 Wu Ti, B.C.E Enforced peace throughout most of the continent of Asia Supported Confucianism and established shrines to promote worship of the ancient philosopher as a god. Wu Ti, B.C.E. was the most famous Han ruler. 1. He enforced peace throughout most of the continent of Asia, rather like the Pax Romana of one hundred years later. 2 Han rule time of peace and prosperity for China 3. Urged support of Confucianism and established shrines to promote worship of the ancient philosopher as a god.

40 Key Elements of Han Bureaucracy
Training Specialization Confucian-based ethic Daoism, a distinctive science and artistic traditions complemented this emphasis. Upper class cultural values emphasized a good life on earth and the virtues of obedience to the state more than speculations about God and the mysteries of heaven. Stressed harmonious life. Ceremonies venerating ancestors were conducted. Use of chopsticks began at the end of the Zhou dynasty; it encouraged a code of politeness at meals. Soon after this, tea was introduced.

41 Demise of the Han Dynasty
The Huns, a nomadic people from central Asia overturned the Hun dynasty and occupied China from 220 C.E. until 531 C.E. Between 220 and 589 China was in a state of chaos. By the time stability restored the classical and formative period of Chinese civilization had ended. A nomadic people from North central Asia. Organized into hordes, indomitable horsemen. They first appeared in the third century B. C. E. when the Great Wall of China was built to keep them out. They occupied China from the third century to 531 C. E. About 372 they invaded the Volga Valley and advanced west push the Ostrogoths and Visagoths before them., thus starting the waves of migration that destroyed the Roman Empire In 432 they forced Emperor Theodosius II to pay tribute to Attila from his head quarter in Hungary, levied tribute in nearly all central and eastern Europe but was defeated in Gaul in The Huns withdrew after his death and little is know of their later movements.

42 Era of Divisions The demise of the Han Dynasty and occupation of China by the Huns resulted in a chaotic time known as the Era of Divisions that lasted from 220 C.E. until 531 C.E.

43 Demise of the Han Dynasty
With the collapse of the Han dynasty, Daoism (which would join with Buddhist influence from India during the chaos that followed in the years of the Hun occupation) guaranteed that the Chinese people would not be united by a single religious or philosophical system. In time Daoism became a formal religion

44 Key Elements of the Classical Era
In literature, a set of five classics, written during the early part of the Zhou dynasty and then edited during the Confucian period, provided important literary tradition. They were used, among other things, as a basis for civil service exams. The five classics contain many things: historical treatises, speeches, and other political material, a discussion on etiquette, and ceremonies, 300 poems dealing with love, politics, joy, family life. From the classical period forward, the ability to learn and recite poetry became the mark of the educated Chinese.

45 Key Elements of the Classical Era
Chinese art during the classical period was largely decorative, stressing detail and craftsmanship. Calligraphy became important art form. Chinese artists worked in bronze, pottery, carved jade, and ivory, and wove silk screen. Classical China did not produce monumental building because of the absence of a single religion Chinese art during the classical period was largely decorative, stressing detail and craftsmanship. Calligraphy became important art form. Chinese artists worked in bronze, pottery, carved jade, and ivory, and wove silk screen. Classical China did not produce monumental building because of the absence of a single religion

46 Key Elements of the Classical Era
In science practical work was encouraged rather than Imaginative theorizing Chinese astronomers developed an accurate calendar by 444 B.C.E based on a year of days Astronomers calculated the movement of the planets Saturn and Jupiter Astronomers observed sunspots more than 1500 years before comparable knowledge developed in Europe In science practical work was encouraged rather than Imaginative theorizing. Chinese astronomers developed an accurate calendar by 444 B.C.E based on a year of days. Later astronomers calculated the movement of the planets Saturn and Jupiter and observed sunspots more than 1500 years before comparable knowledge developed in Europe. Purpose- understanding harmony between the heaven and the earth. Developed a seismograph to register earthquakes during the Han dynasty.

