Presentation on theme: "China. China in the River Valley Era The Hwang He agricultural civilization New Technology Art & Music."— Presentation transcript:
China in the River Valley Era The Hwang He agricultural civilization New Technology Art & Music
Writing Progressed from reading scratch marks on bones to ideographic symbols ancestor worship
Oracle shell Oracle bone
The Shang Dynasty B.C.E Constructed tombs and palaces Chinese world view one of harmony between man and nature Life is cyclical
Shang Dynasty The era around 1200 B.C.E. saw the decline or collapse of most civilizations in Western Asia, Egypt, the eastern Mediterranean, and the Indus Valley who were dependant on the same trade routes. The only area that did not see significant decline was China, where the Shang Dynasty continued to rule. China was not as dependent on Western Asia trade.
Classical Era The Zhou (Chou) 1027 to 256 B.C.E. The Era of Warring States B.C.E. The Qin 221 B.C.E B.C.E. The Han 202 B.C.E – 220 C.E.
Classical China A difference between river-valley civilizations and classical civilizations and was that in classical civilizations political organizations were more elaborate A difference between river-valley civilizations and classical is that religious sacrifice was suppressed in the classical civilizations
Zhou (Chou) Dynasty B.C.E. This dynasty flourished until about 700 B.C.E when it was beset by decline in its infrastructure and frequent invasions by nomadic peoples from border regions.
Zhou (Chou) Dynasty B.C.E.
The Zhou extended the territory of China from the Hwang Ho River Valley by taking over the Yang-tze River Valley and this became known as “Middle Kingdom”. Wheat was grown in the North; rice in the South This agriculture diversity promoted population growth.
Zhou Dynasty Promoted linguistic unity: Mandarin Chinese Increasing cultural unity helps explain why, when the Zhou empire did began to fail, scholars were able to use philosophical ideas to lesson the impact of growing political confusion.
Zhou Dynasty Political concept known as the “mandate from heaven.” The dynasty members were known as “Sons of Heaven.”
The Era of Warring States B.C.E. Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism originated as responses to societal problems during the time of disruption
Daoism Lao-tzu the way of nature
Legalism Legalist disdained Confucian virtues in favor of authoritarian state that was ruled by force. For legalists, human nature was evil and required restraint and discipline- the army would control and the people labor- in the perfect state.
Confucius K’ung Fu-tse or Confucius, c. 551 to 478 B.C.E., lived during the Era of Warring States Period between the Zhou and Han Dynasties, a time of political chaos. Confucianism is a system of ethics and was recorded in a book called Analects Hierarchical vision for society; some had authority, some obeyed their superiors Harmony within relationships, particular those in the family
The Chinese government accepted Daoism because Daoist did not have great political ambition Daoist came to acknowledge the Son of Heaven Daoism provided spiritual insights for many in the upper class belief in balance & harmony
Confucianism Established a hierarchy and insisted upon reciprocal duties between people In official Chinese hierarchy, merchants ranked below students, peasants, artisans, & soldiers. The lowest people were the “mean people” Educated bureaucratic elite, peasants, artisans,soldiers, merchants, mean-pople
Culture Ceremony became an important part of upper-class Chinese life because the Chinese believed that people should restrain crude impulses.
Key Features of Chinese Family Life Ancestor Worship for the upper class that emphasized tight family values and structures Gender hierarchy Parent-child hierarchy Discipline
Qin Dynasty China
Qin Dynasty. Qin Shih Huangdi, First Emperor Qin conferred the name China to the region He realized that China’s problem lay in the regional power of the aristocrats, like many later centralizers in world history, i.e. Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV
Qin Shih Huangdi P rovided a single law code for the whole empire and established a uniform tax system Delegated special areas and decisions to the emperors ministers thus further promoting effective centralized government. Some dealt with finance, others with justice Followed up on centralization by extending Chinese territory to the south, reaching present- day Hong Kong on the South China Sea and influencing northern Vietnam.
In the north, to guard against barbarian invasion, Shih Huangdi built a Great Wall, extending over 3000 miles, wide enough for chariots to move along its crest.
Qin innovations in Chinese politics and culture National census Standardization of coins, weights and measures; even the length of the axles on cart led to standardized road building Agricultural innovation: irrigation projects Promoted manufacture, especially silk cloth Uniform written script, completing the process of creating a single basic language for all educated Chinese
Demise of Qin Shih Huangdi His construction projects and high taxes made him unpopular as did the Banning and burning the classical text constripting peasants and excessive labor projects aristocrats lost land Daoist prists opposed him On Shih Huangdi’s death in 210 C.E., popular revolts by the peasants led to one peasant leader establishing himself and his family as the new dynasty of China
The Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou It was more centralized
Han Dynasty 202 B.C.E.-220C.E Reduced the brutal repression of the Qin.
