Presentation on theme: "Chinese Dynastic Cycle Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han –Sui, Tang, Song Yuan and Ming and Qing Mao Zedong, Mao Zedong or Mao and Deng, Mao and Deng."— Presentation transcript:
Chinese Dynastic Cycle Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han –Sui, Tang, Song Yuan and Ming and Qing Mao Zedong, Mao Zedong or Mao and Deng, Mao and Deng
China has high mountains in the west, its rivers flow east, thus China was isolated from western culture.
Chinese civilization begins along the Huang He (Yellow) River.
The religious authority of the king. It was believed that rulers received their authority from the gods. It was called “The Mandate of Heaven.” As dynasties weakened and new leaders arose, the Chinese believed that the gods were removing their mandate and giving it to another.
Hsia dynasty (Xi Dynasty): Ruled 22005B.C.E Earliest rulers of ancient China
Achievements: 1.Developed the potters wheel. 2.Developed baked bricks for houses. 3.Harvested silk. 4.Developed irrigation systems.
III. Shang Dynasty: First dynasty in China from B.C.E.
Achievements: Oracle Bones Shamanism Writing System Bronze ware Sericulture Feudal Political System War Chariots (Diffusion)
The Shang Economy; Built irrigation canals for crops Cowry shells were used as money. Long distance trade for copper, tin, lead, and salt Farming was based on peasant/serf labor.
IV. Chou (Zhou) Dynasty BCE This was a time of Feudalism (Decentralized) government with competing warlords. There were few great accomplishments in science, art and literature, but China excelled in philosophy as great Sages (wise men) tried to bring about Unity, Peace & Prosperity.
551 – 478 Life of Confucius 500 Laozi and Daoism 450 Development of Chinese Calendar Patterns in Classical China Zhou Dynasty (height c. 700 B.C.E.) Yangzi River valley settled "Middle Kingdom" Mandate of Heaven Confucius
402 B.C.E B.C.E. Era of the Warring States
221 – 202 B.C.E. Qin Dynasty A single emperor rules Great Wall of China begun A single basic language is developed
202 B.C.E C.E. Han Dynasty Horse drawn plow, waterwheel, horse collar 141 – 187: Reign of Han Wu Ti: Increased bureaucracy, examination system begun, spread of Confucianism
Patterns in Classical China Shi Huangdi - Qin Dynasty (221–207 ) Great Wall miles census standardized coinage, weights, measures common writing system Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.–220 C.E.) Into Korea, Indochina, central Asia contact with India, Parthian Empire Wu Ti (140–87 B.C.E.) support of Confucianism
III. Religion and Culture Balance unifying traditions Kung Fuzi (ca. 551–478 B.C.E.) respect for superiors leaders must show moderation rank based on intelligence, merit Legalism alternative to Confucianism support authoritarian state belief in evil nature of humankind Daoism more religious Laozi (5th century B.C.E.) force of nature ethical code Five Classics Art calligraphy Science day year Mencius ( B.C.E.) Principal spokesman for the Confucian school Believed in the goodness of human nature Government by benevolence, humanity Xunzi ( B.C.E.) Served as a governmental administrator Cast doubt on the goodness of human nature Harsh social discipline to order to society Stress moral education, good public behavior
V. How Chinese Civilization Fits Together Isolation Confucianism & bureaucracy Political stability & economic growth Divisions Confucianism v. Daoism
I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras Wendi Nobleman Leads nomadic leaders to control northern China 589, defeat of Chen kingdom Established Sui dynasty
I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras A. Sui Excesses and Collapse Yangdi Son of Wendi Legal reform Reorganized Confucian education Scholar-gentry reestablished Loyang New capital Building projects Canals built across empire Attacked Korea Defeated by Turks, 615 Assassinated, 618
Anarchy in China Three Kingdoms Shu Han 221 – 263 Wei Most powerful, eventually conquered Shu Built an army of Chinese infantry and nomadic cavalry as mounted bowmen These assimilated nomads later overthrew Wei and founded own dynasties Wu 222 – 280
Period Resembled Western European history after the collapse of the Romans Disunity and civil war between nomads and Chinese warlords Rival states, dynasties, each controlling a part of the old Han state Aristocrats, provincial nobles held land and real influence Many of the northern dynasties were nomadic, both Turkish and Mongol Confucianism in decline, Buddhism in ascendancy due to its relationship with the nomads Confucian trained bureaucrats still held much influence Common Chinese subject to taxes, warfare, drafting into army, frequent invasions, bandits
After fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years Three major states contended for rule; further fragmentation Nomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynasties The rule of the Sui Reunification by Yang Jian in 589 Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great Wall Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea High taxes and compulsory labor services The Grand Canal One of the world's largest waterworks before modern times Purpose: bring abundant food supplies of the south to the north Linked the Yangtze and the Huang-Hi The canal integrated the economies of the south and north The fall of the Sui High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people Military reverses in Korea Rebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610 Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty Sui Dynasty
Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE) A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang Extensive networks of transportation Adopted the equal-field system Bureaucracy of merit Recruited government officials through civil service examinations Career bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynasty Restored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucrats Foreign relations Tributary system became diplomatic policy Tang decline Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis The Uighurs became de facto rulers The equal-field system deteriorated A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884 Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor The last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907
Song Taizu Reigned C.E. Founder of the Song dynasty Song weaknesses Song never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, Tang Financial problems Enormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplus Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war Military problems Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomads External pressures Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279 Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute SONG DYNASTY ( C.E.)
Porcelain Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid Arabia Exported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and Africa Metallurgy Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steel Gunpowder Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombs Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia Printing From block-printing to movable type Books became widespread Naval technology "South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments Industry and Technology
Merchants in Charge Only period in China where merchants socially superior to aristocrats Merchants attempted to intermarry with aristocrats, become landowners Merchants attempted to have sons admitted as Confucian bureaucrats Merchants tended to espouse Confucianism as way into traditional elites Most large cities had large merchant communities Financial instruments Banking and credit institution “Flying money " were letters of credit Paper money backed by state, treasury A cosmopolitan society Foreign merchants in large cities of China Mostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. Asian Chinese merchants journeyed throughout region Economic surge in China An economic revolution in China Made China the wealthiest nation in the world at time Promoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere A Market Economy
Drove the Mongols out of China Constantly faced threats of new nomad invasions Rebuilt Great Wall to prevent northern invasions Centralized government control Restored Chinese cultural traditions Restored Confucian bureaucracy, civil service examinations Eunuchs given impressive role in Forbidden City as bureaucrats Ming attempted to recreate the past, not improve upon it Moved capital to Beijing Ming decline Centralized government ran poorly under weak emperors Weak emperors isolated by eunuchs, advisors Public works fell into disrepair Coastal cities, trade disrupted by pirates, 1520 – 1560 Government corruption and inefficiency Caused by powerful eunuchs Overshadowed by inability of bureaucrats to reform, innovate Famines and peasant rebellions: 1630s and 1640s Rebellion by army units opens door to nomadic invasion Nomadic Manchu invaders led to final Ming collapse, 1644 Ming Dynasty
Manchus ( ) Nomadic invaders Originated in Manchuria Last of the steppe invaders, dynasties Overwhelmed Chinese forces Proclaimed Qing dynasty Originally pastoral nomads Military force called banner armies Captured Mongolia first, then China Remained an isolated ethnic elite Forbade intermarriage with Chinese Forbade Chinese immigration to Manchuria, Mongolia Permitted Confucian scholars to run government Maintained Confucian system Emperor Kangxi ( ) Confucian scholar; effective, enlightened ruler Conquered Taiwan Extended control to Central Asia, Tibet, Sinkjiang Emperor Qianlong ( ) A sophisticated and learned ruler, poet, and artist Vietnam, Burma, Nepal made vassal states of China China was peaceful, prosperous, and powerful Qing Dynasty