47 Key Elements of the Classical Era
Medical research- precise anatomical knowledge, studied hygene to promote a longer life Medical research- precise anatomical knowledge, studied hygiene to promote a longer life.Chinese mathematics stressed the practical. Studied the mathematics of music. *Very different from the abstract definition of science developed in classical Greece.

48 Major Technological Innovations of Classical China
Paper wheelbarrow advances in metalwork

49 Economic Strength of Classical China
A key element of economic strength was the high level of technological innovation The government was active in the economy. It directly organized the production of iron and salt. It standardized the currency, weights and measures, sponsored public works projects such as irrigation and canals. The Han set up storage warehouse to regulate agriculture and control prices.

50 Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.”
Political Institution- became one of the hallmarks of classical Chinese culture Strong local units never disappeared China relieved heavily on patriarchal families. Whether within the family or the central state, most Chinese believed in the importance of respect for those in power The central government had little effect on the everyday life of the people. Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.” More than any other factor, it was the structure of the government that explained how such a vast territory could be governed effectively. Chinese government was the largest political structure in the classical world.

51 The central government had little effect on the everyday life of the people.
Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.”

52 Hallmarks of Classical China
Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain. Chinese classical society evolved with little outside influence Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain. Chinese classical society evolved with little outside influence

53 Post Classical China 220-589 Era of Division 581-618 Sui Dynasty
Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty The agrarian societies on the east and south of China were the regions of Asia most drawn to Chinese cultural and political models.

54 Era of Division The period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the Era of Division Buddhism eclipsed Confucian teachings 1. Trade and city life declined as the central government dissipated. 2. With mainly Buddhist exceptions, thought degenerated into the quest for magical cures. 3. Nomadic peoples raided and conquered across the north China plain. 4. Chinese technology stagnated during this time. The Great Wall was divided between kingdoms and usually poorly defended and non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China. Nomads raided across the northern plains.

55 The Era of Division dominated by political division among many small warring states who were often ruled by nomadic invaders period of Buddhist dominance growth of monastic movement loss of imperial centralization loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy Contrast the Era of Division with the Sui- Tang era. Era of Division: dominated by political division among many small warring states often ruled by nomadic invaders; period of Buddhist dominance; growth of monastic movement; loss of imperial centralization; loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy. Sui- Tang: return to centralized administration, unified empire; reconstruction of bureaucracy; reconstruction of Confucian scholar- gentry at expense of both Buddhists and aristocracy; restoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state.

56 The Sui Dynasty Wendi Yangdi
The emergence of the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century C. E. (580s), after nearly four centuries of discord, signaled a return to strong dynastic control. The short-lived Sui dynasty reestablished a centralized empire In the early 580s, the factional struggle that gave rise to the Sui dynasty appeared to be just another of the factional struggles of the sort that had splintered China for centuries after the fall of the Han. Wendi, who was from a Chinese noble family ,made an alliance between his daughter and the ruler of the northern Zhou empire. The Zhou had recently defeated several rival rulers and united much of the north China plain. After much intrigue, Wendi seized the throne of his son-in-law and proclaimed himself emperor.

57 Sui Calligraphy The man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was Wendi. The support of the nomadic warrior elite made the reunification of China under the first Sui emperor possible. The creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor. Unlike his father, the second Sui emperor, Yangdi favored the Confucian scholar-gentry. He reconstructed the Great Wall. Excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty. An uprising caused Yangdi to flee and he was assassinated.

58 Wendi secured his power base
Won support of the neighboring nomadic military commanders He reconfirmed their titles at the expense of the Confucian scholar-gentry class With the support of the nomadic military commanders he spread his empire across northern China Map In 589 Wendi attacked and conquered the Chen kingdom that ruled much of the south and reunited much of the traditional areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in three and a half centuries.