Han Dynasty Instituted a system of examination to prepare professional civil servants promoted scientific research Large construction projects Instituted a system of punishment of criminals Promoted Confucian beliefs Census taking Exerted military & legal power
Han Dynasty The Han emperors revived Confucianism Confucian built the links among many levels of authority that came to characterize Chine politics at their best.
Han Dynasty Trade was particularly important during the Han period and was produced by skilled artisans in the cities. Silk, jewelry, leather goods, and furniture. Food was also traded. Copper coins began to circulate. Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain.
Civil Service Examinations
Han Dynasty Expanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina, and central Asia Contact with India and with the Parthian empire in the Middle East through trade with the Roman Empire around the Mediterranean Repaired the Great Wall to keep out the Huns
Wu Ti, B.C.E Enforced peace throughout most of the continent of Asia Supported Confucianism and established shrines to promote worship of the ancient philosopher as a god.
Key Elements of Han Bureaucracy Training Specialization Confucian-based ethic
Demise of the Han Dynasty The Huns, a nomadic people from central Asia overturned the Hun dynasty and occupied China from 220 C.E. until 531 C.E. Between 220 and 589 China was in a state of chaos. By the time stability restored the classical and formative period of Chinese civilization had ended.
Era of Divisions The demise of the Han Dynasty and occupation of China by the Huns resulted in a chaotic time known as the Era of Divisions that lasted from 220 C.E. until 531 C.E.
Demise of the Han Dynasty With the collapse of the Han dynasty, Daoism (which would join with Buddhist influence from India during the chaos that followed in the years of the Hun occupation) guaranteed that the Chinese people would not be united by a single religious or philosophical system. In time Daoism became a formal religion
Key Elements of the Classical Era In literature, a set of five classics, written during the early part of the Zhou dynasty and then edited during the Confucian period, provided important literary tradition. They were used, among other things, as a basis for civil service exams. The five classics contain many things: historical treatises, speeches, and other political material, a discussion on etiquette, and ceremonies, 300 poems dealing with love, politics, joy, family life. From the classical period forward, the ability to learn and recite poetry became the mark of the educated Chinese.
Key Elements of the Classical Era Chinese art during the classical period was largely decorative, stressing detail and craftsmanship. Calligraphy became important art form. Chinese artists worked in bronze, pottery, carved jade, and ivory, and wove silk screen. Classical China did not produce monumental building because of the absence of a single religion
Key Elements of the Classical Era In science practical work was encouraged rather than Imaginative theorizing Chinese astronomers developed an accurate calendar by 444 B.C.E based on a year of days Astronomers calculated the movement of the planets Saturn and Jupiter Astronomers observed sunspots more than 1500 years before comparable knowledge developed in Europe
Key Elements of the Classical Era Medical research- precise anatomical knowledge, studied hygene to promote a longer life
Major Technological Innovations of Classical China Paper wheelbarrow advances in metalwork
Economic Strength of Classical China A key element of economic strength was the high level of technological innovation The government was active in the economy.
Political Institution- became one of the hallmarks of classical Chinese culture Strong local units never disappeared China relieved heavily on patriarchal families. Whether within the family or the central state, most Chinese believed in the importance of respect for those in power The central government had little effect on the everyday life of the people. Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.”
The central government had little effect on the everyday life of the people. Chinese proverb: “heaven is high and the emperor is far away.”
Hallmarks of Classical China Classical China reached far higher levels of technical expertise than Europe or western Asia in the same period, a lead they would long maintain. Chinese classical society evolved with little outside influence
Post Classical China Era of Division Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty
Era of Division The period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the Era of Division Buddhism eclipsed Confucian teachings
The Era of Division dominated by political division among many small warring states who were often ruled by nomadic invaders period of Buddhist dominance growth of monastic movement loss of imperial centralization loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy
The Sui Dynasty Wendi Yangdi The emergence of the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century C. E. (580s), after nearly four centuries of discord, signaled a return to strong dynastic control. The short-lived Sui dynasty reestablished a centralized empire
Wendi secured his power base Won support of the neighboring nomadic military commanders He reconfirmed their titles at the expense of the Confucian scholar-gentry class With the support of the nomadic military commanders he spread his empire across northern China
Wendi won support Lowered taxes Established granaries to ensure a reserve of food Large landowners and peasants alike were taxed a portion of their crop to keep the granaries filled Surplus grain was brought to market in times of food shortage to hold down the price of the people’s staple food
Yangdi Established a milder legal code Upgraded Confucian education; restored the examination system for regulating entry into the bureaucracy Broad policy of promoting the scholar- gentry in the imperial administration
Yangdi’s policies led to widespread revolt He forcibly conscripted hundreds of thousands of peasants to build a new capital city at Loyang He had a series of canals built
The Great Wall
Unsuccessful campaigns in Korea and central Asia against the Turks. Provincial governors declared independence Bandit gangs raided at will Nomadic peoples seized sections of the north China plain
Tang Dynasty Map
The Golden Age of the Tang Li Yuan Tang Taizong
Tang strategy Contain the Turkic tribes Repair the Great Wall Create frontier armies Heavenly khan
Tang strategy The empire was also extended to parts of Tibet in the west, the Red River valley homeland of the Vietnamese in the south and Manchuria in the north
Emperor Kaozong In 668, Chinese armies overran Korea Silla, the Korean vassal kingdom, was established at it remained loyal to the Tang In a matter of decades the Tang built an empire far larger than the Han and one whose boundaries extended far beyond the borders of present-day China
Tang Dynasty The Tang supported the reinstitution of the Confucian scholar- gentry Jinshi
Zen Buddhism Early Tang rulers continued to patronize Buddhism while trying to promote education in Confucian classics.
