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Ch. 12 The Spread of Civilization in East and Southeast Asia

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1 Ch. 12 The Spread of Civilization in East and Southeast Asia

2 Section 1- Two Golden Ages of China

3 Tang Dynasty Reunifies China
Sui Dynasty under Sui Wendi ( ) First Tang emperor was Li Yuan Vietnam, Tibet, and Korea become tributary states – states that remained self-governing, but recognized Chinese supremacy and pay tribute Tang Warrior Sui Wendi

4 Tang Government Reinstituted Han government
Recruited talented officials trained in Confucian philosophy Tang brought land reform Split land holdings among the peasants Weakened the power of large landowners

5 Tang Declines Lost land to Arabs Downward swing of dynastic cycle
Corruption, high taxes, drought, famine, rebellions Ceramic colored horse From Tang Dynasty On display in Shanghai Museum

6 The Song Dynasty Ruled for 319 years Smaller state than the Tang
Constant bombardment from the North Song culture flourished Grand Canal- linked the Huang and Chang Rivers New type of rice Foreign trade thrived under the Tang and Song Dynasties This Song-period reproduction of an eighth-century landscape depicts Tang dynasty emperor Xuanzong (the mounted figure in foreground wearing red) fleeing with his party to Szechwan.

7 China’s Ordered Society
Gentry- wealth landowning class Gentry valued education above all else Peasants worked and lived off the land The emperor was far removed from peasant life Slavery played a minor role in Chinese society Merchants are the lowest class because Confucian virtues said that merchants gained their wealth from others work Attitudes toward merchants effected the economy

8 The Status of Women Higher in Tang and early Song periods that later
Control of household issues Women could not keep dowries or remarry Boys valued more that girls Girls become part of their husbands family when they married Foot binding

9 Tang and Song Culture Artist Paint Harmony Architecture- pagoda
Similar to Indian stupa Porcelain- “chinaware” Chinese writing- Li Bo

10 Section 2- Mongol and Ming Empires

11 Mongols Mongols are nomads from Central Asia
Graze horses and kept sheep on the steppes- vast, treeless plains

12 Genghis Khan United Mongolian tribes Highly trained horsemen
Fierce leader Used cannons and gun powder Died before conquest was complete, but his heirs finished the job

13 Pax Mongolia “Mongol Peace” 1200s-1300s Mongols not oppressive rulers
Made travel on the Silk Road safe Trading and inventions reach Europe

14 China Under Mongol Rule
Kublai Khan Genghis Khan’s grandson Defeated the last Song emperor in 1279 Ruled all of China, Korea, and Tibet He wanted to keep the Mongols and Chinese separate Gave top positions to Mongols only Welcomed foreigners to his court

15 Li Bai Taking a Stroll 13th Century Southern Song Dynasty

16 Brushed by his sleeves, Wild flowers dance in the wind; Fleeing from him, Hidden birds cut short their song. Ma Yuan Song Dynasty On a Mountain Path in Spring

17 Marco Polo 1254-1324 Traveled from Venice, Italy to China
Spent 17 years in Kublai Khan’s service Sparked European interest in Asia He left a written account of his travels p , complete questions 1 and 2 in pairs and discuss


19 Ming Restore Chinese Rule
Yuan dynasty declined after Kublai Khan’s death in 1294 Chinese hated Mongol rulers Uprisings were common Zhu Yuanzhang, a peasant leader, created a rebel army He established the Ming (brilliant) dynasty in 1368 Ming restores typical Chinese government


21 Chinese Fleets Sail the Seas
Zheng He- Chinese admiral and diplomat Sailed all around the Pacific and Indian Oceans with his huge fleet and 28,000 sailors Reached India, Persian Gulf, and the east coast of Africa Showed lesser kingdoms the power and prestige of the Chinese Some Chinese permanently settled in these trading port cities


23 Exploration Ends Zheng He died in 1435
In the same year the Ming emperor banned the building of seagoing ships Why would they do this? Urging of traditional Confucian scholars? Costly fleets? What might have happened if Ming China kept exploring? (Hint: Think Christopher Columbus)

24 Section 3- Korea and Its Traditions

25 Geography of the Korean Peninsula
Located on a peninsula that juts out from China Points south toward Japan 70% mountains Most people live on the fertile west coast Its location so close to China and Japan profoundly effected the course of Korean history

26 Development of Korea Korean migrated from Siberia and Manchuria during the Stone Age They developed their own culture before China’s influence during the Han dynasty From 100 B.C. to A.D. 676 there were 3 kingdoms: Koguryo in the north, Paekche in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast

27 Korea during the 3 kingdom period

28 Development of the Silla and Koryo Dynasties
The 3 kingdoms often fought with each other and with China Chinese influence government, Buddhism, arts Backed by the Tang emperor, the Silla kingdom defeated Paekche and Koguryo in 676, uniting Korea Silla Koryo Choson

29 Silla Dynasty Prosperous time in Korean history Traded with China
Buddhism flourished The capital of Kyongju was modeled off the Tang capital of Chang’an Copied Chinese civil service examinations but only allowed aristocrats to take the tests

30 Koryo Dynasty New capital at Songak
The name Korea comes from this dynasty Invented movable type Created porcelain called Celadon- bluish green glaze Very difficult to perfect Highly prized throughout Asia


32 Koryo Dynasty Incense burner Celadon pottery from start to finish

33 Choson Dynasty Hangul is created as the new alphabet
Made during the reign of King Sejong Uses symbols to represent the sounds of spoken Korean Promotes a very high literacy rate The Japanese invaded in the 1590s causing destruction and brought many Korean artisans back to Japan

34 The original decree by Korean King Sejong establishing the Hangul writing
system. In 1446, Sejong promulgated a new writing system, intended to enable the common people to read and write. However, the Chinese language remained the preferred linguistic medium of the scholarly bureaucracy and of educated Koreans.

35 King Sejong

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