59 Wendi won support Lowered taxes
Established granaries to ensure a reserve of food Large landowners and peasants alike were taxed a portion of their crop to keep the granaries filled Surplus grain was brought to market in times of food shortage to hold down the price of the people’s staple food The man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was Wendi. The support of the nomadic warrior elite made the reunification of China under the first Sui emperor possible. The creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor.

60 Established a milder legal code
Yangdi Established a milder legal code Upgraded Confucian education; restored the examination system for regulating entry into the bureaucracy Broad policy of promoting the scholar-gentry in the imperial administration Wendi was murdered by his son Yangdi. At first, Yangdi strengthened the political and economic foundations laid down by his father, and then went in his own direction. He extended his father’s conquests and drove back nomadic intruders who threatened the northern frontiers of the empire. Unlike his father, Yangdi favored the Confucian scholar-gentry. He reconstructed the Great Wall. His promotion of the scholar-gentry often worked to the detriment of the aristocratic families and nomadic military commanders. Excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty.

61 Yangdi’s policies led to widespread revolt
He forcibly conscripted hundreds of thousands of peasants to build a new capital city at Loyang He had a series of canals built Yanngdi was overly fond of luxury and extravagant construction projects, see map In his new capital he made his subjects dig up large trees in the nearby hills and cart them miles to be replanted in artificial mounds his new game park. His subjects were exhausted and angry.

62 The Great Wall

63 Unsuccessful campaigns in Korea and central Asia against the Turks.
Provincial governors declared independence Bandit gangs raided at will Nomadic peoples seized sections of the north China plain Yangdi then led his subjects into a series of unsuccessful wars to bring Korea back under Chinese rule. His failures in campaigns between 611 and 614 and his near fatal reverses in central Asia at the hands of Turkic nomads in 615 set in motion revolts throughout the empire. Yangdi became deranged and retreated to his pleasure palaces in the city of Yangzhou on the Yantze river to the south. Yangdi was assassinated by his ministers in 618 and it looked as if China would return to the Era of Divisions, the political and social turmoil it had endured for centuries.

64 Tang Dynasty Map The Tang built an empire that was far larger than that of the early Han, an empire whose boundaries in many directions extended beyond the borders of modern China

65 The Golden Age of the Tang
Li Yuan Tang Taizong The dissolution of the imperial order was averted by the military skills and political savvy of one of Yangdi’s officials, Li Yuan. He was of mixed Chinese-nomadic heritage. He had been loyal to Yangdi and had even saved his life when trapped by a far larger force of Turkic cavalry in a small fort that was part of the Great wall defense. But as Yangdi grew more irrational and unrest spread from one end of the empire to the other, Li Yuan was convinced by his sons and allies that only rebellion could save the empire. A fter Yangdi’s death, a struggle for control continued until 623 and Li Yuan emerged as the victor. Together with his second son, Tang Taizong, in whose favor he abdicated in 626, Li Yuan laid the basis for the golden age of the Tang.

66 Tang strategy Contain the Turkic tribes Repair the Great Wall
Create frontier armies Heavenly khan Tang armies conquered deep into central Asia as far as present-day Afghanistan. Nomadic peoples now had to submit to the Tang. Of all the nomadic peoples, the Turkic tribes posed the greatest threat. Therefore early Tang rulers tried to play off one Turkic tribe against another, a strategy that often succeeded. They also completed repairs on the Great Wall begun by the Sui and other early rulers. They created frontier armies recruited in part from nomadic peoples, these units became the most potent military units in the empire. Leaders of Turkictribes were compelled to submit as vassals to the Tang rulers who took the title of Heavenly Khan. The daughters of the Turkic khans often married into the imperial family. The sons were sent to the capital as hostages to guarantee the good behavior of the tribe in question. At the tang capital, they were also educated in Chinese ways in the hope of their eventual assimilation into Chinese culture.