Tang Dynasty Empress Wu, the only female emperor, supported Buddhism
Anti-Buddhist Backlash Daoist rivals began stressing their own magical and predictive powers Confucian-scholar-administrators launched the most damaging campaigns against Buddhism
Emperor Wuzong, Openly persecuted the Buddhist Thousands of Buddhist monasteries and shrines were destroyed Hundreds of thousands of monks and nuns were forced to abandon their monastic orders and return to civilian life and again subject to taxation
Legacy of Chinese Buddhism Buddhism left its mark on the arts, the Chinese language, and Chinese thinking about such things as heaven, charity, and law Buddhism ceased to be a dominate force in China In contrast to its impact on the civilizations of southeast Asia, Tibet, and parts of central Asia.
The economic challenge to the imperial order Monastic lands not taxed; Tang regime lost huge revenues as a result of imperial grants to Buddhist monasteries The wills of ordinary Chinese people that turned family property over to Buddhist monasteries The state was denied labor because it could not tax or conscript peasants who worked on monastic estates.
Tang Decline Internal rebellion Nomadic incursions Yang Guifei An Lushan
The Song Dynasty The last Tang was forced to resign in 907 Zhao Kuangyin Emperor Taizu The Northern Liao Dynasty, nomadic Khitan people of Manchia.
Song Dynasty Map
The Song dynasty Zhao Kuangyin was the founder of the Song dynasty
The Song era The ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era. Zhu Xi was the most prominent of the Neo- Confucians during the Song era
Impact of Neo-Confucianism
Neo-Confucians also became familiar with Buddhist beliefs Li- a concept that defined a spiritual presence similar to the universal spirit of both Hinduism and Buddhism New form of Confucianism Reconciled Confucianism and Buddhism It influenced philosophical thought in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in all subsequent eras.
Constructionism Wang Anshi
Weakness of the Song The Song paid “tribute” to the Khatan Distain for military and too much emphasis on Confucian elite.
The flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China Jurchens
Economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties The Silk Road connected Chang’an (Xi’an) with Antioch, Asia Minor
Urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era
Hangzhou The capital of the southern Song dynasty
The agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors Numbers of free peasantry increased Fortunes of the old aristocratic families declined Lands were distributed more equitably to the free peasant households of the empire The gentry side of the scholar-gentry came to dominate the bureaucracy
Society in Tang- Song China Age at time of marriage was the primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes The status of women Footbinding
Chinese landscape painting Members of the ruling political elite in China produced many of the paintings in the Song Shanshui, the art of drawing with brush and ink
Poetry Li Bo
The independence of Chinese women
Technological innovation of the Tang- Song Era Coal used for fuel Gunpowder Complex bridges Abacus Moveable type
Confucian intellectual schools were responsible for the production of most literary and artistic works during the Tang-Song era
The decline of Buddhism in the later Tang and Song dynasties Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign innovation in China Confucians convinced emperors that monastic control of land represented an economic threat Persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.
Demise of the southern Song Dynasty in 1279 Mongols
Comparison & Contrast of the the empire under the Tang and the Song dynasties Similarities continued intellectual and political dominance of Confucian scholar- gentry growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration Differences: smaller in size unable to control nomadic dynasties of the north payment of tribute to nomadic states military decline with subjection of aristocracy to scholar- gentry failure of Wang Anshi's reforms led to military defeat
The elements of Tang-Song economic prosperity
Ways the Tang-Song era departed from previous developments in Chinese civilization Full incorporation of southern China into economy dominance of south as food- producing region & center of population and political capital of southern Song decline of influence of Buddhism increasing trend toward intellectual and technological isolation extraordinary level of urbanization--up to 10 percent of population extraordinary level of technology
China’s Hegemony Hegemony occurs when a civilization extends its political, economy, social, and cultural influence over others China was the richest and most powerful of all, and extended its reach over most of Asia.