3China has high mountains in the west, its rivers flow east, thus China was isolated from western culture.
4Chinese civilization begins along the Huang He(Yellow) River.
5The religious authority of the king The religious authority of the king. It was believed that rulers received their authority from the gods. It was called “The Mandate of Heaven.” As dynasties weakened and new leaders arose, the Chinese believed that the gods were removing their mandate and giving it to another.
6Hsia dynasty (Xi Dynasty): Ruled 22005B. C. E Hsia dynasty (Xi Dynasty): Ruled 22005B.C.E Earliest rulers of ancient China
7Achievements:Developed the potters wheel.Developed baked bricks for houses.Harvested silk.Developed irrigation systems.
8III. Shang Dynasty: First dynasty in China from 1766-1000 B.C.E.
9Achievements: Shamanism Writing System Bronze ware Sericulture Oracle BonesShamanismWriting SystemBronze wareSericultureFeudal Political SystemWar Chariots (Diffusion)
10The Shang Economy; Built irrigation canals for crops Cowry shells were used as money.Long distance trade for copper, tin, lead, and saltFarming was based on peasant/serf labor.
11IV. Chou (Zhou) Dynasty 1029-258 BCE • This was a time of Feudalism (Decentralized) government with competing warlords.• There were few great accomplishments in science, art and literature, but China excelled in philosophy as great Sages (wise men) tried to bring about Unity, Peace & Prosperity.
12551 – 478 Life of Confucius500 Laozi and Daoism450 Development of Chinese CalendarPatterns in Classical ChinaZhou Dynasty (height c. 700 B.C.E.)Yangzi River valley settled"Middle Kingdom"Mandate of HeavenConfucius
14402 B.C.E. - 221 B.C.E. Era of the Warring States
15221 – 202 B.C.E. Qin Dynasty A single emperor rules Great Wall of China begunA single basic language is developed
16202 B.C.E C.E. Han DynastyHorse drawn plow, waterwheel, horse collar141 – 187: Reign of Han Wu Ti: Increased bureaucracy, examination system begun, spread of Confucianism
17Patterns in Classical China Shi Huangdi - Qin Dynasty (221–207 )Great Wall milescensusstandardized coinage, weights, measurescommon writing systemHan Dynasty (202 B.C.E.–220 C.E.)Into Korea, Indochina, central Asiacontact with India, Parthian EmpireWu Ti (140–87 B.C.E.) support of Confucianism
18III. Religion and Culture Mencius ( B.C.E.)Principal spokesman for the Confucian schoolBelieved in the goodness of human natureGovernment by benevolence, humanityXunzi ( B.C.E.)Served as a governmental administratorCast doubt on the goodness of human natureHarsh social discipline to order to societyStress moral education, good public behaviorIII. Religion and CultureBalanceunifying traditionsKung Fuzi (ca. 551–478 B.C.E.)respect for superiorsleaders must show moderationrank based on intelligence, meritLegalismalternative to Confucianismsupport authoritarian statebelief in evil nature of humankindDaoismmore religiousLaozi (5th century B.C.E.)force of natureethical code Five Classics ArtcalligraphyScience365.5 day year
19V. How Chinese Civilization Fits Together Isolation Confucianism & bureaucracyPolitical stability & economic growthDivisionsConfucianism v. Daoism
23I. Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Eras A. Sui Excesses and CollapseYangdiSon of WendiLegal reformReorganized Confucian educationScholar-gentry reestablishedLoyangNew capitalBuilding projectsCanals built across empireAttacked KoreaDefeated by Turks, 615Assassinated, 618
24Anarchy in China Three Kingdoms 220-280 Shu Han 221 – 263 WeiMost powerful, eventually conquered ShuBuilt an army of Chinese infantry and nomadic cavalry as mounted bowmenThese assimilated nomads later overthrew Wei and founded own dynastiesWu 222 – 280
25Period Resembled Western European history after the collapse of the Romans Disunity and civil war between nomads and Chinese warlords Rival states, dynasties, each controlling a part of the old Han state Aristocrats, provincial nobles held land and real influence Many of the northern dynasties were nomadic, both Turkish and Mongol Confucianism in decline, Buddhism in ascendancy due to its relationship with the nomads Confucian trained bureaucrats still held much influence Common Chinese subject to taxes, warfare, drafting into army, frequent invasions, bandits
26Sui DynastyAfter fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 yearsThree major states contended for rule; further fragmentationNomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynastiesThe rule of the SuiReunification by Yang Jian in 589Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great WallMilitary expeditions in central Asia and KoreaHigh taxes and compulsory labor servicesThe Grand CanalOne of the world's largest waterworks before modern timesPurpose: bring abundant food supplies of the south to the northLinked the Yangtze and the Huang-HiThe canal integrated the economies of the south and northThe fall of the SuiHigh taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the peopleMilitary reverses in KoreaRebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty
28Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE) A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the TangExtensive networks of transportationAdopted the equal-field systemBureaucracy of meritRecruited government officials through civil service examinationsCareer bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynastyRestored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucratsForeign relationsTributary system became diplomatic policyTang declineCasual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisisThe Uighurs became de facto rulersThe equal-field system deterioratedA large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperorThe last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907
30SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.) Song Taizu Reigned 960-976 C.E. Founder of the Song dynastySong weaknessesSong never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, TangFinancial problemsEnormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplusForced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid warMilitary problemsCivil bureaucrats in charge of military forcesMilitary was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomadsExternal pressuresSemi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in northConstant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomadsThe Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279Nomads invaded, overran northern Song landsSong retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capitalAfter defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute
31Industry and Technology PorcelainTechnology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid ArabiaExported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and AfricaMetallurgyImprovement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steelGunpowderBamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombsGunpowder chemistry diffused throughout EurasiaPrintingFrom block-printing to movable typeBooks became widespreadNaval technology"South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compassDouble hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments
32A Market Economy Merchants in Charge Only period in China where merchants socially superior to aristocratsMerchants attempted to intermarry with aristocrats, become landownersMerchants attempted to have sons admitted as Confucian bureaucratsMerchants tended to espouse Confucianism as way into traditional elitesMost large cities had large merchant communitiesFinancial instrumentsBanking and credit institution“Flying money " were letters of creditPaper money backed by state, treasuryA cosmopolitan societyForeign merchants in large cities of ChinaMostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. AsianChinese merchants journeyed throughout regionEconomic surge in ChinaAn economic revolution in ChinaMade China the wealthiest nation in the world at timePromoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere
33Ming Dynasty 1368 - 1644 Drove the Mongols out of China Constantly faced threats of new nomad invasionsRebuilt Great Wall to prevent northern invasionsCentralized government controlRestored Chinese cultural traditionsRestored Confucian bureaucracy, civil service examinationsEunuchs given impressive role in Forbidden City as bureaucratsMing attempted to recreate the past, not improve upon itMoved capital to BeijingMing declineCentralized government ran poorly under weak emperorsWeak emperors isolated by eunuchs, advisorsPublic works fell into disrepairCoastal cities, trade disrupted by pirates, 1520 – 1560Government corruption and inefficiencyCaused by powerful eunuchsOvershadowed by inability of bureaucrats to reform, innovateFamines and peasant rebellions: 1630s and 1640sRebellion by army units opens door to nomadic invasionNomadic Manchu invaders led to final Ming collapse, 1644
34Qing Dynasty Manchus (1644-1911) Nomadic invaders Originated in ManchuriaLast of the steppe invaders, dynastiesOverwhelmed Chinese forcesProclaimed Qing dynastyOriginally pastoral nomadsMilitary force called banner armiesCaptured Mongolia first, then ChinaRemained an isolated ethnic eliteForbade intermarriage with ChineseForbade Chinese immigration to Manchuria, MongoliaPermitted Confucian scholars to run governmentMaintained Confucian systemEmperor Kangxi ( )Confucian scholar; effective, enlightened rulerConquered TaiwanExtended control to Central Asia, Tibet, SinkjiangEmperor Qianlong ( )A sophisticated and learned ruler, poet, and artistVietnam, Burma, Nepal made vassal states of ChinaChina was peaceful, prosperous, and powerful