67 Tang strategy The empire was also extended to parts of Tibet in the west, the Red River valley homeland of the Vietnamese in the south and Manchuria in the north

68 Emperor Kaozong In 668, Chinese armies overran Korea
Silla, the Korean vassal kingdom, was established at it remained loyal to the Tang In a matter of decades the Tang built an empire far larger than the Han and one whose boundaries extended far beyond the borders of present-day China

69 Tang Dynasty The Tang supported the reinstitution of the Confucian scholar-gentry Jinshi The title of Jinshi was reserved for those who passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature. Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty , birth continued to be important in securing high office.

70 Zen Buddhism Early Tang rulers continued to patronize Buddhism while trying to promote education in Confucian classics. By the time of the Tang unification, Buddhism, particularly Zen Buddhism, had appeal to the educated classes of China. The goal of those who followed Zen was to come to know the ultimate wisdom, and thus find release from the cycle of rebirth, through introspective meditation. It was often expressed in poetic metaphors and riddles such as those in an 8th century treatise called Hymn to Wisdom. (270)

71 Tang Dynasty Empress Wu, the only female emperor, 690-705
supported Buddhism The Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty. The 840s was the decade when open persecution of Buddhism within the Chinese empire begin. The result of the imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence 0£ the early Tang years. The impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the twentieth century

72 Anti-Buddhist Backlash
Daoist rivals began stressing their own magical and predictive powers Confucian-scholar-administrators launched the most damaging campaigns against Buddhism Buddhist successes aroused the envy of Confucian and Daoist rivals and they attacked the religion as foreign althougth the faith followed by most of the Chinese was very different from that originally preached by the Buddhist or that preached in India or southeast Asia. Confucian-scholar-administrators launched the most damaging campaigns against Buddhism to convince Tang rulers that the large Buddhist monastic establishments posed an economic challenge to the imperial order.

73 Emperor Wuzong, 841-847 Openly persecuted the Buddhist
Thousands of Buddhist monasteries and shrines were destroyed Hundreds of thousands of monks and nuns were forced to abandon their monastic orders and return to civilian life and again subject to taxation Although Buddhism survived this and other bouts of repression, it was weakened. Never again would the Buddhist monastic orders have the political influence and wealth they enjoyed in the first centuries of Tang rule. The great age of Buddhist painting gave way to art dominated by Daoist and Confucian subjects and styles in the late Tang and the Song era that followed.

74 Legacy of Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism left its mark on the arts, the Chinese language, and Chinese thinking about such things as heaven, charity, and law Buddhism ceased to be a dominate force in China In contrast to its impact on the civilizations of southeast Asia, Tibet, and parts of central Asia.

75 The economic challenge to the imperial order
Monastic lands not taxed; Tang regime lost huge revenues as a result of imperial grants to Buddhist monasteries The wills of ordinary Chinese people that turned family property over to Buddhist monasteries The state was denied labor because it could not tax or conscript peasants who worked on monastic estates. By the mid-8 century, state fears of Buddhist wealth and power led to measures to limit the flow of land and resources to the monastic orders By the mid-8 century, state fears of Buddhist wealth and power led to measures to limit the flow of land and resources to the monastic orders

76 Tang Decline Internal rebellion Nomadic incursions Yang Guifei
An Lushan General weakening began in the 8th century. Empress Wu, , tried to establish a new dynasty. A second attempt to control the throne was made by a high born women who had married into the imperial family. Backed by her powerful relatives and a group of courtiers, Empress Wei poisoned her husband, the son of Empress Wu, and placed her own small child on the throne. But Empress Wei attempt to seize power was thwarted by another prince, who led a palace revolt that ended with the destruction of Wei and her supporters. This prince became Emperor Xuanzong, and his reign marks the peak of Tang power. He paTRONIZED THE ARTS. Love affair with Yang Guifei led him to neglect the affairs of the state. Economic distress and disorder. Crisis in 755 when one of his generals, An Lushan, led a revolt with the aim of starting a new dynasty. Although revolt crushed and Tang dynasty preservered, Emperior Wuzong was forced to have her executed and his GRIEF over Yang Guifei made it impossible for him to rule.

77 The Song Dynasty The last Tang was forced to resign in 907
Zhao Kuangyin Emperor Taizu The Northern Liao Dynasty, nomadic Khitan people of Manchia. Zhao Kuangyin, founder of the Song, able general who was also a scholarly man. As emperor took the name Taizu. Found a dynasty that would rule China for the next 3 centuries. The one rival that Emperor Taizu could not best was Liao and this set precedent for weakness o f Song Dynasty in dealing with nomadic peoples of the north. This will plague them until their defeat by the Mongols in 1279, the 13th century.

78 Song Dynasty Map The Song empire compared to the Tang in that the Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire

79 The Song dynasty Zhao Kuangyin was the founder of the Song dynasty
The Song empire compare to the Tang? The Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire. What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire was the military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.

80 The Song era The ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era. Zhu Xi was the most prominent of the Neo-Confucians during the Song era Zhu Xi was the most prominent of the Neo-Confucians during the Song era

81 Impact of Neo-Confucianism
impact of the development of Neo-Confucian schools of thought: hostility to foreign philosophical systems like Buddhism ; the stifling of innovation and critical thinking in favor of traditionalism ; reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions ; historical experiences held to be the most practical guide to life level 0£ technology

82 Neo-Confucians also became familiar with Buddhist beliefs
Li- a concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of both Hinduism and Buddhism New form of Confucianism Reconciled Confucianism and Buddhism It influenced philosophical thought in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in all subsequent eras. Neo-Confucianism The conflict between Confucianism and Buddhism during the late Tang Dynasty eased under the Song dynasty, partly because of the development of Neo-Confucianism. Classical Confucians were concerned with practical issues of politics and morality, and their main goal was an ordered social and political structure. Neo-Confucians also became familiar with Buddhist beliefs, such as the nature of the soul and the individual’s spiritual relationships. They came to refer to li, a concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of both Hinduism and Buddhism. This new form of Confucianism was an important development because it reconciled Confucianism and Buddhism , and because it influenced philosophical thought in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in all subsequent eras. .

83 Constructionism Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi, a prime minister in the and attempted to reform Song government .on the basis of what Confucian school of thought, Constructionism. 1. ) the introduction of government-assisted irrigation projects to encourage agricultural expansion 2. ) taxation of the landlord and scholarly classes 3. ) the establishment of well-trained mercenary forces

84 Weakness of the Song The Song paid “tribute” to the Khatan
Distain for military and too much emphasis on Confucian elite. Money for protection of northern border.

85 The flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China
Jurchens What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China? the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom

86 Economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties
The Silk Road connected Chang’an (Xi’an) with Antioch, Asia Minor A) trade increasingly carried by Chinese ships and sailors B) enlarged market quarters found in all cities and major towns C) growing sophistication in commercial organization and forms of credit D) a series of technological breakthroughs

87 Urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era
Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities than that found in any other contemporary civilization

88 Hangzhou The capital of the southern Song dynasty

89 The agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors
Numbers of free peasantry increased Fortunes of the old aristocratic families declined Lands were distributed more equitably to the free peasant households of the empire The gentry side of the scholar-gentry came to dominate the bureaucracy The following were a result of the agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors

90 Society in Tang- Song China
Age at time of marriage was the primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes The status of women Footbinding Among members of the lower classes marriages tended to be consummated at an earlier age than among members of the elite. Women- The assertion of male dominance within the family and beyond was especially pronounced in the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers. Footbinding: As wealth and agricultural productivity increased, the patriarchal social of Chinese society also tightened. With family fortunes to preserve, elites insured the purity of their lines by further confining women to the home. The custom of foot binding became very popular among these families. Foot binding involved tightly wrapping young girls’ feet so that natural growth was seriously impaired. The result was a tiny malformed foot with the toes curled under and the bones breaking in the process. The women generally could not walk except with canes. Peasants and middle class women did not bind their feet because it was impractical, but for elite women, the practice- like wearing veils in the Islamic lands- indicated their subservience to their male guardians

91 Chinese landscape painting
Members of the ruling political elite in China produced many of the paintings in the Song Shanshui, the art of drawing with brush and ink During the Song dynasty the interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature was most apparent in their production of landscape painting

92 Poetry Li Bo Was the outstanding poet of the Tang era

93 The independence of Chinese women
In what way did footbinding serve to diminish the independence 0£ Chinese women by the end of the Song era . Footbinding sufficiently crippled women to ef£ectively confine their mobility to their household.

94 Technological innovation of the Tang-Song Era
Coal used for fuel Gunpowder Complex bridges Abacus Moveable type Gunpowder, abacus, paper , complex bridges, coal used for fuel . Sheng was the artisan was responsible for the development of movable type

95 Confucian intellectual schools were responsible for the production of most literary and artistic works during the Tang-Song era

96 The decline of Buddhism in the later Tang and Song dynasties
Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign innovation in China Confucians convinced emperors that monastic control of land represented an economic threat Persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s. Explain the decline of Buddhism in the later Tang and Song dynasties. Answer: Restoration of imperial government implied strengthening of traditional schools of Confucianism and resuscitation of scholar-gentry; Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign innovation in China; convinced emperors that monastic control of land represented an economic threat; persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.

97 Demise of the southern Song Dynasty in 1279
Mongols Mongols were responsible for the fall of the southern Song dynasty in 1279

98 growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration
Comparison & Contrast of the the empire under the Tang and the Song dynasties Similarities continued intellectual and political dominance of Confucian scholar- gentry growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration Differences: smaller in size unable to control nomadic dynasties of the north payment of tribute to nomadic states military decline with subjection of aristocracy to scholar-gentry failure of Wang Anshi's reforms led to military defeat Compare and contrast the empire under the Tang and the Song dynasties Similarities: : continued intellectual and political dominance of Confucian scholar- gentry; growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration. Differences: smaller in size; unable to control nomadic dynasties of the north; payment of tribute to nomadic states; military decline with subjection 0£ aristocracy to scholar-gentry; failure of Wang Anshi's re£orms led to military defeat

99 The elements of Tang-Song economic prosperity
The full incorporation of southern China into the economy as a major £ood- producing region, center of trade; commercial expansion with West, southern Asia, southeast Asia; establishment 0£ Chinese merchant marine; development 0£ new commercial organization and credit techniques; improved agricultural productivity with expansion 0£ acreage, greater production per acre; expanded urbanization throughout China.

100 Ways the Tang-Song era departed from previous developments in Chinese civilization
Full incorporation of southern China into economy dominance of south as food- producing region & center of population and political capital of southern Song decline of influence of Buddhism increasing trend toward intellectual and technological isolation extraordinary level of urbanization--up to 10 percent of population extraordinary level of technology what ways did the Chinese empire during the Tang-Song era depart from previous developments in Chinese civilization? Answer: Full incorporation 0£ southern China into economy; dominance 0£ south as £ood- producing region, center 0£ population, political capital 0£ southern Song; decline 0£ influence 0£ Buddhism; increasing trend toward intellectual and technological isolation; extraordinary level of urbanization--up to 10 percent 0£ population; level of technology .

101 China’s Hegemony Hegemony occurs when a civilization extends its political, economy, social, and cultural influence over others. China was the richest and most powerful of all, and extended its reach over most of Asia. In the time period, it was impossible foionr one empire to dominate the entire globe, largely because of distance and communicatillon were so difficult. Both the Islamic Caliphates and the Mongol Empire fell partly because their land space was too large to control effectively. So the best any empire could do was to establish regional gegonomy


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